Application of Ethical Business in Globalized World

Question

Students are to explore rationales and application of Ethical Business in a Globalized World in detail.Write a 3-page paper on how do US corporations run their business ethically in globalized world? 

Sample paper

Application of Ethical Business in Globalized World

Businesses are operating in an increasingly globalized environment, and more organizational leaders are finding themselves facing serious ethical challenges in the complex international operating environment. While organizations may only experience a few ethical issues in the local environment, managing ethics in a globalized world becomes more complex and difficult. Organizational leaders have to deal with certain ethical issues in foreign nations that may be totally absent in the country of origin. For instance, differences in culture, insufficient regulations, and corruption are just but some of the things that lead to global dilemmas among leaders in globalized environments. This paper is a discussion on how US corporations run their business ethically in a globalized environment.

US corporations run their business ethically by creating a corporate-wide ethical policy to guide their operations. Codes of ethics refer to detailed organizational guidelines that help managers and employees to make the right decisions when facing dilemmas (Nakhle & Davoine, 2016). Codes of ethics help in defining what is legal or what is unacceptable as per the business practices. Codes of ethics have long been used as important tools in controlling employee behavior especially in subsidiaries. According to Nakhle & Davoine (2016), the code of ethics is a concept originally from North America. The North American codes of ethics thus act as the universal rules of behavior in multinational corporations. The internal codes of ethics for American corporations could thus be interpreted as the international business ethics.

Still, corporations often aim at developing and enforcing a global corporate culture. A global corporate culture refers to the application of codes of ethics in a global context (Olaru & Gurgu, 2009). In developing a global corporate culture, an organization not only applies the global principles of ethical conduct but also integrates local culture and policies. The global principles are a reflection of an organization’s corporate culture while adopting to the local policies and culture shows the management’s commitment to respect the local culture. For instance, a corporation’s global culture could prohibit employees from receiving any forms of gifts (Olaru & Gurgu, 2009). However, in certain locations where gifts are a sign of respect and embedded in the local culture, the management may allow the receiving of gifts in such locations.

US corporations run their business ethically through training of employees on ethical conduct (Olaru & Gurgu, 2009). Without training, a corporation cannot achieve ethical conduct from its management or employees. Ethics training is important in instilling an ethical culture among employees. It is only through training that the leadership gets a chance to influence employee behavior as well as their decision-making approaches. It is integral to ensure training of the expatriate organizational leaders and employees. Training helps expatriates in adjusting to the new culture by learning the basics of the new culture (Olaru & Gurgu, 2009). Training enables the expatriates to know how to handle different situations such as the issue of bribery in highly corruption nations. Training helps employees to comply with a corporation’s codes of ethics while transacting on behalf of the corporation.

Another way of running corporations in an ethical manner is compliance to local regulations and laws. It is important for a corporation to comply to the local regulations and laws in order to avoid problems with the law. Each country has a set of unique laws and regulations that guide how businesses operate. Common laws guiding business include antitrust laws, anti-corruption laws, privacy laws, trade laws, and licensing. Antitrust laws are those governing competition practices by businesses. Anti-corruption laws prohibit businesses from issuing bribes and kickbacks. Privacy laws concern data protection needs of a corporation. Trade laws guide businesses in export, import, and general manner of operating. Lastly, a corporation must obtain all relevant trade licenses.

US corporations engage in corporate social responsibility as a way of ensuring ethical business conduct. Corporate social responsibility involves going beyond the profit motive to ensure that the business acts in a responsible manner (Eijsbouts, 2017). Most corporations have elaborate corporate social responsibility programs that help in self-regulation and maintaining ethical conduct. According to Eijsbouts (2017), corporate social responsibility codes enables companies to develop norms, rules, and basic values that guide the behavior of the top management, employees, and even suppliers. Corporate social responsibility means that corporations are mindful of the welfare of the society rather than solely focusing on profitability. This is critical in ensuring that corporations engage in ethical practices.

US corporations run their business ethically by advocating for the observation of international human rights. Respect for human dignity is a critical aspect in organization’s operations. Respect for human dignity or rights calls upon corporations to exercise ethical behavior in different parts of the world. Corporations can show respect for human rights by treating employees well, preventing local environment pollution, and developing safe products for use.

In summary, corporations are operating in an increasingly globalized world. US corporations are able to run their business ethically through various ways. Creating corporate-wide ethical policies helps them in determining what is right or wrong for the employees. A global corporate culture helps in adopting an organization’s practices to the local area culture or policies. Other ways of achieving this include corporate social responsibility programs, employee-training programs, conformance to local laws and regulations, and lastly respect of international human rights.

References

Eijsbouts, J. (2017). Corporate codes as private co-regulatory instruments in corporate governance and responsibility and their enforcement. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 24(1), 181-205. doi:10.2979/indjglolegstu.24.1.0181

Nakhle, S. F., & Davoine, E. (2016). Transferring codes of conduct within a multinational firm: The case of lebanon. EuroMed Journal of Business, 11(3), 418.

Olaru, S. D., & Gurgu, E. (2009). Ethics and integrity in multinational companies. Review of International Comparative Management, 10(1): 113 – 121.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Question

Write a 3-page paper on the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Society. Use at least 2 articles as a reference. APA style. Provide a key concept, analysis, and your conclusion.

Sample paper

Corporate Social Responsibility

Given the contemporary competition in the modern business environment, organizations need to take a political stand to be in a position to beat off competition from their rivals and get a significant market share. In the modern business, customers prefer high-quality products and services from accountable and responsible companies when they are making their purchases. According to current studies, consumers are giving first opportunities to companies and organizations that participate in corporate social responsibilities and often hold them accountable for designing and implementing social changes with their organizational beliefs, practices, and profits (Koutra, 2013). Irrespective of the fact that the success of social responsibility continues to be based on tangible, operational elements currently businesses are required to share more intangible values of the consumers. Scholars have identified Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as the initiatives of business to assess and be accountable for the organization’s impact on the environment and social well-being of the people in where they operate. This assignment will attempt to establish and describe the benefits of CSR to the society.

With its current and latent expertise, CSR is seen as a useful lever to assist businesses and organizations to scale their efforts in nation building. Apart from providing a wide range of advantages to the businesses, corporate social responsibility should offer both tangible and intangible benefits to the consumers and society in general.

One of the notable benefits of CSR to the society is the creation of ambiance in the nation. Research has indicated that the involvement of the business in the local community’s problem and challenges, develops better living standards and healthy lives of the members of the society. The beneficiaries of CSR in the society tend to have a happier as well as a comfortable and better living standard compared to those who have little or no opportunity to benefit from CSR (Ravi & Lipschutz, 2010). Through building schools, hospitals, or even providing fresh water for the members of the society, organizations tend to create an avenue through which the society can access high-quality services that enhance the health of their lives. Besides, the presence of business and organizations in almost all community development programs creates a safer environment for children to grow apart from substantially decreasing, if not, eradicating corruption with the society (Ravi & Lipschutz, 2010). The generous nature of the companies creates benefits for the least disadvantages in the society by assisting the poor and increasing trust in the society.

Another significant benefit of CSR in the society is the production of high-quality products and services that provide experience and satisfaction to the community at large. Studies show that not only businesses and companies benefit from the increased quality of their products and services with the increased market share in the current business environment, but also the improved quality of commercial commodities helps the community at large. The commitment of organizations and businesses to abide by the CSR rules and regulations provides an opportunity for firms to identify and eliminate any defects that may exist during the production process, which in turn results in diminishing complaints of defect products while at the same time increasing consumer satisfaction and experience (Hopkins, 2012). Besides, efficient and effective CRS initiatives may reduce the cost of production of a company which in turn reduces the overall price of goods and services of the company, thus benefiting the community at large. Reducing the cost of production offers an opportunity for the organization to produce more goods or even produce a variety of commercial commodities, thus providing alternatives to the consumers.

According to studies, the responsible behavior of organizations and executives of these organizations can inspire the members of the society to follow their example. In most cases, organizations, and leaders often act as role models in the society which means that the members of the community tend to emulate their personality and character. Therefore, if these organizations work responsibly to help the least advantaged in the society, there is a high likelihood that the community, in general, will follow suit and help the company to help others. Besides, the success of a company which is closely associated with its CSR activities is also a success for the society since the benefits are likely to trickle down to the community (Carroll, 2015). A successful company is expected to hire more employees in better conditions, such as fair wages and can provide significant perks. Such a move helps to reduce the rate of unemployment in the society.

From the above-detailed discussions, it is correct to conclude that corporate social responsibilities of a company not only improves the accountability of the organization but also benefits the society in general. However, the benefits of CSR initiatives to the nation must go hand in hand with those of the company to have a significant impact on the overall business environment. Some of the notable benefits to the society include the provision of high-quality products and services, inspiring people to participate in activities that benefit the community in general as well as creating ambiance in the culture.

References

Carroll, A. B. (2015). Corporate social responsibility. Organizational Dynamics, 44(2), 87-96. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2015.02.002

Hopkins, M. (2012). The Planetary Bargain: Corporate Social Responsibility Matters. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Koutra, C. (2013). More than simply corporate social responsibility : implications of Corporate Social Responsibility for tourism development and poverty reduced in less developed countries: A political economy perspective. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publisher’s, Inc.

Ravi, R. K., & Lipschutz, R. D. (2010). Corporate social responsibility: Comparative critiques. Basingstoke [England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Impact of Stakeholder on Corporations

Question

Students are to explore concept and application of stake holders and corporations in an in-depth way.Write a 3-page paper on the impact of stakeholder on corporations. Use at least 2 articles as a reference. APA style. Provide a key concept, analysis, and your conclusion.

Sample paper

Impact of Stakeholder on Corporations

Stakeholders play a critical role in corporate governance. Sound corporate governance involves an effort by a corporation’s management to maximize shareholder value and ensure that the interests of various parties are taken into account. This is key in ensuring that a corporation benefits the larger society but not the management alone. The stakeholders in corporations include diverse groups of people, each having unique interests to the corporation. The stakeholders in a corporation include shareholders, creditors, customers, suppliers, employees, management, trade unions, and the local community. The stakeholders play a critical role in monitoring a corporation’s affairs and ensuring sound corporate governance. This paper is an evaluation of the impact of stakeholders on corporations.

One of the key impacts of stakeholders on corporations is in influencing the corporations’ reputation. Stakeholders have a direct impact to a corporation’s reputation among the public (Migle & Stravinskiene, 2015). This is mainly because corporations depend on stakeholders to achieve their objectives. For instance, a corporation will depend on its employees to provide goods or services to the customers. In doing this, employees project the image of the corporation to the customers through direct interactions. Corporations should seek to develop and maintain good relationships with the stakeholders. Failure to do this might lead to a reputational risk. Trust between the corporation and stakeholders form the foundation for future success of the corporation. Stakeholders can influence a corporation’s reputation through various ways such as boycotts (customers), restricting resources (suppliers), and strikes (employees). According to Migle and Stravinskiene (2015), the key stakeholder groups that have significant influence in corporate reputation are employees, customers, shareholders, and media. The media can influence public opinion about the corporation.

Another impact of stakeholders on corporations regards performance. Stakeholders are critical in influencing the financial performance of the corporation (Migle & Stravinskiene, 2015). Various stakeholders contribute to the financial performance of the corporation in unique ways. Employees are in charge of running the daily affairs of the company with the goal of achieving set goals. Where an organization sets the right work culture, employees are likely to feel motivated to work hard and contribute to solving problems. This will benefit the customers leading to product loyalty. In some corporations, employees are investors to the company by owning shares. Such employees will work with the goal of maximizing the organization value rather than focusing on their employment relationship with the corporation. Shareholders also help in improving the financial performance of the corporation through various ways including monitoring and providing capital for investment (Rezaee, 2008). This is important in improving the financial performance of the corporation.

Stakeholders play a critical role in monitoring corporations. This monitoring function has the impact of ensuring that corporations implement sound corporate governance practices, for instance, maximizing shareholder value and taking into consideration the interests of other stakeholder groups such as employees (Rezaee, 2008). Large institutional shareholders are particularly concerned with the running of affairs at corporations that they have some interest. Institutional investors are active in monitoring how the management conducts its affairs. To be precise, institutional investors monitor the management from engaging in corrupt practices. Institutional investors can exercise their power by advocating for better management to the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors can then demand for the replacement of current management in order to improve productivity and transparency in the corporation.

Stakeholders impact corporate social responsibility efforts of a corporation. Local communities expect corporations to go beyond their official business mandate and take responsibilities for things outside the business scope such as improving the welfare of the local community members or improving the environment. Beginning in the 1960s, there was a fundamental shift in the way consumers viewed businesses, driven by lobbying from environmental protection groups and civil rights groups. Consumers became increasingly demanding of large corporations to take responsibility of the society, people, and the environment. This view is still strong among consumers in the current period. While consumer societal expectations may seem trivial in influencing corporations’ actions, evidence available suggests that this has significant impact of the behavior of corporations. According to Akisik and Gal (2017), customers prefer buying from firms that seem to support corporate social responsibility initiatives such as giving back to community, compliance with laws and regulations, and care for the environment.

Stakeholders can influence the production practices of a corporation thus leading to increased operational efficiency (Akisik & Gal, 2017). When corporations report of improved business practices, stakeholders are likely to take such in positive light and develop a stronger relationship with the corporation. Such actions are likely to help in achieving long-term sustainability in the use of resources. According to Akisin and Gal (2017), firms that prove to have achieved higher efficiency as well as sustainability levels can gain legitimacy with various stakeholder groups. For instance, consumers are likely to purchase from firms that have high sustainability levels in the utilization of resources. As such, firms have strong motivation to develop legitimacy by adopting efficiency and sustainability in operations.

In summary, stakeholders play a critical role in ensuring sound corporate governance. Stakeholders have a significant impact on a firm’s reputation. Certain stakeholders such as employees portray the image of a corporation to the public. Stakeholders influence the performance of a corporation. Primary stakeholders influence directly the performance of the corporation through the decisions they make on a daily basis. Stakeholders provide monitoring, which influences the transparency and accountability of organizations. Stakeholders also influence the corporate social responsibility efforts of corporations. Lastly, stakeholders influence the production practices of corporations, leading to improved efficiency and sustainability in the utilization of resources.

References

Akisik, O., & Gal, G. (2017). The impact of corporate social responsibility and internal controls on stakeholders’ view of the firm and financial performance. Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, 8(3), 246-280. doi:10.1108/SAMPJ-06-2015-0044

Migle, M., & Stravinskiene, J. (2015). The importance of stakeholders for corporate reputation. Engineering Economics, 26(1): 75-83.

Rezaee, Z. (2008). Corporate governance and ethics. John Wiley & Sons.

COMM 3590 Unit 7 AS: Sales Presentation

Question

COMM 3590 Unit 7 AS: Sales Presentation

Select a product or service and present a 5-7 minute presentation asking your audience to purchase that product or service. Choose a product or service that your audience is “qualified” to purchase. The presentation should use visual aids and appropriate persuasive strategies to convince the audience. Three references and a works cited are required.

Just like with your technical presentation you are responsible for gathering your own audience (minimum 8 adults), filming your speech, and uploading it for grading.

Sample paper

Sales Presentation

Did you know that the fast-casual dining concept is the fastest growing segment in the food industry? The fast casual is an emerging dining concept that falls between fast food outlets and the casual or traditional restaurants. According to the QSR Magazine, the average foodservice sales increased by 0.4% between 2014 and 2015 (1). The largest share of this growth is attributed to the fast casual segment, which recorded a 10.4 percent growth in the same period. The high growth in the fast casual segment represents a shift in consumers’ dining preferences. Having worked in the fast food restaurant, I have confidence to say that the fast casual concept is likely to take over the foodservice market in the next five years. My name is sss and I will tell you why most consumers are shifting preferences in favor of the fast casual restaurants.

What is the problem you are solving?

Dining in fast food restaurants has become increasingly common due to the convenience, taste, and affordability of food. However, health concerns have emerged over the quality of food served at fast food restaurants and its contribution to the obesity menace in not only the U.S. but in other parts of the world. According to Marlatt et al, fast food consumption increases the risk of higher body fat, insulin resistance, glucose levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and triglycerides (49). These elements have negative impacts on the health of individuals. Another study by Burgoine et al. concluded that there was a combined effect of fast food outlets availability and the level of education on consumption of fast foods, which contributes to higher levels of obesity and other lifestyle diseases (1547). On the other hand, majority of consumers are unable to take meals regularly from the casual restaurants due to cost concerns and convenience.

How does your product or service solve the problem?

Fast casual restaurants help in eliminating the problems eminent in the fast food restaurants and those in casual restaurants. Fast casual restaurants have better menu offerings in terms of the quality of food. These restaurants are characterized by use of fresh ingredients, customized foods, and low-fat menus (Trefis Team, 2014). This will help in meeting the current health needs of the population by providing healthier menu offerings. Fast food restaurants offer highly processed foods to customers and that are prepared using standardized procedures. Consumption of highly processed foods increases the risk of obesity and other lifestyle diseases. The fast casual restaurant will provide convenience and affordability. Prices will also be consumer friendly at an average $7.5 per meal.

What is your business plan?

How much does it cost?

Average price for meals in fast food restaurants is $3 to $6, while that in fast casual restaurants is $7.5 (Trefis Team, 2014). Casual restaurants charge highest prices, minimum cost of a meal being $13. As earlier mentioned, the fast casual is between the fast food outlets and the casual restaurants. The charges for food are moderate, reflecting the higher quality of foods served in fast casual restaurants. Consumers will be willing to pay slightly higher than in fast food restaurants due to improved quality of food. The total cost of putting up the business will amount to about $250,000.

Who is your audience?

The target market is youths enrolled in college and those who are in employment. The fast casual dining concept is more popular among the youth who are becoming increasingly conscious of the need to take healthier meals. The restaurant will appeal to youths in the medium income bracket. The fast casual restaurant will be located in a busy intersection to maximize on both walk in customers and orders from businesses and employees working in various enterprises. The suitable location will be a busy street where there are many businesses. This will help in targeting those in the middle-income bracket.

How do you plan to grow?

The primary method of expansion will be through franchising. Franchising is a business concept whereby the owner of a business (franchisor) gives another party (the franchisee) the right to a tradename and production process for a fee. The franchisee must meet the specifications set out by the franchisor. The major benefit of expanding through franchising is the low capital involved. The franchisees use their own capital to develop their businesses. Expanding through franchising gives a higher return on investment since there is less capital involved. In addition, the franchisees are likely to work hard to ensure the business succeeds since they risk their own capital by starting a franchise.

Do you want to keep the business for yourself or sell it to a bigger company?

It is my hope to keep and expand the business in future. The business will start as a single store and later expand using a franchise model. Franchising will allow me to retain much control of how the business runs and expand easily into new locations.

Will you advertise?

It is important to consider placing advertisements in order to create awareness of the existence of the business. The form of advertising that is most suitable for the restaurant is geo-fencing. Geo-fencing is a new form of advertising that uses GPS technology to reach customers. Geo-fencing enables the user to trigger certain promotional messages on potential customers’ phone when they come within a certain radius (Constine, 2017). For instance, one can use a smartphone to trigger certain promotional messages on potential customers’ smartphones through social media sites such as Instagram and Snapchat, which already provide geofilters to those who want to advertise.

In what places? Be realistic

Advertising will be specifically on social media platforms such as Instagram and Snapchat. Relatively younger people, who are also the main target of the business, utilize these social media platforms. Advertising through the social media will be cost effective compared to advertising using traditional forms of communication such as the mass media. Since the business will serve a particular geographical niche, advertising on social media using geo-fencing will allow targeting of customers within a specific radius.

Closing

The new casual restaurant will provide healthy menu offerings to customers and at an affordable price. I would like to encourage you to sample the foods we are offering because they are fresh and quality menu offerings. Feel free to give use feedback about your experience at our new outlet.

Works Cited

Burgoine, Thomas, et al. “Does Neighborhood Fast-Food Outlet Exposure Amplify Inequalities in Diet and Obesity? A Cross-Sectional Study.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1540-1547.

Constine, J. (2017, May 25). Instagram launches story search for hashtags and locations. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2017/05/23/instagram-stories-search/

Hobbs, Matthew. Obesity is Linked to Where You Live – would Regulating Fast-Food Outlets Change this?. London: Independent Digital News & Media, 2018. ProQuest. Web. 27 Apr. 2018.

Marlatt, Kara L. et al. “Breakfast and Fast Food Consumption Are Associated with Selected Biomarkers in Adolescents.” Preventive Medicine Reports 3 (2016): 49–52. PMC. Web. 27 Apr. 2018.

QSR Magazine. Fast Casual Is the Fastest Growing Foodservice Segment Globally. (2016). https://www.qsrmagazine.com/news/fast-casual-fastest-growing-foodservice-segment- globally

Trefis Team. (2014). How the fast casual segment is gaining market share in the restaurant industry. Forbes.

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COMM 3590 Unit 5 AS: Technical Presentation

COMM 3590 Unit 5 AS: Technical Presentation

Question

COMM 3590 Unit 5 AS: Technical Presentation

AS1 Instructions: You are to develop a technical presentation that helps the audience understand a complicated concept or process. While many informative presentations are demonstrations (where the speaker explains how to do something), or accounts (where the speaker explains why something is the way it is), the technical speech is more varied and more complex.

Specifically, your speech should focus on helping people understand: a) what something means (a difficult concept), b) how something functions (difficult structures or processes), or, c) some combination of the two.

A technical presentation focuses a lot of effort on a small, but complicated, point rather than covering a larger idea more broadly. If you’re not sure whether your topic constitutes a true technical presentation, check with your instructor prior to beginning your research.

Sample paper

STRESS

CAUSES OF STRESS

Stress is experienced when we perceive things as threatening when we do not believe we have what is necessary to withstand situations or what circumstances demand.
Stress can be internal or external.
Internal cognition that makes a person have fear or other negative emotions surrounding an environment such as pain and pressure which they may then perceive as stressful.
Common causes of stress include bereavement, family problems, accidents and tiresome work schedules.

DEALING WITH STRESS

Stress can be managed using various methods.
They include techniques such as avoiding people who stress you out, taking control of your environment, speaking out instead of holding stress to yourself, creating a balanced schedule and expressing your feelings instead of holding them the up.
Other proven techniques of managing stress is cognitive e therapy. This therapy involves the individual working collaboratively with therapists to develop skills for testing and modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking ,relating to others in different ways and changing behaviors.
Relaxation techniques are often also employed as a stress management tool. They help decrease muscle tension, lower the blood pressure and slow heart and breath rates among other benefits.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of stress can be divided into various categories. They include; behavioral, psychological, emotional and physical.
Psychological symptoms of stress are boredom, tension, anxiety, depression, insecurity, powerlessness, isolation and meaninglessness.
In boredom repetitive work such as assembly work or many forms of administration can be immense source of boredom .Lack of variety fails to stimulate the mind and boredom and fatigue sets in.
Anxiety occurs when a person feels not being able to cope with potential problems. These problems may or ,may not arise but they feel real to the anxious person.
Depression is when an individual experiences prolonged feelings of helplessness and hopelessness .They are unhappy with their life but feel they are incapable of improving things.

HORMONAL CHANGES CHANGING DURING STRESS.

In the response to stress, the level of various hormones changes .Reactions to stress are associated with enhanced secretion of a number of hormones .
They include glucocorticoids ,catecholamine ,growth hormone and prolactin ,the effect is to increase mobilization of energy sources and adapt the individual to its new circumstances.
Cortisol is another hormone which inhibits or aggravates stress levels. Stress hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine are released in a quick burst.
They quickly dissipate after the stressful situation is over and don’t hang around to do damage. This is followed by the release of cortisol. Continuous production of cortisol has serious health implications.
Chronically elevated cortisol puts you at risk of diabetes ,high blood pressure, obesity ,heart disease, digestive disorders and infertility(Davidson,2001).

STRESS EFFECTS.

There are numerous emotional and physical effects that have been linked to stress.
Emotional effects include depression, anxiety ,heart attacks ,strokes ,immune system disturbances and hypertension.
In addition, stress can have direct effects on the skin(dermatitis and rashes), peptic ulcer and irritable bowel syndrome.
It can also contribute to insomnia and degenerative neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.
Physical effects include a variety of physical symptoms
Stressed people may experience unexplained aches and pains, chest pains or difficulty in breathing.
Cognitive effects affects the way an individual reasons, or responds to situations and may also lead to sleeping problems. Difficulty with judgment and reasoning can also lead to failing to make correct decisions which can lead to loss of self confidence.

HOW STRESS AFFECTS YOUR BRAIN.

Stress begins in the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis(HPA).When your brain detects a stressful situation.
When your brain detects a stressful situation, your HPA axis is instantly activated and releases the hormone cortisol which makes your body instantly react.
High levels of cortisol over long periods of time may damage your brain.
Chronic stress for example increases the activity level and number of neural connections in the amygdala, the brain’s fear center.
As levels of cortisol rise, electric signals in the hippocampus, the part of the brain associated with learning ,memories and stress control deteriorate.
The hippocampus also inhibits the activity of the HPA axis ,so when it weakens, the ability to control your stress also weakens. Cortisol can also literally cause the brain to shrink in size.

CURRENT STATE OF STRESS AND STRESS RELATED PROBLEMS.

Work is the leading cause of stress among our population followed by finances and most recently modern concerns like terrorism and the state of the environment.
Young people are excessively stressed out these days .”Self-oriented “ or having high expectations of yourself and where young people have rigorous standards for others are the leading causes of stress(Bickerstaff,2007).
Stress of perfectionism can lead to eating disorders ,high blood pressure , suicidal thoughts )and depression.
It has also emerged that a mother’s stress levels directly impact to the brain development of babies. Specifically that her stress can change the neural connectivity of her unborn baby’s brain(Wheeler,2007).

CONCLUSION

Stress often occurs in response to situations that are perceived as being difficult to handle or threatening.
Each person suffers stress differently. A healthy response to stress begins quickly ; is appropriate in degree and in length and can improve motivation and productivity.
Chronic stress is a serious condition which occurs when a stressful situation is prolonged and continuous and often causes severe physical and emotional symptoms.
Some people are more prone to stress and the effects of stress include over-competitiveness, excitability, impatience, aggression and pessimism.
Stress management is an important technique is reducing stress levels in humans for sustainable brain developments.

Human Resource

Question

Unit 1 DQ: Diversity (Graded)

As a Human Resources (HR) manager, you have noted an extremely low number of women currently at any level of management within the company. In addition, you have noticed a disproportionate number of women have left the company over the past year.

Address each question completely in detail. Think fully on the answer before submitting your response.

Please align the number of your response to the numbered question below. Be sure to write in a professional manner (paragraphs, complete sentences, etc.) Sloppy inattentive submissions will be penalized.

  1. What actions could you take to increase the number of female new hires?
  2. What specific programs/initiatives could you develop to assist hiring managers in the interview process?
  3. What additional steps could you take to assure a safe working environment for female employees?

Sample papers

Human Resource

In the recent labor force, industry, diversity is increasingly becoming the order of the day. Dead and gone are the days when men alone would dominate all sectors and industries in the economy. Despite the fact that men are still many in most industries, the number of employed women is slowly increasing thus creating a healthy competition between men and women employees.

Question 1

One of the many ways that companies and organizations can use to attract more women in their companies is by creating a uniting font. Therefore, the recruiting process and procedure should emphasize the importance of recruiting and retaining women in the company. Similarly, the members of the human resource department, interviewers, and the entire organizational team should understand that recruiting, hiring and retaining women employees is the primary goal of accompany. In addition, the company should make the job ads women-friendly (In Harzing, A.-W, & In Pinnington, 2015). Research shows that women like having fun, friendly and casual atmosphere. Therefore, companies should strive to create a friendly environment for women.

Question 2

According to most human resource managers, promoting the current female employees and employees in positions of power gives the necessary motivation to interviewers the motivation to look for more women. When women are represented at the highest level, such as the interviewee committee, there are high chances that they will prioritize the needs of female employees.  Additionally, constant and regular training on the need of diversity in the workplace enhances the ability of the interviewers to give more chances to female employees (Mathis, Jackson, Valentine, & Meglich, 2017).

Question 3

The creation of a friendly working environment is the key to the recruitment and retaining of female employees. This can be done by taking the sexual harassment seriously. Research shows that women are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than men. Therefore, the assurance of their safety is key to their commitment to an organization (Mathis, Jackson, Valentine, & Meglich, 2017).

References

In Harzing, A.-W, & In Pinnington, A. H. (2015). International human resource management. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H., Valentine, S., & Meglich, P. A. (2017). Human resource management.

Telecommuting

Question

Background: Many people think of telecommuting from the perspective of how it might make
their lives easier. This perspective is an oversimplification of the work design option. In this
paper, you are asked to address each of the following issues to address the following:
You are a Human Resources (HR) manager. You have been tasked to work with a specific
internal department to provide both guidance and structure to the potential rollout of a
telecommuting option for that group. As such, you want to address the following specific issues
with that departments management team (NOTE: The associated point value for each
component is noted in bold):
1. Describe in detail some of the common components/considerations of a successful
telecommuting program. (Research is required outside of the course material) (50
points)
2. Explain in detail the issues encountered by other organizations in implementing a
telecommuting program. (Research is required outside of the course material) (50
points)
a. How are they commonly addressed in the rollout of an official program)
3. Describe how you can best determine the fit of the individual for a telecommuting
program. Focus on the course material covering: (50 points)
a. Values
b. Personality
c. Social Need of the individual
d. Career management issues
e. Any other items you feel are relevant
4. Since the use of work teams is growing in importance, describe in detail the relevant
factors to be considered in an effective telecommuting. Describe the potential limits
this may have for a rollout. Describe how some of these issues may be overcome. (50
points)
a. Include all relevant aspects of group dynamics covered within the course.
The rubric is contained within the four itemized components above.

Sample paper

Telecommuting

 

Table of Contents

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Statement of Purpose………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Common Components of a Successful Telecommuting Program……………………………………………………….4

Internet Connections…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….4

Employee Management Software and Applications…………………………………………………………………………….5

Health Considerations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5

Issues Encountered by Organizations in Implementing a Telecommuting Program………………….……….5

Suitability…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5

Management Challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….6

Security……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….6

Cost Concerns……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……….6

Separation from Work Culture………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….7

Feelings of Inadequacy and Low Motivation…………………………………………………………………………………………7

Determining the Fit of Individuals for a Telecommuting Program…………………………………………………….….7

Values……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………….7

Personality…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7

Social Need of the Individual……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………….8

Career Management Issues………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9

Willingness to Telecommute……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….9

Relevant Factors and Limits in an Effective Telecommuting…………………………………………………………….9

Personal Factors……………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………..……….9

Nature of the Work…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….10

Compliance with Expected Workplace Standards……………………………………………………………………………….11

Rules and Policies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12

 

 

Abstract

Telecommuting is becoming increasingly common as organizations seek new ways of reducing operational costs. The recent advances in technology have facilitated the application of telecommuting programs in organizations at a rapid pace. Organizations are looking at telecommuting as an effective way for maintain a competitive advantage over the competitors. Despite the potential benefits for employees and management, serious challenges abound in implementing telecommuting programs. Telecommuting programs can have serious impacts to employee performance and generally an organization’s performance. In particular, telecommuting significantly affects the social bonds or ties among employees in the organization. This may have negative impacts to the organization. The other major challenge concerns the ability of the managers to maintain control over telecommuters who work from different geographical locations. This necessitates the application of software applications to help in monitoring employees. Such software applications may be costly to install.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this descriptive study is to explore in detail the components of telecommuting program, issues in implementing telecommuting, factors for consideration in effective telecommuting, and ways of establishing the fit of individuals for a telecommuting program.

Telecommuting

Common Components of a Successful Telecommuting Program

Internet Connections

A successful telecommuting program must have quality network infrastructure. The management may have to choose from a number of remote access technologies such as broadband internet service, dedicated private circuits, and among others. The major factors to consider in deciding on remote access technology are speed, cost, security of data, and mobility. Some access technologies such as use of cellular networks and cable modems can allow the telecommuter to work from different locations covered by the network. Wi-Fi hotspots and digital subscriber lines are suitable where the telecommuter works from a stationery location. Some network providers can establish a private IP environment between the telecommuter and the organization’s computer system. Such a system would be suitable where there is passing of sensitive data.

Virtual Private Network

This is another important component for a successful telecommuting program. Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network infrastructure that enables users to safely access private networks even from public networks (Pearce, 2008). A VPN is critical in facilitating telecommuter access to the organization’s network, which is private network. A VPN is a critical component of a successful telecommuting program since it acts as a gateway through which the telecommuter can access key corporate resources such as intranet portals, network shares, internal applications, and printers (Pearce, 2008). VPNs are a safe way of accessing key resources. VPNs provide adequate security to prevent various forms of cyberattacks to the organization’s computer systems.

Information Sharing

A successful telecommuting program must integrate file and content sharing technologies. Peer-to-peer file sharing is the most common (Pearce, 2008). The sharing of files occurs through a centralized file sharing server. Recent trends involve using a third party for file storage solutions. The telecommuters as well as regular employees can easily access such files from all the computers on the organization’s network (Pearce, 2008). Content sharing is also vital for a successful telecommuting program. The organization can facilitate content sharing by use of specialized content-sharing software or websites.  Use of blogs, portals, social bookmark sites, and wikis can facilitate content sharing (Pearce, 2008). File and content sharing technologies eliminate the need for telecommuters to have to move to the physical offices to present work or obtain new information.

Multiple Communication Channels

A successful telecommuting program should allow for multiple communication channels. Communication is an essential element of the telecommuting process. Communication allows the telecommuters to keep in touch with the supervisors or management in an effective manner. The communication channels should allow for passing or oral, written, and visual messages or information. Common communication methods include web conferencing, audio conferencing, and instant messaging. Web conferencing enables the passing of visual and audio messages over the organization’s network infrastructure. Audio conferencing enable individuals to pass voice messages over the internet or mobile networks. Instant messaging provides users with the ability to send or receive instant messages through the internet.

Employee Management Software and Applications

A successful telecommuting program must include a reliably way of monitoring the telecommuters. The management should be able to monitor the performance of employees at their different and far off locations. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software can help in tracking the working of employees. The management or supervisors can raise an issue in the CRM platform. The issue remains open until the particular employee resolves the issue. It can be difficult to manage employees working from remote locations. In a telecommuting environment, it is difficult to conduct supervisory roles to ensure that employees adhere to established policy.

Organizational leaders in charge on telecommuters must ensure they improve on performance measurement relating to telecommuters. Failure to ensure there are effective performance measurement tools may lead inefficiencies among the telecommuters. The management should make use performance-tracking software in order to ensure effective monitoring of telecommuters’ performance. Telecommuter management should also involve providing effective support. The management must ensure that telecommuters have adequate support in order to achieve their goals. For instance, the management should replace promptly faulty equipment and provide other forms of help desk support.

Health Considerations

Some researchers have focused on the risks posed by telecommuting to the health of individuals. In corporate workspaces, there are adequate health provisions to employees effectively minimizing various health risks (Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). For instance, corporate workspaces have ambient ergonomically designed workstations that reduce the risk of injury. Employees have a regular schedule that involves going for breaks. Corporate workspaces have ambient lighting and are subject to inspection. Regular inspection ensures that such workspaces meets or exceeds health standards. On the other hand, telecommuters often have to set up workstations on their own and using limited resources (Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). This increases the risk of injury since they may not follow outlined standards. Telecommuters may also fail to follow required safety standards when they work away from the office. A telecommuting program should not increase the risk of injuries to employees.

Issues Encountered by Organizations in Implementing a Telecommuting Program

Suitability

One of the issues encountered by organizations in implementing a telecommuting program is making a decision on the suitability of employees and various roles for telecommuting. It is difficult for the management to decide on the positions that are suitable to telecommuting. In addition, the management may face challenges in deciding on the employees best suited to work as telecommuters. Telecommuting is not suitable for all forms of jobs in the organization. The organization may face serious challenges if employees handle certain tasks from outside the office. For instance, jobs requiring face-to-face interactions with the customers may not be suitable for telecommuting. In addition to the challenges of selecting the suitable jobs for telecommuting, organizational leaders must make the decision on the employees they can allow to work as telecommuters. The suitable employees should have high self-drive and productivity. The suitable candidate should be one who can work with minimal supervision. It may not be easy for the management to select such employees.

Management Challenges

Management challenges are prevalent in organizations that implement telecommuting programs. It is difficult to manage employees in different physical locations. The telecommuters may take advantage of lack of direct supervision leading to slack in the level of output. According to Pearce (2009) noted that the separation from the physical workplace increases the tendency for telecommuters to underperform. Besides the inability to maintain an oversight role over the employees, the management may also lose the ability to assess employee performance. This may occur where the organization’s management lacks adequate resources to install modern employee monitoring technologies. The organization can only ensure effective monitoring of employees by basing compensation of units produced instead of the hours worked. Such remuneration system has major drawbacks including low quality of products due to the focus on quantity of final products.

Security

Security is another organizational issue encountered when implementing a telecommuting program. It is virtually impossible for the organization to guarantee the security of sensitive data when employees work outside the physical location. According to Pearce (2009), security of computer systems and information protection is a major threat facing telecommuting. Various breaches that may occur while working from outside the office include hacking, erroneous emails, and stolen laptops or other important equipment. In particular, hackers can use stolen laptops to gain access to sensitive information. Pearce (2009) identified various security issues facing telecommuters. One of the issues is vulnerability of broadband connections to malware attacks. The organization should install firewall and anti-virus programs to avert such attacks. Majority of telecommuters prefer using wireless connections, which are susceptible to eavesdropping. An organization wishing to prevent eavesdropping must invest more by installing encryption technologies.

Telecommuters often face security challenges involving their internet browser security. Hackers can use malicious software to steal information from a computer system (Pearce, 2009). Such an attack can occur through a weakness on one of the organization’s extended computer networks. It may be difficult for the management to ensure that all employees implement the appropriate computer safeguards while using their laptops. This leaves a window that hackers can exploit to gain access to the organization’s computer system. As mentioned above, it is also difficult to ensure the physical security of the extended computer network in telecommuting. Theft of computer from telecommuters’ home or other location could lead to leaking of sensitive data to the public.

Cost Concerns

Cost is another issue in implementing telecommuting programs. Beginning a telecommuting program requires substantial resources from the organization. This may have significant effect on the profitability of the organization. The organization may incur costs due to the need for upgrading the technology information systems to allow for secure remote access. In addition, the organization may find the need to install modern software and applications for employee monitoring. For instance, the organization may find the need to install Symposium, a system that uses VOIP to monitor calls in a call center (Pearce, 2009). Apart from costs relating to upgrading of the information systems, an organization is likely to incur costs involving relocation of office furniture, installation of advanced security systems, installation of internet, and other costs.

Separation from Work Culture

Corporate culture is critical in ensuring an organization’s productivity. A strong corporate culture helps in ensuring that employees work towards achieving common goals. Telecommuting brings about the issue of separation from the work culture (Chithambo, 2015). Telecommuters working from their homes rarely interact with employees working from the offices. This may lead to a fragmentation of the social fabric in the workplace and the subsequent loss of the workplace culture. Fragmentation of the corporate culture may lead to poor teamwork among employees (Pearce, 2009). Employees working from within the organization may also forge a unique culture from the telecommuters. This may result to tension between telecommuters and regular employees. Such tension may lead to reduced productivity in the organization since employees may tend to focus on unnecessary issues.

Feelings of Inadequacy and Low Motivation

Telecommuting can lead to feelings of inadequacy leading to low motivation. Telecommuting involves removing an employee from a social life and conditioning him/her to isolation. Most often, telecommuters work from home where their social circle becomes narrow. Such employees may experience lower motivation levels. Moreover, telecommuters often express fears of being disregarded for promotions and other opportunities that may emerge in the organization (Dahlstrom, 2013). This is because telecommuters work from outside the organization. They have limited chances of interacting with the managers, supervisors, and other employees. When promotional opportunities emerge, those working within the organization have the highest chances of getting the promotions. The notion that telecommuting will have a negative impact on a telecommuter’s career may lead to low motivation. In implementing telecommuting programs, the management must take measures to ensure that both telecommuters and regular employees receive fair promotion opportunities. The management may find it difficult to ensure a balance between the two.

Determining the Fit of Individuals for a Telecommuting Program

Values

Values can help in determining the suitability of an employee for a telecommuting program. Values relates to the standards of behavior relating to a particular individual. Employees should exhibit a number of values for them to be suitable for working in a telecommuting environment. One of the core values is accountability. This is the willingness to take responsibility for one’s actions. Another important value is self-discipline. A suitable employee for a telecommuting program should be able to plan for his/her work and remain committed towards achieving organizational goals. Another important value is self-motivation. A suitable employee should be able to work without supervision. Positive attitude is also critical in a telecommunication arrangement. Another important value is honesty and integrity. This is important in building trust. Another important aspect is professionalism. This involves learning all the integral aspects of the job and performing the task to the best of one’s ability at all times.

Personality

The personality of employees can offer the management a window of opportunity to determine whether a particular employee is fit for telecommuting. The Big Five personality typology can help in assessing whether an individual is fit for telecommuting. The Big Five personality typology categorizes the entire range of human personality into five types. These are openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion. According to Clark, Karau, and Michalisin (2012), the Big Five personality types are generalizable across cultures. As such, the Big Five personality types can enable the management to understand personality types and their fit in a telecommuting environment.

Individuals who have high openness tend to be creative, they seek variety, and they tend to seek intellectual stimulation. Individuals with openness are also likely to seek opportunities for learning. Employees who have high openness tend to be creative and seek opportunities for learning. Telecommuting requires that the employee adopts new methods of communication and gets used to working from a new environment (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). There exists a positive relationship between an employee’s openness and the ability to view telecommuting in a positive manner (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). According to Smith, Patmos, and Pitts (2018), having a positive attitude towards learning enables such individuals to become better telecommuters.

Individuals high in agreeableness tend to exude honesty, trustworthiness, cooperation, helpfulness, amicableness, and decency (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Employees high in agreeableness tend to be high performers especially in tasks involving high interpersonal interactions (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012; Smith, Patmos, & Pitts, 2018). Further, some researchers concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between agreeableness and job performance in telecommuting environments (Smith, Patmos, & Pitts, 2018). Employees high in conscientiousness tend to be self-disciplined, thorough, organized, responsible, hardworking, and careful (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Employees having high conscientiousness are better suited to work in a telecommuting environment. The characteristics relating to hard work and self-discipline are critical in ensuring success in a telecommuting environment.

Extraversion concerns the tendency to be highly sociable, talkative, assertive, and active. Extraverts prefer environments that promote social interactions and stimulation of the senses (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Due to the need for the highly stimulating environments, extraverts may not be fit for a telecommuting arrangement. Extraverts would prefer working in environments that promote social interactions. On the other hand, introverts may be more suited for a telecommuting arrangement since they prefer having less social contacts. Neuroticism relates to the emotional stability of individuals. According to Smith, Patmos, and Pitts (2018), people high in neuroticism tend to be anxious and depressed. Recent studies indicate that people with neuroticism prefer telecommuting since they are able to maintain total control over their work environment.

Social Need of the Individual

The social need of the individual may also help in determining his/her fit for a telecommuting program. Social needs refer to the need for affiliation. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory states that social needs are significant motivating factors for individuals (Furnham, 2012). Individuals have certain social needs such as the need to interact with others, to have friends, and the need for acceptance by others. Developing relations at work enables an employee to fulfil the social needs (Furnham, 2012). Further, organizations promote the development of cordial social relations by coming up with various events and activities such as office parties, sports days, fun competitions, and among others. Social needs are part of what Maslow identified as deficiency needs. Inability of an individual to fulfil these needs lead to stunted physical and psychological development.

Employees whose social needs are high may not be fit for a telecommuting program. It is possible to assess the social needs of an employee by measuring the task independence and interpersonal independence levels. Task independence refers to the ability of the employee to accomplish tasks with minimal supervision or help from others. An employee who is highly task independent can fit in a telecommuting environment. Interpersonal independence measures the employee’s level of need for establishing social interactions in the workplace. Employees having high interpersonal dependence may not feel comfortable working as telecommuters. According to Dahlstrom (2013), some employees may long for social interactions in the office when they are telecommuting. A solution for this may be telecommuting on part time basis.

Career Management Issues

Career management is critical in determining the fit of an individual for a telecommuting program. Career management involves planning of activities and job engagements mainly to facilitate growth. Career management lays the foundation for the progression of an employee across the organizational leadership structure. This largely depends on employee preferences, performance levels, and organizational objectives. Career management enables an employee to recognize viable career paths that they can follow for future success. Another need for career management is in setting career priorities and goals. Employees aiming at leadership positions at the organization may not find it suitable to work as telecommuters. According to Dahlstrom (2013), many employees fear engaging in telecommuting due to limited opportunities for growth or advancement.

Willingness to Telecommute

It is important for the management to take into consideration the employees’ preferences with regard to telecommuting. Employees who are in favor of the decision to work as telecommuters would best fit the program. The management should not force employees into working as telecommuters since this may lead to lower employee motivation. For instance, extraverts may not be able to handle isolation that presents in telecommuting environments (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Extraverts desire social interactions in order to feel complete. Some individuals may not find the home environment fit for office work. It is worth noting that a large share of individuals who engage in telecommuting prefer working from home. The home environment may reduce productivity or performance levels.

Relevant Factors and Limits in an Effective Telecommuting

Personal Factors

Personal factors are one of the relevant factors for consideration in effective telecommuting. Telecommuting is not suitable for all employees. Certain personality traits play a critical role in determining whether an individual will be effective as a telecommuter (Ye, 2012). An effective telecommuter should be highly dependable. It is possible to assess an employee’s dependability levels by looking at how he/she meets deadlines for tasks or assignments and punctuality in reporting. An employee who manages time effectively at the workplace is likely to continue the same even when telecommuting. Another personal factor is professionalism. An ideal telecommuter is an employee who handles assignments with professionalism, which is indicative of responsibility.

Communication is another important personal factor. An ideal telecommuter is one who has effective communication skills (Ye, 2012). Telecommuting involves working away from an organization’s physical location. This requires that telecommuters maintain frequent communication with the co-workers, supervisors, and managers in order to show their commitment to the job. Telecommuting may not be possible for persons who are poor communicators. For instance, employees who delay in responding to emails or answering calls may not be effective telecommuters. A good telecommuter should be resourceful. Telecommuting employees face often face challenging work situations alone since the supervisor or manager is not present to offer immediate solutions. A suitable telecommuting candidate should be able to apply problem-solving skills to various challenging situations. A suitable candidate would be an employee who has demonstrated sound problem-solving skills in resolving prior challenges.

Another relevant factor is the productivity level of employees. A suitable candidate should demonstrate productivity in the organization. There is a close link between productivity and possession of relevant job skills. Employees who lack adequate job skills or knowledge are not suitable candidates for telecommuting (Ye, 2012). Time management and good organization skills of the employee is also relevant. A suitable candidate should be a good time manager. The employee should possess organizational skills to be able to plan his/her work. The suitable candidate should be able to work with minimal supervision and can take steps to measure performance.

Nature of the Work

Nature of work is a relevant factor that management must consider in telecommuting. Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. The suitable jobs for telecommuting are those that involve engaging in independent tasks and where it is possible to measure performance based on the outcomes (Ye, 2012). Managers should be able to conduct an evaluation to determine whether work characteristics can permit telecommuting among employees. Managers should take interest in establishing whether the employee can perform the job functions independently, and at a location outside the organization. An employee should be able to conduct a job task just as efficiently as he/she would while inside the office. The job requirements should accommodate for working away from the organization. Some of the jobs suited for telecommuting include data processing, indirect customer services, writing tasks, sales, legal jobs, research and policy development, programming, and among others.

With regard to the nature of the work, security concerns may arise when some employees work from outside the office (Ye, 2012). Organizations may have security concerns especially where telecommuting involves bypassing the security barriers in place. Organizations use firewalls, virtual private networks, and Secure Socket Layer to enhance the security of the information systems. Telecommuting can pose certain risks to the organization especially if it involves remotely accessing the information systems. The managers must be able to ensure that there are adequate security considerations before giving telecommuters remote access to the organization’s computer systems. Tasks that do not require access to the computer systems may be safe for telecommuting.

Compliance with Expected Workplace Standards

Managers must ensure that telecommuting does not lead to non-compliance of workplace standards. An effective telecommuting program must take into consideration the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for work. OSHA standards outline the safety, health, and welfare requirements for those employed. A major concern by OSHA is workplace safety. Every employee should be able to work in a safe and healthy environment. With regard to this, the management should be in a position to provide the required safety gear to all employees. Generally, managers should ensure that the remote offices meet OSHA requirements. The management should visit all remote offices to ensure they meet the OSHA requirements. It is also important to ensure that remote offices do not compromise the integrity of an organization’s data security. The management should develop security policies guiding telecommuters. For instance, the management may prohibit employees from using public WIFI to prevent incidences of hacking.

Rules and Policies

The management should develop rules and policies that guide how employees under the telecommuting program will work. The management should communicate the rules and policies to employees before they make the decision to engage in telecommuting (Ye, 2012). Lack of a proper policy framework guiding telecommuters may lead to confusion and inefficiencies. The policy should designate clearly, the party to meet the various costs that the telecommuter may incur. For instance, the policy should be clear on whether the telecommuter or the company should pay for the internet access. The management should also make a decision on whether the telecommuter should purchase his/her own equipment or the organization should provide. The equipment may include laptop, filing cabinets, bookcases, desk, and among others. The management should make it clear that it is the role of employees to ensure they protect data and equipment from theft. The management should also develop a policy on sick days and leave for the employee. Generally, the criteria for leave and sick days should be the same as the one used in the office.

Conclusion

In summary, the advancements in technology have made it possible for employees handling certain job tasks to work from anywhere and at any time. Telecommuting enables individuals to work from homes or other locations of their choice. Although telecommuting is a revolutionary force, there are certain considerations that the management must ensure are in place for a successful telecommuting program. The considerations identified include internet connections, Virtual Private Network (VPN), information sharing facilities, multiple communication channels, employee management software and applications, and health considerations. Further, the organization may encounter various issues in implementing a telecommuting program.  The issues identified are suitability, management challenges, security, cost concerns, separation from work culture, and feelings of inadequacy and low motivation. The fit of the individual to telecommute depends on a number of personal factors. The various factors that the management should consider in an effective telecommuting are values, personality, social needs, and career management issues.

References

Allen, T. D., Golden, T. D., & Shockley, K. M. (2015). How effective is telecommuting? assessing the         status of our scientific findings. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(2), 40-68.           10.1177/1529100615593273

Chithambo, L. M. (2015). Security concerns in telecommuting within the information technology                 industry. Academic Forum. Conference. Proceedings, , 53.

Clark, L. A., Karau, S. J., & Michalisin, M. D. (2012). Telecommuting attitudes and the ‘big five’ personality                 dimensions. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 13(3), 31.

Dahlstrom, T. R. (2013). Telecommuting and leadership style. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 438- 451. 10.1177/0091026013495731

Dahlstrom, T. R. (2013). Telecommuting and leadership style. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 438- 451. 10.1177/0091026013495731

Furnham, A. (2012). The psychology of behaviour at work: the individual in the organization. Psychology Press.

Pearce, j. A. (2009). Successful corporate telecommuting with technology considerations for late                 adopters. Organizational Dynamics, 38(1), 16-25. 10.1016/j.orgdyn.2008.10.002

Smith, S. A., Patmos, A., & Pitts, M. J. (2018;2015;). Communication and teleworking: A study of communication channel satisfaction, personality, and job satisfaction for teleworking       employees. International Journal of Business Communication, 55(1), 44-68.     10.1177/2329488415589101

Ye, L. R. (2012). Telecommuting: implementation for success. International Journal of Business and Social                 Science, 3(15): 20-26.

Coding and Decoding

Coding and Decoding

The message:

I am a rock star!!!

The encoding matrix is:

The phrase matrix is:

 

* =

The phrase as a single line is written as: 198/200 130/180/144 85 172 160/100 145 168 114 27 24 15

Discussion Questions

  1. Find the determinant of the encoding matrix
  2. Find the inverse of the decoding matrix
  • Decode the message
  1. How can this concept apply in sending messages over electronic devices such as phones?

Mortgage

Question

You definitely reported on some of the considerations people make when picking mortgage. With the longer term, you may be able to afford a larger mortgage, which can be helpful in a state with high property costs like NJ.

For the example you shared, what was the initial cost of the home and down payment?  For each option, how much would you pay in total for the home, assuming you lived in it through the life of the loan?

Sample paper

Mortgage

The initial cost of the home is $300,000 and the down payment is $60,000. I opted to examine the 30-year fixed rate loan at 4.125% interest rate and the 15-year fixed rate loan at 3.5 % interest rate. The annual percentage rate (APR) gives the total cost of the mortgage. The total costs include the interest rate, broker fees, closing costs, and among other costs. The APR is thus a better figure in estimating the total costs of buying a home through a mortgage. For each option, I would pay different amounts depending on the APR rate. Under option for a 30-yeat fixed rate at an APR of 4.226%, I would pay $418,680 in total. For the 30-year fixed rate FHA at an APR of 4.778%, I would pay $477,000 in total. For the 15-year fixed rate, I would pay $308,880. Since I am looking for a 30-year mortgage option, the best option would be the 30-year fixed rate option at a rate of 4.226%. The total amount is $418,680.

Discussion Questions

  1. Define break-even point.
  2. Assume that the value of one discount point is $3,000. If by paying the $3,000 will lower the overall cost of the mortgage by $112.5, how long does it take to make up the cost of the point?
  • Would it be advisable to pay the extra $3,000 if you plan to stay in the house for less than 2 years? Why or why not?

 

Civic Engagement

Question

Directions: Research a non-profit organization, political candidate or organization, campus or community agency engaged in community activism. Since the assignment’s focus is on civic engagement, audience centeredness is a key element: how/why does this matter to the audience, as fellow citizens what can be done, what action(s) can be made (i.e. how can audience members engage civically)?

A requirement for this assignment is conducting research to support your thesis/central idea to include: definitions, evidence/facts, narratives, testimony, and/or statistics (minimum of 3 citations must be incorporated into your speech). Citing sources properly and accurately will be an integral component of the assignment.

Introduction

Attention Getter (e.g. quote, narrative, question, statistic)

Introduce topic clearly by stating thesis/central idea.

Credibility Statement (why you are qualified to speak, such as personal and/or professional expertise, experience, knowledge)

Provide full preview of Main Points

Body

2-5 main points with connectives (e.g. transitions, internal preview, signposts)

Incorporate 3 citations based on gathered materials

NOTE: Last main point should reflect how audience members can engage civically (be specific).

Conclusion

Prepare audience for ending

Reinforce thesis/central idea (e.g. restate main points)

Final memorable statement. End strong!

Sample paper

Civic Engagement

Since its inception, Planned Parenthood has transformed the lives of thousands of women through civic engagement. This study presents an overview of the organization’s achievement in matters relating to women’s health since its inception. The study will allow the audience to understand how the organization has transformed the lives of thousands women, helping them in improving the quality of life and the standard of living in the society. Women play a critical role in the community. However, most of the time women have been denied even their basic rights. As a researcher on women’s rights issues, I am in a position to explain the efforts made by the organization over the last century to improve women’s lives.

Planned Parenthood has been instrumental in educating women on birth control methods. The major aim of the organization is to reduce unwanted pregnancies and ensure that women are able to achieve high educational standards. Vast literature available indicates that women who bear children at a relatively younger age record lower educational attainment levels compared to their counterparts who start childbearing at a later period. According to Kane et al. (2013), teen childbearing contributes to a difference of between 0.7 and 1.9 years of schooling in teenage mothers and those who start childbearing later in life. By promoting birth control, the organization has been able to raise the childbearing age among thousands of women. This ensures high educational attainment levels among women.

Besides birth control agenda, the organization has been critical in promoting sexual orientation and gender awareness. Planned Parenthood has been focal in teaching women about gender, gender identify, and controversial issues such as sexual orientation. Of great significance, the organization examines issues concerning transgender and gender non-conforming identities. The organization has been vital in helping individuals who would wish to transform their gender identity if they feel different from the one they were assigned at birth. This is critical considering that about 1.4 million individuals in the US identify as transgender. The organization helps those who want to change to a particular gender or even those who are transgender since they face a lot of discrimination in the community.

The organization has also been critical in promoting women’s health. Planned Parenthood provides education to women on how to reduce the risk of death from different type of cancers. The organization provides women with critical information on different forms of cancers including breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and HPV-related cancer. In addition, the organization organizes free cancer screenings that target women from poor backgrounds. As Gorey et al. (2015) notes, women from poor backgrounds are at increased risk dying from cancer due to lack of regular screening. Cancer screenings promote early cancer detection. This improves the chances of successful treatment before the cancer spreads to other body organs and tissues. Planned Parenthood promotes education among women concerning sexually transmitted infections including herpes, hepatitis B, HPV, HIV & AIDS, and among other STDs.

Lastly, it is worth noting that each one can engage civically in this course by joining the organization as a volunteer or by participating in numerous programs and events. Every year, the organization organizes activities, educational programs, and free medical camps with the aim of improving the lives of women. Joining in these activities is a great way of helping the organization to achieve its objectives.

In summary, Planned Parenthood plays a significant role in the lives of each one of you. The organization’s main objective is to improve the status of women in the society. The organization achieves this buy promoting their health status, helping women realize their identity, and by giving women the power to choose whether to give birth.

References

Kane, J. B., Morgan, S. P., Harris, K. M., & Guilkey, D. K. (2013). The educational          consequences of teen childbearing. Demography, 50(6), 2129-2150. doi:10.1007/s13524-     013-0238-9

Gorey, K. M., Richter, N. L., Luginaah, I. N., Hamm, C., Holowaty, E. J., Zou, G., &       Balagurusamy, M. K. (2015). Breast cancer among women living in poverty: Better care         in canada than in the united states. Social Work Research, 39(2), 107-118.           doi:10.1093/swr/svv006

Hoffman. J. (2016, June 30). Estimate of U.S. transgender population doubles to 1.4 million         adults. The New York Times.