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britain's failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels

Who was to blame for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels?


Who was to blame for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels: General Howe, General Burgoyne, or the ministers in London? Explain your answer.

American History

General Howe held the greatest responsibility for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels. During the Battle of Bunker Hill (1776), Howe’s army sustained a great number of casualties leading to a change of tactics in the forthcoming wars (Schecter, 2002). Howe had greatly underestimated the rebellion, which resulted to a great loss with over 1000 of his soldiers dead. Following the loss, Howe took a more conservative approach in the remaining battles, often opting out of strong enemy lines. This significantly hindered his ability to eliminate the rebels who had ample time to plan and orchestrate attacks (Schecter, 2002).

In 1776, Howe made great success in advancing his aims of taking New York when he emerged the winner at the Battle of Long Island. This pushed the American rebels back to Brooklyn heights (Bonk, 2009). Howe feared that by pursuing the rebels further, there could be more casualties. He thus directed his army to take siege of areas where Washington’s army had been defeated. This gave Washington’s rebels a great opportunity to retaliate in Manhattan. In September of 1776, Howe succeeded in taking New York from Washington, but was reluctant to pursue the rebels who simply went into hiding (Bonk, 2009). In the following year, Burgoyne proposed a plan to defeat the American rebels but they had become too strong.

In December of 1776, Washington begun launching major retaliatory attacks against Howe’s newly acquired territories in Princeton and Trenton (Bonk, 2009). Howe was reluctant to face these counterattacks, and instead opted to withdraw his army from such areas. He continued taking siege of the New York City, giving Washington’s army time to plan an uprising. The defeats at Trenton and Princeton had exposed Howe’s army weaknesses, giving American rebels hope that the British army could be defeated


Bonk, D. (2009). Trenton and Princeton 1776-77: Washington Crosses the Delaware. Oxford:    Osprey Publishing.

Schecter, B. (2002). The Battle for New York: The City at the Heart of the American Revolution. New York, NY: Walker & Company.


History of America between 1800 and 1860

Services in my Area

Services in my Area

Services in my Area

Identify the DSL and cable modem services referenced in this assignment

The local carriers in the region include Verizon, AT&T, and Road Runner. Verizon Communication Inc. is responsible for providing digital subscriber line technology (DSL). Specifically, Verizon provides what is commonly referred to as Asymmetric xDSL. This comprises of an optical carrier. It uses fiber optics to carry data among users, although it is not cable modem internet technology. Verizon provides its services in numerous states such as Louisiana, District of Columbia, Connecticut, Kansas, and others. AT&T provides DSL internet access in the area of which I am currently subscribed. AT&T lacks compatibility with dial-up and cable modems, meaning that it only provides DSL internet access. AT$T provides services in places such as Washington, Montana, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, North Dakota, Kansas, Wyoming, and among others.

Speeds of DSL and cable modem

The speeds of DSL and cable modem vary greatly. Most Americans are faced with the tough choice between cable modem and DSL in accessing internet services. Cable broadband is generally faster than DSL. On the other hand, digital subscriber line (DSL) is much cheaper especially at slow speeds. DSL is appropriate for users who do not require high speeds. For instance, it is appropriate for users requiring basic internet connection for simple tasks such as checking mail or visit one or few websites. Cable modems utilizes coaxial cables to deliver information to residential users. On the other hand, DSL utilizes copper wiring that is found in telephone lines.

As earlier mentioned, DSL has lower speeds compared to cable modem. DSL provides users with download speeds in the range between 1.5 Mbps and 15 Mbps. The upstream speed for DSL is in the range of 128 kbps and 1 Mbps. On the other hand, download speeds of cable modems are in the range of 25 Mbps to 100 Mbps on the higher end. Upstream speeds are in the range of 2 Mbps and 8 Mbps on the higher end. However, according to Dulaney (2010), cable modems do not usually reach the higher speeds that have been mentioned. It is also important to note that speeds may be affected by other factors such as the type of computers being used to access the internet.

Related paper: Case Study 2: ING Life

Cost of DSL and cable modem

DSL and cable modem are much costly than dialup accounts. Charges range between $30 and $50 per month for both DSL and cable modem. Installation charges also add up to the total cost of DSL and cable modem. The main advantage in having cable modem or DSL is that the two do not tie the phone when the user is online. The most important thing to note that the two technologies cost roughly the same in terms of installation and operation charges. However, what sets them apart is the fact that cable modem has higher speeds which means it has better speed to cost ratio. Thus, it would be advisable for a company such as Carlson to acquire cable modem over DSL due to the speed to cost ratio. According to Dulaney (2010), installation of both cable modem and DSL costs between $100 and $200. Equipment costs may also be incurred. The cost of this averages $50 to $100. Some activation costs may also be incurred. As earlier mentioned, monthly charges average $40 to $50 for both cable modem and DSL.

Reliability of cable modem and DSL

Cable modem and DSL have different reliability owing to unique characteristics of each type of connectivity. In DSL internet, data movers directly from the user to ISP or vice versa through the phone line. This means that there is no sharing of bandwidth among the various users(“TechRepublic,” 2004). The impact of this is that consistent performance is achieved even though the number of users in a particular area increases. In cable modem type of internet connection, the bandwidth is delivered as a block to users who share it amongst themselves. Thus in such as connection, it is difficult to achieve consistent performance due to the fact that the number of users keep varying on any time of the day. Since users share the same bandwidth, too many of them may lead to slow speeds. Heavy use of the internet may also lead to slow speeds due to sharing of the bandwidth.

DSL provides users with access to both the internet as well as the phone line. Users can be able to choose the connection speeds they need from service providers, which also determines the price. DSL is however greatly affected by the distance between the user and the provider’s location. As the distance between the two increases, the network connection is affected in terms of strength. According to Docter, Dulaney, &Skandier (2012), DSL and cable modem have reliable connections meaning they experience minimum downtimes. Both can also deliver internet at good speeds for home use.

Recommend DSL or cable modem

Based on the previous comparison and evaluation of services available closest to my region, cable modem would be the better option to DSL. Although both have proven reliability, certain characteristics of DSL internet makes it unattractive. Cable modem provides internet at generally higher speeds than DSL. In the current era, access speed is of great essence. This makes cable modem the best alternative between the two. DSL becomes weaker with increasing distance from service providers. In my area, DSL internet access may be weak since it is farthest from the service providers (The area is about 3 miles from the nearest DSL services). It is generally recommended that users be between 2 to 3 miles from the DSL central office so that speeds are not affected by distance (“TechRepublic,” 2004).

As earlier mentioned, DSL and cable modem have basically the same installation and operation costs to the user. However, what sets them apart from the rest is the fact that cable modem provides higher access speeds, and thus giving users value for their money. In terms of security, DSL is more secure compared to cable modem. This is because in DSL there is no sharing of connections with other users. In cable modem, top notch security can also be achieved by ensuring that all the security features are working properly and that the firewall settings are as recommended.

Related paper: Case Study 3:Carlson Companies

Diagram of the DSL and Cable Modem connections to  ISP


Docter, Q., Dulaney, E. A., &Skandier, T. (2012). CompTIA A+ complete study guide: Exams     220-801 and 220-802 (2nd Edition). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Dulaney, E. A. (2010). Linux all-in-one desk reference for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Pub.

TechRepublic (Firm). (2004). Home office computing survival guide. Louisville, KY:       TechRepublic.

Carlson Companies

Carlson Company Case Study

Carlson Companies Case Study

How the Carlson SAN approach would be implemented in today’s environment

SAN approach can be implemented in a similar fashion to the one outlined in the case study. The main focus during implementation lies in ensuring a seamless migration from the old system to the new one. In database management, IT experts aim at ensuring there is a smooth flow of data from one point to another. During implementation, IT experts must ensure that users are not in any way affected by the migration process. Since problems are likely to occur, they must ensure that these are identified early enough before leading to high losses. The approach used by the company meets all the necessary requirements, for instance higher storage capacity, use of common IP networking protocols, data backup, and cost effectiveness.

Pros and cons of consolidating data on a SAN central data facility versus the dispersed arrangement it replaces

There are a number of benefits and drawbacks in consolidating data on a SAN central data facility in comparison to the dispersed arrangement it replaces. In terms of benefits, an IP SAN strategy can enable the company to use familiar or common IP management tools. In the case of Carlson, use of IP security tools is of great significance. As Steven Brown, the CIO explains, encrypting packet streams will enable the company expand the volume of transactions it can handle. According to LaPlante (2009), another benefit is that management of consolidated data is easier since it utilizes less machines and servers. Carlson will also be able to add extra free space with consolidation of data since there are fewer servers to be used. This in turn leads to a reduction in energy costs. Labor costs as well as maintenance costs are also reduced due to the low number of servers. A large share of data center costs are attributed to administrative expenses such as labor costs. Server consolidation greatly reduces these costs.

Related paper: Case Study 2: ING Life

There are drawbacks a company can face when it opts to replace the dispersed arrangement. There is a risk of loss of data during the migration process. It may be difficult to restore data lost in the process especially where data storage services in use are inefficient. Another drawback is that challenges may arise during the migration process, severely impacting the Carlson’s operations. End users may be greatly affected by the migrations. The company may lose customers or clients due to technical difficulties that may arise. Another challenge is that consolidated data on SAN central facilities may need to be continuously optimized in order to meet performance and capacity requirements.

Evaluate the issues raised from the Carlson SAN mixing equipment

A number of issues were raised from Carlson SAN mixing equipment. Carlson SAN is known to combine equipment from a number of vendors. This can be termed as a weakness on the part of the consolidated data server. It is well known that the initial cost of setting up SAN data recovery system may be quite high. Therefore, the IT experts should ensure that there are appropriate disk applications that can help reduce conflicts among various applications and software products (Ciampa, 2014). Since equipment is derived from multiple vendors, the IT experts should configure them in a way that they match and least likely to cause conflict or mismatch. It is the management’s role to ensure that this is implemented. The management can solve this problem by contracting standard equipment and software that can be changed to fit the requirements of the company. Another option for the management is to consider reducing the number of vendors so as to gain consistency.

The need for reduction of administration and management of storage networking through Carlson’s IP SAN

As earlier mentioned, IP SAN can significantly help Carlson to cut down on administration overhead and also ensure easier management of storage networking. SAN provides room for multiple extensions that helps build interconnectivity among multiple enterprises. This enables the SAN segment to be extended at relatively lower costs. SAN extensions help in creating broader availability, serviceability and reliability to end users (Ciampa, 2014). Due to the low number of storage platforms required, Carlson does not need any administrators to manage multiple servers like in the case of dispersed arrangement. A single control panel can be employed in managing the entire storage, in addition to utilizing a homogeneous software. This makes it quite easier for the management to control the entire system. Minimal training is needed for the staff thus saving on costs. Also, there are minimal errors experienced in using the system. Another major impact is that storage is optimally utilized compared to storage in dispersed arrangements.

Related paper: Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

Application of cloud computing by Carlson instead of SAN.

Cloud computing technology can also be used by Carlson, although there are no much relative benefits which can be obtained from cloud computing over SAN. According to Ohlhorst (2012), SAN delivers higher speeds compared to cloud computing. In line with this, cloud computing is known to reduce onsite storage capacity. In terms of storage capacity and data management efficiency, Carlson may not obtain any relative benefits on adopting cloud computing to SAN. Users point out a number of weaknesses in cloud computing mostly associated with security and reliability. Thus, it would be recommended that Carlson continues to use SAN and not to migrate to cloud computing since there are no relative benefits and the cost might be prohibitive.


Ciampa, M. (2014). CompTIA Security + Guide to Network Security Fundamentals. Boston:       Cengage Learning.

LaPlante, E. (2009). The pros and cons of server consolidation. IT Business Insider. Retrieved     from:     TLFLV

Ohlhorst, F. (2012). Cloud storage, rewriting SAN’s future. Network Computing. Retrieved         from:    future/232900096


Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid

The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid

The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid

The stability of a country greatly determines the distribution of foreign aid in developing countries. Foreign aid is of great significance to developing countries since it substantially impacts the level of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of such countries. The positive and negative impacts of peace and war can best be analyzed by reviewing the case of Afghanistan, a landlocked developing nation that has been ravaged by war in the recent past. Afghanistan has been a major beneficially of foreign aid throughout its history, even before the American War in Afghanistan begun in 2001. When the country enjoyed relative peace and stability, foreign aid still made a huge share of the country’s budget. In the 1940s, Afghanistan’s budget depended on over 40% foreign aid (Roberts, 2009). The amount of foreign aid given to the country rose drastically over the coming decades.  In the 1980’s, the Soviet Union provided much of the foreign aid required by the country. As such, the prevalence of peace enabled the country to secure foreign aid from a number of allied and wealthy nations. Most of the foreign funds were provided with particular interests at hand by the donor nations.

In 2001, the American War in Afghanistan altered the level of foreign funds given to the country. This is because war has a negative impact on the distribution of foreign aid in a country. The immediate impact of the American War of Afghanistan was a decline in the amount of foreign aid channeled to Afghanistan by the international community. Due to the ravaging impacts of the war, there was an urgent need to increase foreign donations in order to avert a humanitarian crisis. As such, foreign aid kept increasing during the war. The fall of Taliban in 2001 put the country on top of the list of countries that required foreign aid (“World Bank Group,” 2014). In particular after the withdrawal of American and allied countries’ forces, the international community realized the need to provide substantial foreign aid assistance to the country. The war has also affected the distribution of foreign aid in that the process is marred by corruption. Corruption hinders development since funds meant for development are channeled to other uses.

Afghanistan’s leadership has taken a number of concrete actions to relieve the severe problems caused by warfare. Afghanistan government has limited revenue sources. As such, about 90% of the total public expenditure comes from foreign aid. The manner in which foreign aid is spent in the country greatly impacts the welfare of all Afghanistan citizens. Much of Afghanistan’s foreign aid is being utilized in reconstruction efforts. In the 2002/2010 period, 51% of all foreign donations went to security while 49% of the funds were used in development. In the 2002-2010 period, over 28.1 billion dollars has been allocated to development efforts in Afghanistan. A large share of this foreign aid goes to infrastructure projects such as building of roads. Between 2002 and 2010, about 6.02 billion dollars were used in infrastructural projects.

Related paper: Violent crimes in America

Agriculture and rural development has been major beneficiaries of foreign aid in Afghanistan. In the 2002-2010 period, 5.44 billion dollars were allocated in the agriculture and rural development sector. About three quarters of Afghans live in the rural areas. As such, agriculture and rural development are integral in achieving a high economic growth. The education sector also received 1.75 billion dollars. Other areas which are major beneficiaries of foreign aid include the health sector, governance, social protection, and the private sector. In order to spruce up development in the country, the government launched the National Solidarity Programme (NSP) which is hailed as the most impactful development program (“World Bank Group,” 2013). Since inception in 2003, the program has financed over 65,000 community development projects. The major goal of these projects is to enable those who live in rural areas to access basic services and improve governance. Under this program, households are given up to a maximum of $200 for approved projects.

The Afghanistan leadership has taken measures to improve the security situation in the country. Since 2001, a staggering 25 billion dollars in foreign aid has been spent on improving the security situation in the country. The Afghanistan leadership has specifically utilized these funds in strengthening the country’s military forces to fight insurgents. In the 2001-2010 period, the security sector used about 51% of the total foreign aid on improving security. This is more spending compared to all other sectors combined (Totakhail, 2011).

The extension of foreign aid in Afghanistan has significantly contributed to reduction in poverty and low incidences of warfare. The major aim of foreign aid in the region has been to stabilize the nation that is reeling from the effects of decade long war. According to Kapstein & Kathuria (2012), foreign aid has the capacity to improve economic growth and development of the country. This report asserts that without foreign aid, Afghanistan would not be able to rebuild the economy. As earlier mentioned, agriculture and rural development sectors have heavily benefited from foreign funds. These two sectors are critical in job creation especially for the rural areas. The Afghanistan government under the former president Hamid Karzai was greatly determined on creating gainful employment opportunities for the citizens with an aim to avert counterinsurgencies. Investing in infrastructure projects has resulted in numerous job opportunities in the region. Nonetheless, foreign aid can have little impact on reducing poverty especially when incidences of corruption and misuse of donor funds are rampant.

Extension of foreign aid also reduces warfare in the Afghanistan region. According to Kapstein & Kathuria (2012), the “winning hearts and minds” (WHAM) theory greatly applies in the region. This theory is hedged on the assumptions that when the population is not satisfied with the leadership, it will most likely favor the insurgents making them stronger. Foreign aid improves the economic performance of the country. As more people become engaged in productive activities, there is a lower likelihood of joining the insurgency. This has the overall impact of reducing conflicts as the government has the majority support. The government is able to directly channel foreign aid to efforts that contribute to overall stability of the country. For instance, Afghanistan government have bolstered the Police Force as well as the Afghan National Army (ANA) using donor funds. The two arms of government have greatly helped in establishing peace in the region by crushing the insurgents.


Kapstein, E., & Kathuria, K. (2012). , E., & Kathuria, K. (2012). Economic Assistance in Conflict Zones: Lessons from Afghanistan. CGD Policy Paper 013. Washington DC:         Center for Global Development.

Roberts, R. (2009). Reflections on the Paris Declaration and Aid Effectiveness in Afghanistan,    Kabul. Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Totakhail, M. L. (2011). Foreign aid and economic development in Afghanistan. University of     Erfurt.

World Bank Group. (2013). World Bank releases randomized impact evaluation of           Afghanistan’s National Solidarity Programme. The World Bank.

World Bank Group. (2014). Afghanistan in Transition: Looking beyond 2014. The World Bank. Retrieved from:

ING Life

Case Study 2: ING Life

Case Study 2: ING Life

Technology is rapidly evolving in the modern business world and thus the need for ING Life to embrace new and emerging technologies. New inventions and innovations are coming up and any serious business has to understand the changes that occur in its technological environment. This will ensure that they stay competitive and keep up with the market trends otherwise they will lose business to the competition. There are various risks and difficulties that businesses face in their day to day operations through interactions with their environment and to deal with them, they would have to understand and classify the risks.

The internet, which is widely used as a medium of communication in different geographical areas, is one of the public infrastructures which ING Life heavily depends on for normal business operations. Despite the multiple benefits associated with using the internet, it may come at a high cost to the business.  The internet poses numerous risks and difficulties that majority of businesses must face. As such, businesses must keep on assessing their preparedness to face the risks. This should be done on a regular basis, since technology is fast evolving, and without overlooking anything because that may lead to serious damages to the business. Online security breaches has become so common that one would think that businesses would always stay alert for these yet so many are still caught unawares when some of these breaches unexpectedly occur. This is brought about by failure to take the necessary precautions (Joe 2010).

Related paper: Desktop Virtualization

ING Life continues to face an enormous challenges, just like other businesses that depend on the internet. This is mostly in the form of cybercrimes perpetrated by malicious hackers, crackers and attackers. A Hacker is one who is well conversant with computer technology, computer programming and hardware. Hackers utilize the set of these skills to gain access to sensitive business information which they use to commits acts fraud. The hackers’ main motive is to learn about programming and take over another business’s system. On the other hand, crackers get access to sensitive business information which they use to steal confidential client information or interfering with the programming of the hacked system network. Lastly, attackers cause chaos in order to make a name for themselves by targeting various sites where they utilize information that they have gotten from the internet and by doing this they create computer viruses or worms that will interfere with the normal systems functioning.

Security is a major concern for any business operation especially with increased technology; firms have to ensure that they safe guard their data from unauthorized access; they also have to ensure that their data is kept safe from theft, loss or mismanagement. Data theft is likely to happen when employees use their personal mobile gadgets to share data or access   company information which significantly increases the risks for the business. Some of the security breaches that occur are caused by employees either maliciously or unintentionally. In order to ensure that their data is safeguarded, ING Life must put in place appropriate precautions such as installing the necessary security software. A good security software can be Cisco pix firewall, a web-to-host software which is used on secure socket layer (Joe, 2010).

Related paper: Environmental Assessment Group of the IEEE-Standards Research

Cisco Pix firewall has the ability to reach and connect to a wider audience because it operates on 1.7 gigabytes per second (Behrens, Riley, & Khan, 2005). Since ING Life needs to reach a wider audience comprising of their increasing number of brokers, Cisco Pix firewall would be the best fit for this line of business. It can enhance the security of ING Life through its numerous features such as state full inspection firewall, IPSec and L2TP/PPTP which is based on virtual private network (VPN). Its content filtering capabilities ensures that it detects any unauthorized entries. The secure perimeters between the networks controlled by the firewall is maintained by Adaptive Security Algorithm (ASA). Incoming and outgoing data is managed by putting in place policies to every entry.

Web-to-host software is whereby a business ensures that it creates a website that enhances client interactions with the business. The website is supported by web hosting services through the use of secure socket layer (SSL) which uses keys and encryptions to secure information sharing between different computes. This is applied by a majority of web users (Stallings, 2009). This ensures to a great extent that information is secure because it operates in two protocols namely records protocol and handshake protocol. In these, authentication is required before an encrypted secure socket layer connection is established.  By having a security consultant, ING Life will avoid one or two risks that might have been overlooked because the consultants understand most of these threats and are able to detect them on time and find ways to counter them.

Related paper: Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

A business can never be fully secure while operating online. To be safe from these breaches, unauthorized access to company information, theft of information, loss or mismanagement as mentioned in paragraph four, it’s always better to keep track of the changes that take place in the technology front. As much as ING Life has put in place measures to ensure security in their servers, they need to know that innovations in terms of security software occur such that systems must be updated on a regular basis.

The extranet is an online database system that allows businesses to share important information with their clients and suppliers. It is whereby internet can be accessed by both members who are within the network systems but on the other hand it also allows for users who are outside of the network system to gain access to the servers.

The extranet is not secure as the intranet because it is internet based and thus prone to hackers, attackers and crackers meaning that confidential information’s can fall into the wrong hands and cause major damages to a business. The maintenance cost for the extranet server is usually very high which may increase business expenditure (Tan & Wiley InterScience, 2010). The employees of the business will have to be trained on how the system works which translates to additional costs to ensure that this is achieved. The software and hardware used in installation of the system are also very costly. Companies which opt to use the intranet to connect should ensure that they have proper procedures and guidelines on how the system operates.


Behrens, T., Riley, C., & Khan, U. (2005). Cisco PIX firewalls: Configure, manage, &     troubleshoot. Rockland, Mass: Syngress Pub.

Joe, J. (2010). Internet Security and Your Business –Knowing the Risks. Retrieved from:   

Stallings, W. (2009). Business data communications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice   Hall.

Tan, H. C., & Wiley InterScience (Online service). (2010). Capture and reuse of project   knowledge in construction. Chichester, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.



Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

Internet traffic to an organization’s web page is a fundamental component of the company’s ability to conduct its business through the internet. It is a frustrating experience when a specific website is not reachable, or the access is slow (Zhang, 2012). Basically, there are two types of internet traffic: elastic and inelastic internet traffic. Elastic traffic can adjust, over wide ranges, to changes in delay and throughout across the internet and still meets the requirements of its application. On the other hand, inelastic traffic does not easily adapt, if at all, changes in delay and throughout across the internet. Currently, web traffic is about one trillion bits per second and surprisingly, it is on the rise, and soon it will hit three tbps.

Names are assigned to varied genres of devices in the modern networks, workstation, servers, and routers. A well-designed naming model should enable users to access the created device by name. The name of the sources indicates what to check while an address shows its location (Li & Chen, 2012). Most network protocols always require the parent device to obtain a network address, and the end user system must map this address to a name.

Developing an addressing and naming model for ten departments

For a company that consists of ten departments that have 1000 employees, there is a need to design 9 Local Area Network (LAN) with equal geographical separation. For the network to work effectively and efficiently, it would be prudent if each LAN can contain more than forty-five computers. The Information Technology unit of an entity bears the responsibility for developing an address and a name model in the organization (Ash, 2007). The organization should use a common data center of around twenty-five backed enterprise servers and routers. All these servers should have a single data center operation. For easy identification and avoidance of confusion, names of these servers should contain a location code. When a device has more than one interface, then all these devices should be mapped to a single common name.

Developing an addressing and naming model for equal separation by geography

Deploying multiple tenants in a shared infrastructure optimizes resources utilization at a lower cost but requires designs that address secure tenant separation to insecure end-to-end path isolation. The virtualized multi-tenant data center architecture should use a path isolation technique to divide a shared infrastructure logically into multiple virtual networks. The architectures should start by installing network layer 3 (L3) separations. L3 provides tenant isolation with separated dedicated per-tenant routing and forwarding avoiding inter-tenant traffic within the data unless configured (Ash, 2007). Separating network layer 2 (L2) will provide isolation and identification of tenant traffic across the L2 domain and across shared links. Moreover, by having network service separation will provide unique policies at the VLAN level of granularity.

Developing an addressing and naming model for a common data center

A good user experience depends on predictable performance within the data center network. By installing Ethernet networks, the company can bridge the performance and scalability gap between capacity-oriented clusters and purpose built custom systems architectures(Li & Chen, 2012).. This data center should be a home for one or more processors where to compute resources should be arranged into racks and allocated as clusters consisting of five hosts. These five hosts should be orchestrated to exploit thread-level parallelism central to most internet workloads through dividing incoming requests into parallel subtasks. The cluster-application model should be shared among multiple applications.

Related paper: Florida Department of Management Services


Analyzing the functional problems of throughput, delay and packet loss

Elastic Internet traffic can easily reconcile, over wide ranges, to changes in stall and throughput across the web and can still fulfill the needs of its applications. By installing TCP based internet, traffic on personal connection reconciles to congestion by decreasing the rate at which information is presented to the communication system (Zhang, 2012). The routers on the communication systems have a responsibility of receiving and forwarding packets. TCP notices packet loss and carries through retransmissions to ensure trusty messaging.

Analyzing how DNS works

The DNS would be used in the addressing and naming part of the plan. The DNS is a hierarchical distributed naming model for computing. The DNS will offer to support the internet infrastructure by providing a distributed and fairly robust mechanism that resolves Internet host names into IP addresses back into the host names. Moreover, the DNS will provide support to other internet directories like lookup capabilities to retrieve information pertaining to DNS name servers and mail exchangers.


Cyberspace is an enormous invisible world that connects millions of computer to each other. For effective and efficient operations of a ten department organization, designing 9 LAN with a backup of five enterprise servers and routers will ensure the free flow of data in the organization. For tenants who are geographically separated, implementation of the virtualized multi-tenant data center should ensure resource optimization (Zhang, 2012). Moreover, Ethernet networks installation will help bridge information gap in an infrastructure. However, designing of a good TCP will notice packet loss and carry through retransmissions which will ensure that there is trusty messaging within and without the organization. Notably, the DNS will provide robust mechanism to resolve all Internet host names. Poor internet traffic can be attributed to the absence of traffic infrastructure and low level of computer penetration.

Related paper: Requirements for the Corporate Computing Function


Ash, G. (2007). Traffic engineering and QoS optimization of integrated voice & data networks. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Li, T. & Chen, S. (2012). Traffic measurement on the internet. New York, NY: Springer.

Zhang, J. (2012). ICLEM 2012. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers.

demand Analysis of Nike Air Jordan Basketball Shoes

Demand Analysis of Nike Air Jordan Basketball Shoes

Demand Analysis of Nike Air Jordan Basketball Shoes

Nike is one of the most powerful brands in the world. The company is primarily involved in the design, making and marketing of footwear and apparel products. Nike has a worldwide distribution of its products. Nike’s pair of Air Jordan basketball shoes are among the most expensive, retailing at $185. Since 2003, a pair of Air Jordan basketball shoes averaged between $160 and $190. By using economic principles, it is possible to see why Nike charges this amount. First, there is a high demand for Nike shoes globally. The high demand is driven by production of quality and innovative footwear products that appeal to a large segment of the consumers. Nike made use of innovative ad campaigns and promotions to market its products to the consumers. Superstars such as Michael Jordan were used to promote the brand name to the consumers. The result was a high brand awareness and more demand for the company’s products.

Thus due to the high demand, Nike is able to charge a premium price and still make sales. Another reason is because the Nike’s Air Jordan basketball shoes are marketed as luxury goods. Luxury goods do not necessarily obey the law of demand where price increases leads to decline in demand of the product in question. In luxury goods, higher prices contribute to the product’s allure. This means that consumers value more the luxury goods that are priced higher and hence they are willing to offer a higher price in order to acquire the same goods. These type of products are commonly known as Veblen goods, in which Nike’s Air Jordan basketball shoes may be categorized. The demand of Veblen goods is proportional to high price, which contradicts the law of demand (Deepashree, 2013).


Deepashree, N. (2013). General economics: For CA Common Proficiency Test (CPT). New         Delhi: McGraw Hill Education (India.


Florida Department of Management Services

Florida Department of Management Services

Florida Department of Management Services

What security mechanisms are need to protect the DMS systems from both state employees and users accessing over the internet?

There a two security mechanisms that can greatly help in protecting the DMS system from threats caused by state employees and users either knowingly or unknowingly. These security mechanisms include use of Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) and Virtual Private Networks (Shoniregun, 2007). Internet Protocol Security is defined as a protocol suite that enhances security of internet protocol communications through encrypting IP packet data for every communication session. IPsec can be applied in implementing mutual authentication between various agents and also in determining the cryptographic keys necessary during each session. IPsec can be used in enhancing security primarily of data flows through three major ways. First, it can be used to secure data flows between security gateways. This is also referred to as network-to-network protection. Second, it can protect data flows between a pair of hosts, and lastly, between host and security gateway.

Virtual Private Networks can also be used to protect the DMS systems. Virtual Private Networks are especially important where there is use of Wi-Fi hotspots which may not be secure (Douligeris & Serpanos, 2007). Virtual Private Networks are import since they enhance the extension of private networks across unsecure networks such as public network. A Virtual Private Network enables users to exchange data over public networks in a way which seems like the computing devices are connected directly through a private network. Virtual Private Networks can be developed by creating virtual point-to-point connection. This is achieved through the use of traffic encryption, dedicated connections or by using virtual tunneling protocols. In the state system such as Florida Department, the employees would use their work credentials to authenticate while logging onto the DMS system via the VPN access. This enhances security.

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Visit the DMS Web site and list the major services found there. Discuss the relative merits of each.

Florida Department of Management Services provides a number of key services through its DMS Web site. The web site provides state employees and agencies with business operation and human resource support (“Florida Department of Management Services” 2016).

Human resource support

Human resource support is one of the major services provided under the DMS web site. Human resource support is mainly involved with the running of the state personnel system. It is subdivided further into four sections namely Florida Retirements System, Human Resource Management, Insurance Benefits, and People First.

The Florida Retirement System provides services related to management of retirees and administration of pension. The division serves a number or roles concerning retirement planning. For instance, it is responsible for administering retirement benefits, overseeing the general management of the pension fund, monitoring, ensuring compliance to state and federal policies, providing financial advice to members, administration of debt services, and among other roles. Human Resource Management pertains to the management of the state’s entire workforce. The human resource management division in conjunction with agency personnel offices develops employment guidelines, strategies and practices affecting all employees. The Insurance Benefits division formally known as the Division of State Group Insurance (DSIG) is responsible for developing appropriate insurance cover for state employees. People First division concerns the provision of human resource services through an information management system. Some of the services provided include attendance and leave services, organizational management, payroll management, and among others (“Florida Department of Management Services” 2016).

The merits of the above is that state employees can easily access services at any time. They can also be able to access services on their own without having to visit physical offices. Another merit is that the system reduces the operating costs incurred by the state government. This is because it reduces the need for personnel who would be required to provide the same kind of services provided by the system.

Business operations

The DMS web site provides a number of business operations of the state government. The major services provide under business operations include fleet management, real estate development and management, and state purchasing. The state purchasing division enables the state government to give the best value for goods and services. This division includes items such as vendor information, information about state contracts, details on how to do business with the state, information on the state’s emergency network, and training and certification with relation to public purchasing. In real estate and development sector, DMS web site contains information about the general management of the state’s pool of facilities. This contains details on leasing, operations and maintenance and building and construction regulations. The fleet management division is concerned with managing Florida’s aircrafts, private prisons, and federal property.

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The merit of this is that it enables Florida provide high quality services to customers. Use of the DMS web site also enables the state to lower operational costs. The revenues saved can be used for other development purposes.

Suggest improvements to existing services and suggest new services that should be added.

A new service that could be added is the online purchasing system that will enable users to make purchases online. Users will be able to access vendor information online as they order products. This system will enhance trade in the state. Another service that should be added is a web-based application that enables users to access general information about the state government. This platform should allow the state government to post government reports, disseminate crucial information to the public, and possibly receive feedback from the same public.


Florida Department of Management Services. (2016). About. Retrieved from:   

In Douligeris, C., & In Serpanos, D. N. (2007). Network security: Current status and future          directions. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press.

Shoniregun, C. A. (2007). Synchronizing Internet Protocol Security (SIPSec). New York:             Springer.

Requirements for the Corporate Computing Function

Requirements for the Corporate Computing Function

Requirements for the Corporate Computing Function

The new policy identifies meeting the information requirements of management as one of the key objectives in the requirements for the corporate computing function. A project’s life cycle is determined by the ability to meet requirements. In information management, the system should be able meet the needs of users or otherwise it is deemed an information systems failure (Watson & Jones, 2013). The functionality of a system is of critical concern to the management. The functionality of an information management system relates to what the system should do and how it should be done. Functionality is one of the key requirements of management in an information management system. Another critical aspect that management is concerned with is the performance of the system. Performance requirements in an information management system are met by the number of transactions the system can handle per second, response time for any transaction, and resource utilization in terms of disk and memory.

The management requires a reliable information management system. Reliability in a system is expressed in terms of availability or hours of use, low defect rate of the system due to bugs, and accuracy as defined per outline standards. Reliability is a critical information requirement of management. The management is also interested in a system that provides supportability. Supportability is in relation to the final system requirements such as ease of maintenance, coding standards, and naming conventions. Another key information requirement of management is security of data stored in the system. The system must ensure that data is protected from unauthorized use. Usability is also a quality the management looks at before acquiring an information management system. A system should be able to specify task durations for typical tasks. Usability is also assessed based on the time it takes for employees to become proficient in the use of the system. It should be relatively easy to train employees to use the system.

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The second point is critical and should be included among the first three points to be rolled out in the first phase. This point concerns efforts to contain the capital and operations cost in provision of computing services within the organization. It is critical for the business to manage its operational costs and include budgets for capital. Operations budget and capital budgets make up the organizational budget. The operating budget of an organization reflects all the planned activities within the financial year (Webber, 2007). It shows planned expenditures on operations and expected sources of revenue as well as a timeframe of the revenue inflows. The capital budget shows the financial position of the organization and includes: assets, liabilities, equity, and short term and long term planning (Webber, 2007). Sound financial management requires an organization to have a better understanding of its capital structure. The organization makes use of operations budget to control costs or expenditure. As such, the organization should roll out plans to contain capital and operations costs.

The other important point during the roll out is to make the work of employees enjoyable as well as productive. Employees are the most valuable resources in the organization. The performance of employees directly impacts that of the entire organization. Satisfied, motivated, and loyal employees are the basis of competitive organizations worldwide. High employee satisfaction results in corresponding increase in quality of services rendered, improvement in product quality, encourages innovation, and increase in the overall productivity (Bruce, 2011). Satisfied employees help the organization attract highly qualified and talented job seekers who contribute more to the productivity and growth of the organization. Without the entire support of employees, the organization cannot meet its goals. Motivation is a key aspect in making the work of employee enjoyable and improving productivity. The organization should implement strategies to motivate employees such as providing opportunities for growth or through rewards.


The last point which should be included during the roll out is the need to meet the information requirements of the management. Meeting the information requirements of management is of critical concern to the organization. Most information management systems fail because they lack clearly stipulated objectives. It is important to ensure that management needs or requirements of information products are achieved. Fulfilling the information requirements will give the management an upper hand in coordinating various activities in the organization. Meeting the information requirements is critical since it helps in decision making by the management. The management is responsible for making simple to complex decisions in the organization. In order to make the right decision, the management must be able to access all the necessary data or information. The management also requires information for policy formulation and establishment of management plans.

The topic of security is important and should be included in the mission statement of the organization. The CIO should thus include the following point in the mission statement: provide security against physical breach and safeguard loss of sensitive data. Security in modern organizations is two way in nature; physical safeguards meant to protect the organization from acts of burglary and data security meant to protect sensitive data against loss through cyber criminals. The organization should ensure that physical safeguards are installed to control movement of people within the organization. Security equipment such as CCTV and movement detectors should also be installed to minimize cases of theft. Physical barriers are often placed strategically to restrict the movement of people in the organization. Physical safeguards are not only meant to enhance security from outsiders but also employees. Employees should not be allowed to move in areas where sensitive files or documents are kept without proper monitoring.

It is critical to safeguard sensitive data in the organization. In the recent period, incidences of cybercrime have increased tremendously. Loss of sensitive data through cybercriminals may lead to high losses and in worst cases collapse of the organization (Brenner, 2012). Currently, organizations rely on management information systems for basic operations such as transaction processing. There is an increasing reliance on technology and the internet for facilitating operations via online platforms where users can easily access services. More recently, the mobile phone has become an important platform through which organizations can provide a variety of services to clients. Nonetheless, the heavy reliance on technology and the internet is becoming increasingly under the threat of cyberattacks. Securing customer data is imperative in the modern digital environment. Organizations must therefore invest heavily in securing client data against unauthorized use.


Brenner, S. W. (2012). Cybercrime and the law: Challenges, issues, and outcomes. Boston:         Northeastern University Press.

Bruce, A. (2011). A briefcase book Manager’s guide to motivating employees. New York:            McGraw-Hill.

Watson, D., & Jones, A. (2013). Digital forensics processing and procedures: Meeting the             Requirements of ISO 17020, ISO 17025, ISO 27001 and best practice requirements.          Amsterdam: Syngress.

Webber, D. (2007). Integrating Current and Development Budgets: A Four-Dimensional Process.             OECD Journal on Budgeting, 7(2): 2-18.

Environmental Assessment Group of the IEEE

Environmental Assessment Group of the IEEE-Standards Research

Environmental Assessment Group of the IEEE -Standards Research

The Environmental Assessment Group of the IEEE is currently engaged in developing standards that outline environmental performance criteria of electronic products. The aim of the group is to ensure a safe design of electronic products to reduce their impact on the environment. The group develops standards for design and manufacturing and which can be applied in the industry by governments, consumers, corporate bodies, and institutions. The group plays an important role in enabling corporations to earn market recognition.

The IEEE 802 is of great significance in networking. IEEE 802 defines LAN standards for various physical components applied in a network such as cabling and interface cards (Stallings, 2009). The networking standards identified under the IEEE 802 define the physical layer specifications that are applicable to Ethernet and wireless technologies. By identifying defining standards in this field, IEEE 802 ensures that equipment from different manufacturers are able to share information and at high speeds. Some of the modulation methods established by the standard ensure that the networks are less vulnerable to interference. The standard recommends the use of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) specifications to facilitate path sharing. The standard specifies the modulations for use such as phase-shift key (PSK) and the recent complementary code keying (CCK) which has higher speeds. Due to the complex nature of local network, IEEE 802 breaks it down into different segments such as medium access control (MAC), Logical Link Control (LLC), and the physical segment (Stallings, 2009).

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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a standard-setting agency that is involved in development of standards applying to a variety of subject areas. ISO is a voluntary agency, however, majority of the member bodies are governmental standards institutions. The purposes of ISO are to ensure easy flow of goods and services in the international arena and to enhance cooperation in the areas involving technology, science, intellect, and economic activity.  As such, ISO is involved in a broad range of sectors such as developing standards in the solar energy sector or even in the manufacture of screw threads. In the communication sector, ISO has been instrumental in developing standards guiding the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications architecture. ISO jointly develops standards in the networking and data communications sector. The joint effort is conducted in association with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In information technology area, ISO focuses on developing software standards. The agency is not concerned with hardware in this area.

ANSI refers to the American National Standards Institute, a non-governmental organization involved in overseeing development standards for various products, systems, processes, and services mainly in the U.S. ANSI is involved in developing standards in a variety of areas such as acoustic services, energy distribution, construction sector, dairy and livestock production, and other areas (“ANSI,” 2016). The agency also focuses on accreditation of standards developed by other bodies such as government agencies or other organizations. The main purpose of ANSI is to improve the global competitiveness of various local products by ensuring that standards organizations follow the correct protocol in developing procedures of standards. In the international front, ANSI promotes the application of U.S. standards in other countries as well. Although ANSI is involved in enhancing standards in technical areas of other agencies such as ISO and IEC, it is not the most important in communication technology since it is mainly concerned with oversight roles.

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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is another agency involved in development of standards. IEEE was formed by engineers and scientists. The main purpose of the agency is to advance education and technical knowhow in the fields of telecommunications, electronics engineering, computer engineering, software development, information technologies, and other related fields (“IEEE Standards Association” 2016). IEEE seeks to advance innovations and development of new knowledge in the area of technology. In the area of standards, IEEE is one of the top standards development bodies in the industrial sector. The agency develops standards for various sectors such as information technology sector, telecommunications, energy and electrical power, consumer electronics, and other related sectors. IEEE boasts of the largest conglomeration of technical professionals. IEEE is thus the most important for communication technology. Its core objectives are centered on improving technical knowledge in various technology fields including communications.

There is a great need for federal regulating bodies such as NIST to ensure conformance to standards and ensure the welfare of the general public. NIST is a federal agency involved in setting standards for IT, formulation of metrics and in enhancing cybersecurity. NIST is important as a federal regulating authority since it focuses on areas that other regulating bodies have shunned such as cybersecurity and big data collections. Other non-governmental agencies may not have the capacity to engage in all sectors yet these may have significant impacts on the public as well as organizations. Sensitive issues such as national security are better handled by federal regulating bodies since this minimizes chances of outside interference. Federal regulating bodies such as NIST act as advisory bodies to other organizations. Lastly, NIST and other federal bodies brings together all other organizations in a bid to develop interoperable standards among them (“NIST,” 2015).



ANSI. (2016). About ANSI. Retrieved from:  

IEEE Standards Association. (2016). Consumer Electronics Standards. Retrieved from:   

ISO. (2016). Maintenance Agencies and Registration Authorities. Retrieved from:   

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2015). Smart Grid Advisory Committee             (SGAC) Report. Retrieved from:    05-12_with_Attachments.pdf

Stallings, W. (2009). Standards Organizations. Retrieved from: