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The lives of Fredrick Douglass and Harriet Tubman

Question

The Lives of Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman

Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman are two of the most famous African Americans in history.  Both were prominent abolitionists who escaped slavery and helped lead numerous other slaves to freedom during the time of the Civil War.  Although Douglass and Tubman share many similarities, they also have some differences between them, such as in the way in which they escaped slavery. 

In a well-developed essay, compare and contrast Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman, explaining their similarities and differences.  Provide facts and examples to support your comparisons.

Sample paper

The lives of Fredrick Douglass and Harriet Tubman

Frederick Douglass in the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and Harriet Tubman in her work and publications such as the road to freedom, both wrote about their lives as slaves in America telling very compelling stories.  As with many other slaves, they both shared a vision of opportunity, and that vision drove them through numerous comparable, yet unique deterrents. Despite the fact that both Douglass and Tubman persevered through numerous hardships in their attempt to get freedom as a slave, sex affected the route in which their servitude was experienced. There were a wide range of routes in which educational encounters for Tubman, who was a female slave, contrasted from Douglass who was a subjugated male.

Douglass felt it was an imperative need to be literate.  When his mistress, Mrs. Auld, first taught him to read and then his master, Mr. Auld, objected to this, this showed Douglass the importance of literacy.  As an example of how important it was to Douglass to learn how to read and write he stated, “Though conscious of the difficulty of learning without a teacher, I set out with high hope, and a fixed purpose, at whatever cost of trouble, to learn how to read.”  In view of this objective, Douglass did whatever it took to take in the essentials of perusing and composing. He considered a wide range of crafty approaches to pick up this learning (Douglass, et al. 77). Douglass vouched for utilizing cunning and gift on the young men of the group as a method for learning and rehearsing his letters. Indeed, even as a youthful kid, Douglass understood that information was power. Proficiency gave Douglass the ability to advance the quality to free himself from the individuals who might keep him uninformed and a slave.

On the other hand, Harriet Tubman was not lucky enough to acquire education, but that did not prevent her from becoming one of the celebrated and brave people in history. Her status as a woman and a slave legally prohibited her from getting education considering that back then it was against the law to teach slaves. Tubman barely mentions the use of reading and writing as a way to fight against her oppressors but rather widely talks of her struggle to defend her brothers and sister from being sold to other plantation after her first three sisters were sold away.  Additionally, much of her fight against oppression and slavery focused on taking slaves from Maryland to Free states such as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania or Canada (Rudisel and Blaisdell 59). Unlike Fredrick who used education as his main weapon to fight slavery, her strength comes from close friends and family members which prompted her to become a spy and an expert in the use of weapons prompting her to become the first woman to lead an army to war during the civil war.

One of the similarities between Douglass and Tubman is that both were slaves who had the zeal and willingness to overcome their immediate problems for the greater good of the black nation. Both icons had to fight their way to prominence in different ways and manners fights. Their immediate state as slaves presented a lot of obstacles and challenges, but their perseverance and patience finally paid off when they escaped to freedom (Rudisel and Blaisdell 99).  Douglass clearly states that he had previously attempted to escape slavery on two other occasions but did not succeed. However, on the third attempt with the help of Anna Murray he successfully made his way to New York. On the other hand, Harriet has to patiently wait for the death of her owner before she could find her way to Philadelphia.  Her patience and endurance to all mistreatment finally came to an end.

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick, et al. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself: Authoritative Text Contexts Criticsm. 2017.

Rudisel, Christine, and Robert Blaisdell. Slave Narratives of the Underground Railroad. 2014.

Related:

Whitman, Dickinson, Longfellow and the Early Writers

Frederick Douglass’s Quotation

Question

Responding to Frederick Douglass’s Quotation

Frederick Douglass once said, “If there is no struggle there is no progress.”

Based on what you have learned about Douglass, write a multi-paragraph essay explaining what you think he meant by this statement. Make sure to include details and examples to support your interpretation

Sample paper

Frederick Douglass’s Quotation

America is one of the few countries that extensively practices slavery and racial segregation back in the 18th and 19th centuries. As a result of mistreatment of the black community there emerged powerful and prominent African-American leaders who tirelessly fought for the freedom of their tribesmen and Fredrick Douglass was one of them. Frederick was a famous American abolitionist, author, and orator. He was born a slave and knew all the troubles and challenges of being black back them which prompted him to escape at the age of 20 and went on to become a prominent anti-slave activist. Through his autobiographies, he extensively highlights the plight of slaves throughout the American society. Through his speeches and editorials, he inspired, persuaded as well as stimulated African-Americans and all world leaders to protests against slavery and racism. Also, he gave an unstoppable voice of seek after his kindred tribesmen, grasped abolitionist legislative issues and lectured his own image of American standards (Kytle 95). In this manner, through his work, Fredrick is recognized as a standout amongst the most vital dark American pioneers of the nineteenth century.

One of the important and famous quotes made by Fredrick “If there is no struggle there is no progress.” continues to inspire most people from different backgrounds in the world today. Fredrick made this quote at a time when black Americans were facing racing and segregation in America and were in the process of fighting for their freedom which would promote equality thus reducing segregation. The quote was meant to encourage black Americans to take actions and fight for their freedom because their goals and objectives could not be achieved by merely talking. Thus, according to Fredrick, those who wanted freedom from their colonial masters had to embrace and accept agitation because crops cannot grow without plowing up the ground (Douglass, et al. 79). As a result, black Americans had to accept that they would not be handed their freedom and equality on a silver platter.  They had to sweat and fight for it even if it meant to spill blood and take weapons to fight the white colonial masters.

The general sentiment of the human being is that man who will not fight for himself when he has the power and means to do so is not worth being fought for by others.  Therefore, black Americans had to show the will, the power and the ability to stand up in the face of the white settlers and demand their freedom for them to rally support from other races. Actions speak louder than works.  As a result, African-Americans needed to take up the initiative to start the antislavery and abolitionist movements as well as armed struggle since who would be free need to strike the blow themselves (Douglass 100). However, it is worth noting that in this concept the word struggle may be used to refer to different kinds of battle be it moral or physical, but those who want freedom or progress must pay the price.

Any human being who pays little or no attention and value to freedom for himself may find it difficult to value it for others.  Therefore, through the struggle for freedom, black-Americans would know the value of freedom and progress and thus, they would do anything and everything to guard it and to ensure they do not lose it again. Therefore, any progress or development must come as a result of struggle or a price that the parties involved must pay.

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. “NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS.” Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, pp. 1-117.

Douglass, Frederick, et al. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself: Authoritative Text Contexts Criticsm. 2017.

Kytle, Ethan J. “Frederick Douglass, Perfectionist Self-Help, and a Constitution for the Ages.” Romantic Reformers and the Antislavery Struggle in the Civil War Era, pp. 72-113.

Related:

Whitman, Dickinson, Longfellow and the Early Writers

Tonga

Tonga

Question 1

Many Tongans migrate from their native countries to the United States for different reasons.  However, the most popular reasons include relaxed migration policies for Tongans, to get better opportunities regarding employment and investments and out of missionary influence (“Tonga,” 2012,).  However, this practice is changing in recent times as the U.S strives to control the number of immigrants in the country. I only thought people migrate to the U.S to further their studies and for opportunities but my assumption has changed.

Question 2

The quote means that moving from Tonga to other countries in search of greener pastures given the economic conditions in the country is the dream of every Tongan citizen. Tongans have a culture of giving gifts which they often refer to kavenga meaning burden.  Therefore, to be in a position to afford these gifts, they have to work in what they perceive as greener pastures.

Question 3

One of the changing traditions of Tonga people is the holding of Tau fakalokua which is an evening party where farmers and fishers would meet in the evening to discuss the achievements of the day over a drink. However, with the increasing change in the money economy, cash cropping and commercial fishing this tradition are slowly fading away as there is less time for informal meetings (“Tonga,” n.d.). One of the American traditions that are slowly changing is the practice of eating fast food and taking too much alcohol during holidays.  With the increasing awareness of obesity, the drinking and eating habits are slowly changing with time.

 

Question 4

The most surprising lesson from the book is the fact that Tonga’s economy entirely depends on non-monetary sector and remittances from immigrants especially from the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.

Question 5

What is the significance of kavenga to the people of Tonga?

 

References

Tonga. (2012). Connecting with Emigrants. doi:10.1787/9789264177949-22-en

Tonga. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of World Poverty. doi:10.4135/9781412939607.n694

Synchronization of Music Picture

Question

Explaining the history and development of the synchronization of music to picture, including the origins of streamers and punches.

Here is how composer Maurice Jarre uses the clock as well as streamers and punches in a live performance, as he conducts music from his score to “Passage to India.”

There are very few hard hits and when he misses s punch slightly, he just speeds up or slows down.

Sample paper

Synchronization of Music Picture

The beginning of synchronization of music picture has a history dated from late 1880s to early 1900s during the early development of films. According to Fielding (1967), what was referred as silent film was never silent because, the initial pictures were displayed with accompanying music. By 1900 most of theaters offered musical accompaniment to motion pictures. The initial attempt to synchronize picture and sounds was using phonograph technique, though it had inadequate sounds intensity and offered mediocre quality. During this time, sound synchronization could only be done for short films, since the records and turntables running time was limited. Between 1900 and 1913, there was development of more advanced synchronizing equipment that was mechanically coupled to projector, while the gramophone motor auxiliary was electrically controlled. This equipment which was named as Biophon was developed by Oskar Messer, and by 1913, it was installed to more than five hundred theaters (Fielding, 1967).

In 1919 there was invention of the Tri-Egon System by three Germans who include Hans Vogt, Joseph Masserole, and Josef Engl. The system permitted direct recording of the sound on film. Sound waves were converted by photo-electric cells to electrical impulses and later to light waves, and directly recorded on the film strip, as the soundtrack. In 1923, Dr. Lee De Forest from America developed an Audion 3-Elecctrode Amplifier synchronized sound system to address the amplification problem recorded in the past development. This enhanced sound synchronization even in the large auditorium. In 1926, Western Electric and Bell Telephone Laboratories developed Vitaphone system. This system was extensively used by Warner brothers in the United State. However, it was an expensive investment. Fox Film Corporation among others employed resistance to shift to sound films especially due to high cost involved. However, this did not kill the dream of Werner brothers. The Sound synchronization breakthrough was enhanced by ‘The Jazz Singer’; Warner Brother Film in 1927, where the main actor ad-libbed a part of synchronized dialogue. The impact was sensational, since it was the first incident of actor speaking lines, which were spontaneous and natural (Fielding, 1967).

Since the breakthrough of sound synchronization, the music industry experienced a number of evolutions which included the use of sound-track-disc to synchronize sound in the film. In the 1935, there was development of the hole punch in the film work print. This concept assisted the conductors by offering an accurate mark in sequences of film, to demonstrate particular points like the beginning of scene where music starts, essential signal points such as passionate kissing or a car crash, and the scene end, where music is cut off. The film’s hole punch attained through an office hole punch, generated a flutter or explosion of light to occur in the scene at a unique signal point, permitting the re-alignment of tempo by the conductor to fit the documented music score. This made everything better. The hole punch was enhanced by the discovery streamer, which is a diagonal slash put on the film surface, before the hole punch. This happens at any point between 2 and 4 seconds in time, giving conductor a warning to a cue point or an upcoming punch. This assisted in the performance. The two discoveries played a great role in music synchronization, especially in marking significant points in the film, from the beginning to the end (Philips, 2003).

References

Fielding, R. (1967).  A technological history of motion pictures and television: An anthology from the pages of the journal of the society of motion picture and television engineers. California: University of California Press.

Philips, A. (2003).  The history and mechanics of screen music. Sounds Australia No 61. Retrieved from http://musicinaustralia.org.au/index.php/The_History_and_Mechanics_of_Screen_Music

Related:

Interview Report-Summary of the Interviewee

The Future Outlook of Media Music for Composers

Question

Write an essay on the future outlook of media music for composers.  Some topics you discuss may include the following: 

The changing social media landscape and how that impacts career strategy for composers.

Streaming music and future of public performance royalties. (If most composers maintain a “comfortable” lifestyle due to their Pro royalties, and if those royalties are gradually going away due to the streaming music model…what does that say about the future viability of the profession of being a media composer?)  Or…is this entire premise completely wrong?

The importance of developing a brand. How much does successful branding play a role in getting hired on a project?

What a composer is worth?  How much can one charge for their services?  Why is there such a vast compensation difference for composers essentially all doing the same job?

The differences between traditional “employee” work, as seen in most unionized Entertainment industry jobs and the entrepreneurial /  “independent contractor” job of a media composer. 

The impact and influence of technology on the viability of someone making a successful living as a media composer.

Sample paper

The Future Outlook of Media Music for Composers

Media music has been experiencing a series of evolution after the sound synchronization breakthrough was recorded in the late 1920s. Since then, media music composition has been given high level of attention, with majority of film composers focusing on producing unique and highly sophisticated music to enhance their marketability. However, this is not without facing a number of challenges that range from change of technology to growing level of competition in the market, to an extent of some composers offering free services. Technological change is one of the factors influencing film music composition and dynamic changes in the music industry. Film composers are currently utilizing the real instruments to enhance and support their synthetic sound.  This may be not be needed tomorrow to satisfy the audience needs, especially since most of the audiences may not be able to differentiate between synthetic and real sound. Technology advancement is likely to enhance democracy in the composition act. New technology comes with new and endless chances to generate new sounds via new composition methods. The modern technology is thus anticipated to play a great role in changing media music composition dynamics. It is also expected to contribute a great deal in molding the film music composition future. This paper discusses the future outlook of the media music composers.

The Changing Social Media Landscape and How That Impacts Career Strategy for Composers

The world is experiencing extensive use of the internet and mobile devices to access social media platforms and network. Social media refers to the collection of applications that comprise of collaborative projects, blogs, multimedia sharing sites, and social networking sites. The growth and expansion of social media use has highly been associated to the growth of internet coverage in both developed and developing nations, and extensive use of smartphones across the globe. Based on 2018 statistics, there are over four billion individuals around the globe using the internet. Among them, over three billion individuals are said to use social media every month, with 90% of these individuals accessing their platforms of choice via mobile devices (Datareportal, 2019).  Social media is used for different purposes by different people. Some use it just for social networking, sharing with friends and relatives and advancing social network. On the contrary, there is a very large group of individuals who use social networks to market their businesses. Most organizations have considered opening social network page or platform to interact with their customers, especially through sharing information on new products or services advancement, or getting customers feedback. In other cases, individuals have taken into using social network to market their skills, talents, brand or their own products. This has highly made it easier for majorities to access the market and to attract a considerable number of audiences, compared to how the situation was before. This has highly enhanced growth of upcoming professionals with little market command, or those working alone and not under any organization or registered company.

The use of social media for marketing has been highly embraced in the music industry. With invention of video attachment in normal social media accounts such as YouTube, most upcoming composers are trying to produce their work without following the normal procedures followed in traditional production of music. This helps in cutting production expenses and increasing the chances of easy marketing of personal music skills and talent to the targeted audience. YouTube is one of the most extensively used social media platform in the world. YouTube is currently said to have more than 1.8 billion users each month, becoming the second highly used social media from Facebook that contain over two billion users. This increases the chances of modern music composers using YouTube to stream their music, a step that offers them a chance to reach their targeted audience. With this regard, social media is perceived as an important element in the future changes in the media music composition, by eliminating the complexity initially experienced in music composition and production, especially for beginners (McAndrew & Everett, 2015).

The Importance of Developing a Brand and Brand Success Role in Getting Hired On a Project

Brand development refers to the process of strengthening and creating the professional identification that define what one does. Brand represents a contemporary product features and characteristics that are unique and identifiable with a certain product or talent. Modern products or skills are only known by use of their brand. Brand stands for the perceptions of the consumers and the product sentiment and performance. It is therefore important for any individual to build his or her brand, with intention of making it intensely known and identifiable in the market. Music composers should focus on developing him or herself as a brand in the market. To do this, a composer must define him or herself as a unique brand with unique features that are only related to him or her. This can include the piece style where one gets into the market with a unique composition style that is hard to be copied and that defines a specific individual. The unique feature can also include creativity and high level of flexibility in ones composition among other features. These features play a great role in identifying a brand and in enhancing its marketability (Keller, 2009).

Another aspect that determined brand development and marketability is the brand strategy. This includes how one selects the brand name, brand logo, and brand slogan and the strategies used to introduce the brand into the market. Brand name, logo and slogan should play a great role in marketing the brand. The name should be attractive, easy to remember and somehow associated with the composer style. Brand development also includes using effective brand marketing strategy. A composer should be able to identify the targeted customers; films directors and producers, and consider using marketing strategies that will reach them. Some of the strategies include offering free composition as portfolio, opening webpage to offer parts of their products, having YouTube streams, working as a composer assistance where one can get chances of meeting more producers and directors under a famous composer, and maybe get a chance to sneak their portfolio. Targeting small productions that can easily take free services can also be used as a marketing strategy and brand development, among other strategies (Kayser, 2013).

Brand success is highly measured by the level of acceptability and demand in the market. A strong brand is likely to be loved by its targeted customers, and hence it is likely to be highly successful. Once a brand is successful, it is quite easy to sell the brand. In this case, a composer with a strong brand is highly likely to secure jobs, projects and contracts in the market without struggle. Such composers are highly likely to have a higher bargaining power in terms of payment. Successful brand in film composition is considerably expensive, since it is of high quality. This means it has a higher competitiveness in the market, and it is always likely to be sourced by directors of big projects that focus on quality. There is a high association between brand success and ability to secure jobs as a music film composer. It is therefore important for future music composers to focus on building their brand to make a strong brand, to be able to gain market dominance in this competitive field.

What a Composer is Worth?  How much can One Charge for their Services?  Why is there Such a Vast Compensation Difference for Composers Essentially All Doing the Same Job?

Music composer worth varies from one composer to another based on individual’s quality of compensation or brand strength. Majority of upcoming composers offer their services for free. This makes it hard for composers with low quality music or upcoming composers to secure a well-paying contract. In most cases, the payment varies based on individual experience, where those with high experience get a chance to secure well-paying projects compared to newbies. In addition to this, quality plays a great role in salary quotation of an individual composer. Famous composers with strong legacy in their music composition can charge higher than other composers with the same level of experience in terms of year of operations but without high performance legacy. Composers with unique style that is highly liked in the industry or that can fit in vast majority of films are in high demand in the market. This gives them a chance to have a higher price per minute of finished music bargaining power than replaceable composers. In addition, creative composers who are highly flexible, and easily introduce different styles to fit different scenes and still manage to maintain high quality are also highly marketable (UNIDO, 2013).

Based on the above discussed factors, composer worth varies greatly in this industry. In a normal lineup, their price varies from 50$ to $1000 per minute of complete music. However, the compensation of those with strong brand and legacy in the market varies greatly. Their pricing is way above the normal defined range, with some receiving tens of thousands for a single minute of complete music. This means, different composers can have different worth based on their content, skills, level of experience, creativity, style, level of development in the market, and directors’ trust in their ability to give quality music at any given time, in any given situation. The worth also varies based on individuals’ ability to market their skills. Those that are good in marketing their skills are likely to fetch better deals than those that are not able to market their brand.

The Differences between Traditional “Employee” Work and the Entrepreneurial or “Independent Contractor” Job of a Media Composer

The traditional employee work centers on establishing a standard working condition and compensation for different professionals working in the entertainment industry, based on individual qualification and level of experience. This is mostly enhanced by formation of unions that ensure that there are laws that dictates on professionals working condition, employment and dismissal terms, promotion, salary provision and salary addition, as well as workers disputes resolution in their place of work. On the other hand, independent contract job involves building one’s brand with the aim of commanding the market. Entrepreneurs focus on self-development to gain a high competitive advantage in a manner that they can command a high level of compensation, way beyond what is set in a traditional set up (Fim-Musicians.org, 2016).

The main difference between the traditional employee and the entrepreneurial or independent contractor is that, the latter always focus on self-improvement, to enhance their level of payment, while those in a traditional setup can only follow the set promotion and salary increment laws. In additional to this, entrepreneurial or independent contractors bargain for their pricing based on their level of performance. This creates a great difference in the operability of the two, and the levels of earning. Those in independent contract always focus on creating legacy and strong brand name to increase their chances of being rehired or re-contracted. On the contrary, those in unions or permanent employment only work as a routine to get their monthly pay. This limits their level of growth and development, as well as their ability to adapt the use of new technologies to enhance their competitiveness.

Composers in traditional form of employment are permanent workers with high job security and guaranteed salary, while those in entrepreneurial are in a business with high level of uncertainty. Entrepreneurs’ ability to remain in business is highly determined by their brand image in the market, quality of their compensation and their price competitiveness. Destruction of one’s brand image can result to lose of business. They thus invest a lot in protecting their brand image, and in improving their quality of performance, to improve their worth. The current high competition in the industry gives those entrepreneurial composers a higher chance to survive in the industry in the future, compared to those in traditional employment. This is due to the fact that as entrepreneurs try to remain competitive, they get to learn and to embrace technological changes taking place in their industry today. Those in traditional employment however do not put extra efforts to remain viable in the market as entrepreneurial composers do (Fim-Musicians.org, 2016).

The Impact and Influence of Technology on the Viability of Someone Making a Successful Living as a Media Composer

The world has been experiencing technology advancement in the last few decades. This is still anticipated to continue in the future, especially with regard to development of apps that focus on life enhancement in different sectors.  Technology has made life easier, especially for young composers who are trying to introduce themselves in the market. With the new technology, young and broke composers can use free available media such as YouTube to stream their performance and release it in social media. This creates a likelihood of getting customers to appreciate and endorse their work and talents, creating a chance for future employment. Technology has highly enhanced marketing and individual introduction in the market. It has also made it easier for known and experienced composers to expand their market to international level. With internet and social media, composers of all levels get a better chance to market their abilities, talents and styles, increasing their visibility in the market. Technology also widens ones market, increasing chances of being hired (McAndrew & Everett, 2015). However, this only happen to those that are aggressive enough. Technology advancement increases the level of composers visibility in the market and hence the level of competitiveness. Although technology assist in enhancing composers accessibility, it plays little role in enhancing individual composition quality. It is therefore unlikely for technology alone to enhance individual ability to be successful. On the contrary one must have what it takes to produce quality music, and technology will supplement this by enhancing marketability of such individuals.

References

Datareportal. (2019). Digital 2019: global digital overview. Retrieved from https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2019-global-digital-overview

Digital Humans. (2013). The effect of digital & social media on the music industry. Music Panel Interviews from Like Minds. Retrieved from< https://theorganicagency.com/blog/effect-digital-social-media-music-industry/>

Fim-Musicians.org. (2016). The future of work in the media, art & entertainment sector, meeting the challenge of atypical working.  Retrieved from https://www.fim-musicians.org/wp-content/uploads/atypical-work-handbook-en.pdf

Kayser, M. L. (2013). Personal branding secrets for beginners: a short and simple guide to getting started with your personal brand (short and simple series). Blue Ink Publishing. Kindle Edition

Keller, K. L. (2009). Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2-3), 139-155.

McAndrew, S., & Everett, M. (2015). Music as collective invention: A social network analysis of composers. Cultural Sociology, 9(1), 56-80.

UNIDO. (2013). Creative industries for youth: Unleashing potential and growth. Retrieved from https://www.unido.org/sites/default/files/2013-05/13-81037_Ebook_0.pdf

Interview Report-Summary of the Interviewee

Question

Interview a working professional composer (Film/TV/Video Game) about the 10 career questions as discussed in class.  You are encouraged to ask more and present these questions in any way you see fit.  But you have to at least ask and get answers about and report on these ten.

Write a summary report of who you interviewed, why you chosen them and the answers you discussed with your interview subject.

Sample paper

Interview Report-Summary of the Interviewee

This pape reports on an interview I had with Michael Giacchino. Michael Giacchino is an American music composer for video games, television and films. Giacchino is highly famous for his work and he has received a number of awards that include three Grammy Awards, a Primetime Emmy Award and an Academy Award. Giacchino was born in Riverside Township, New Jersey in 1967. His interest in film started at the age of 10 where he had started combining music and images. He at this stage requested his parent to be put in art school, a wish that was granted.  He studied music at Juilliard after studying film at the school of Visual Arts in New York. He launched his career at Universal and later transferred to Disney. He studied orchestration and instrumentation as a part time course while still in Disney, at the University of California Los Angeles. He did his first PlayStation video game temp music in 1994, where he used orchestra. He has since composed a number of music to be used in video games, films, TV series, and short films. Giacchino, who is currently 51 years old, was selected for this interview for a number of reasons which include his accessibility. Although he is a busy man, he was ready to offer me his time for an interview. I preferred Giacchino due to his compositing diversity. Giacchino does not only compose for films, but also for TV series, video games and theme parks rides. He seemed quite knowledgeable and flexible, and I was highly interest in knowing how he does it. I was also fascinated by his love of technology and easy integration of his composition in the modern world, to create more fitting and exiting compositions. Below is a summary of my interview with Giacchino,

 

Interview Report

Giacchino did not get to film composition by chance, but he actually embarked on a journey to study to be a film composer. According him, he realized his love for combining pictures and music and creating motion when he was just ten. He found it fascinating and he thought of influencing his parents to assist him in joining art school. He was lucky enough to convince his parents, and started his career journey. Giacchino managed to study in school of Visual Arts in New York. He learnt a lot of things he needed to know about visual arts and at the end of it all, he felt that he needed to supplement this by learning music. At this stage, he was confident of his ability to roll in this career, but his first serious engagement in the field made him realized that he needed to learn instruments and orchestration, which he did. All this gave him the skills and knowledge he needed to be successful in this career.

Giacchino wished he was better at instrumentation when he was starting his career. According to him, he always found it difficult to complete satisfactory composition in the early start of his career, mostly due to lack of enough instruments skills. The situation got worse when he joined Disney where the need to be unique and exiting in the composition was high. This pressurized him into searching for this skill that he needed most. He thus enrolled in UCLA as a part time student, to study the orchestration and instrumentation to improve on his skill and knowledge on the two. Giacchino, also noted that it was possible to learn the use of instrumentation and orchestration in the field as he was working, but it would take long to master. He needed to have the skill to be in control of his career and the desire to grow and be famous in what he was doing could not allow him to learn as a slower pace. According to him, learning this gave him the composing independence he needed, without relying too much on assistance.

Giacchino clearly stated that in today’s competitive world, one can work for free as a way of demonstrating what you can at the beginning of the career. In his opinion, this is called building portfolio. He regarded it as a way of introducing oneself in the market and showing your abilities, talents, and unique style to the world, just like a form of personal marketing. However, this should only be done at the beginning or while targeting a certain company for employment or a contract. However, he discouraged free work after the establishment and growth of one’s career.  According to him, people should learn to value the effort of others. Thus, after building a convincing portfolio, a composer should only focus on paid production.

The most important quality that Giacchino consider while employing an assistant is skills proficiency and creativity. According to him, an assistant should be able to do basically everything that he can do in terms of skills and knowledge, and also have a high sense of creativity and unique style that can supplement this. This according to him is to ensure that an assistant can stand in for him during work pressure, without any complain from the client.

An assistant or team member in Giacchino team can be fired easily if he or she demonstrates some sense of breaching privacy and confidentiality agreement, for instance when an assistant share a piece in progress with competitors or an outsider. This according to him would be a great loss to him and his team and thus, it cannot be forgiven. It also shows possibility of similar crisis in the future and thus, it would be easier to dismiss such an assistant immediately.

Getting into the same page or being in the same page is the most difficult and important aspect of the director or composer collaboration according to Giacchino. In Gicchino’s view, it is very important for the director and composer to understand one another before writing of a single note of score. Director and composer will need to meet and discuss music in different parts of a production. They will also need to agree and work together to build trust.  This is hard according to Giacchino since it is influenced by the personality of the person one is collaborating with. It may be simple in some instances and very difficult in others.

Giacchino greatest fear as a composer is developing a single bad project that would ruin his reputation. According to him, building a reputation is considerably hard, especially since it involve producing compositions that people will like and building trust through consistency in terms of quality. A composer always fears that the new composition may fall below the last one in terms of quality, and receive negative hash tag. One thus needs to work hard to remain consistent and always build products that will protect ones reputation in the market.

According to Giacchino, not every person who had interest in music and production gained parental support or a chance to study. Some people may have talents but lack guidance or enough money to do public performance. So to him music and movie services such as YouTube/Netflix/Pandora are opening the curtain to those who have been locked out in the past. He also noted that the new streaming services will definitely bring change. According to him, the new technology is not meant to replace the composers. Serious films composer will be needed for serious films that hope to attract high level of audience. He also noted that the level of competition will also push upcoming film makers to focus on quality, which will bring them back to composers. So he does not expect this to affect composers’ significance in the industry. In his opinion, the new services may change the business model at first. However, people should see it just as a means of broadcasting what has been created. Thus, the creation or production model will not be affected by this, maybe the broadcasting model.

Giacchiano noted that he has a high preference for films both long and short as well as video games. In his opinion, he loves composing for films due to variation such that one is able to use different rhythm structures and tempos to bring out different moods based on the point of performance. This plays a great role in utilizing his skills and creativity than in TV series or theme parks where monotony may be required.

Giacchiano advice to upcoming composers was to focus on noting their weaknesses and work on them and to perfect on their area of strengths. He said this can be done through experimentation to identify new styles and techniques. Giacchiano also noted that upcoming composers should know that the market is very competitive and thus, one needs to work hard as an individual to position him or herself as a composer. The Worse advice that Gicchiano received during his career involved copying the style of others. He later realized that a style defines a person and having a unique style helps one to position oneself in the market. Since then he was able to be who he is in the music composition industry.

The interview which took around 45 minutes was quite informative to me as a student. I learnt a lot that may be of great significance to me as an upcoming composer. Giacchino was highly composed and confident in his answers and advice. He managed to answer all questions without dodging. He was highly humorous, friendly and approachable, something that made our interview easy and successful. The 45 minutes were quite exiting and informative.

Stravinsky Comparative Analysis

The rites of the springs, is a music piece was composed by Igor Stravinsky. It signified a sacrifice to spring gods where a chosen girl was supposed to dance herself to death. The piece was initially performed on 29th May 1913 in Theatre de Champs Elysees in Paris by Ballets Russian group and invoked a riot as a result of revolutionary and fresh harmonies, structures, instruments, and rhythms. Igor Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum, on 17th June 1882 and died in 1971. Igor was exposed to music at an early age by his father who was the St. Pertsburg Opera, leading basso. He succeeded in law and piano studies and later on developed a number of compositions including Fireworks, Scherzo fantastique and the firebird among others (Larmore, n.d.). The piece was coordinated by Leonard Bernstein who was an American author, conductor, pianist, music lecturer and composer who lived between 1918 and 1990.

The rite of spring most obvious and jarring element is its rhythmic structure complete originality. The piece expands on Petrushka unusual meters and frequently changing rhythms method. The piece also incorporate varying orchestral sections playing contradictory and contrary rhythms, almost similar to an expanded sorts of hemiola, not solely limited to the three over two juxtaposition. The performance included a number of instruments including flutes, alto flute, contrabassoon, oboes, clarinets in B-flat and E-flat, bassoons, and bass clarinet (Jmay6901, 2016)

The piece is perfectly performed, creating harmonious tempos based on the section being played. The performers were able to maintain the original rhythm and coordination of instruments to create a more precise tune that is no difference from the original piece. The performance comes out clearly almost signifying real situation in real life, especial in sections meant to invoke fear. The coordination of instrument enhances a balance and effective transition from one part to the other. Each tune varies per the sections though with a few cases of counter melodies at the beginning of the performance. The piece generally has a complex rhythms structure. The effect of the piece on the listener varies based on the part played. Some parts are quite scarily invoking fear and expectation of something traumatic, while other parts give entertaining tunes.

 

References

Jmay6901. (2016, Jan 25). Igor Stravinsky the rite of spring Leonard Bernstein. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9M2oTHa3GM

Larmore, S. (n.d.). Stravinsky – summary the rite of spring. Retrieved from https://www.studocu.com/en/document/studocu-university/studocu-summary-library/summaries/stravinsky-summary-the-rite-of-spring/1041005/view

Related:

Indian Classical Music

Indian Percussion

Question

write a short response to the clinic of what you did learn, experience of hearing/listening to Zakir Hussain’s Masters of Percussion 111

Sample paper

Indian Percussion

The barriers preventing a meeting of western popular music and Indian classical music was insurmountable for centuries. However, in recent days, the western countries have started appreciating the Percussion masters of India thanks to the hard work of Zakir Husain’s tabla duet with his father. With percussion masters of India, Zakir leads a program featuring a dazzling display of drumming with virtuosos both from North and South India.  The performance of this program often comprises a presentation of the traditional classical repertoire of the tabla by Zakir himself with the help of his brother Fazar (Roy, 2016). However, it is worth noting that the performance is not complete without the collaboration between the north and south Indian drumming which features both the classical and folk traditions.

Indian percussion plays an important role both in Hindustani from the North and Carnatic from the Sothern part of the country. Notably, improvisation on a song must follow the exigencies of both the raga and the tala. Just like in Indian classical music where the composer improvises, the drummers in Indian percussion can also improvise while performing calling on the hundreds of small set of patterns that the performer has learned through training, rearranging them and modifying them through different techniques.  Some of the famous instruments used during the performance of an Indian percussion include the sarangi, which often described as the oldest bowed instruments in India. This instrument is particularly popular among the northern provinces (Goyal et al., 2013). Additionally, the tabla is another major instrument used during the performance of this popular drumming. Tabla comprises a pair of single-headed tuned kettle drums. the left-hand drum known as the banya is made of an alloy of copper and silver while the right-hand drum known as the tabla has a hardwood body.

 

References

Goyal, S., Lyngdoh, N., Goyal, A., Shunyu, N., Dey, S., & Yunus, M. (2013). Impacted foreign body bronchus: Role of percussion in removal. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 57(6), 630. doi:10.4103/0019-5049.123349

Roy, U. K. (2016). Instrumental Bengali music synthesis from transcription with Indian percussion instruments. 2016 International Conference on Computer, Electrical & Communication Engineering (ICCECE). doi:10.1109/iccece.2016.8009551

Related:

Indian Classical Music

MUSIC Library Company Research Project

Question 1: What are they known for?

The Omni music company is a music organization that focuses on creating and distributing world-class music for films, television, and the internet.

Question 2: Full catalogue or specific styles?

The company is known for its production of high-quality music tracks that are needed for modern media production. Therefore, their music ranges from pounding grunge to the soaring jazz to classical strings. Therefore, it is safe to state that the company deals with all types of songs (Doan, 2018).

Question 3: What are their typical placements?

To remain in the market for long and to gain a competitive edge over their competitors, the company focuses on producing music to thousands of films, televisions, corporate, the internet as well as mobile producers across the world. This is to say that the company has a diverse customer base.

Question 4: What is their financial arrangement with composers?

The composers in this company are compensated through publisher share. In this arrangement, the composer transfers their rights through publishing deal where the publisher of the music enjoys particular rights and then given the power to licenses and collects royalties of that song (Haworth, 2013).

Question 5: Who retains the copyright?

The copyrights of the composition remain with the artist considering that he is the owner of the composition and has exclusive rights regarding his or her work to reproduce or to perform it in public.

Question 6: Is it an exclusive agreement (can the composer license the music elsewhere)?

The company provides opportunities for the composers to grow to the next level by allowing them to license their music to other companies. Therefore, composers are given an opportunity to choose the company they feel that suits their interests better.

Question 7: How do composers get started there?

To become one of the celebrated composers in the company, a new composer is given a small assignment to test their suitability and creativity. Then after the assignment, they sign with the company (Haworth, 2013).

Question 8: Can I send material in for feedback?

Yes. Composers are allowed to send material in which are then evaluated by highly qualified producers, and the feedback is sent back to the composer.

References

Doan, J. M. (2018). Music for Silent Film: A Guide to North American Resources by Kendra Preston Leonard. Notes, 74(3), 455-457.

Haworth, C. (2013). Seeing through Music: Gender and Modernism in Classic Hollywood Film Scores. By Peter Franklin. Music and Letters, 94(2), 365-367. doi:10.1093/ml/gct045

Related:

Indian Classical Music

Psychology of Prejudice Quiz

Question

Psychology of Prejudice Quiz

  1. T/F Allport (1954) originally argued that positivity towards ingroups necessarily implies negativity and hostility towards outgroups.
  2. T/F Group living as a fundamental survival strategy of humans has resulted in obligatory interdependence.
  3. T/F Ingroups can be defined as bounded communities of mutual trust and obligation that delimit mutual interdependence and cooperation.
  4. T/F Concentric loyalties allow for the loyalty to the smaller subgroup to be compatible with loyalties to a more inclusive superordinate group.
  5. T/F “Moral superiority” provides justification or legitimization for domination or active subjugation of outgroups.
  6. T/F “Shared values” can contribute to intergroup conflict.

Sample paper

Psychology of Prejudice Quiz

 

  1. T/F Allport (1954) originally argued that positivity towards ingroups necessarily implies negativity and hostility towards outgroups.

FALSE

 

  1. T/F Group living as a fundamental survival strategy of humans has resulted in obligatory interdependence.

TRUE

 

  1. T/F Ingroups can be defined as bounded communities of mutual trust and obligation that delimit mutual interdependence and cooperation.

TRUE

 

  1. T/F Concentric loyalties allow for the loyalty to the smaller subgroup to be compatible with loyalties to a more inclusive superordinate group.

TRUE

 

  1. T/F “Moral superiority” provides justification or legitimization for domination or active subjugation of outgroups.

TRUE

 

  1. T/F “Shared values” can contribute to intergroup conflict.

TRUE

 

References

Brewer, M. B. (1999). The Psychology of Prejudice: Ingroup Love and Outgroup Hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 429-444. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00126