A Case Study on Bone Tissue, Structure and Repair

A Case Study on Bone Tissue, Structure and Repair

  1. One way bones are classified is by their shape. How would you classify the bones fractured by Mrs. Morgan?

The bones fractured by Mrs. Morgan can be classified in two ways: soft-tissue involvement and by mechanism. In soft-tissue involvement, a number of factors are considered. First, it is important to consider whether it is a closed or open fracture. An open fracture is one that has open or visible wounds similar to Mrs. Morgan’s case. In other words, the fracture hematoma can be seen. Such fractures may be susceptible to infections. A closed fracture is one where overlying skin is left intact after an injury.

Mrs. Morgan’s bones can also be classified depending on the mechanism in which the fracture occurred. This classification has three categories namely: traumatic fractures, periprosthetic fracture, and pathologic fracture. A traumatic fracture is one that results from a sustained trauma such as a fall, as is the case with the patient. A pathologic fracture is related to one or more of the underlying health issues in a patient. For instance, a disease that weakens the bones and hence increasing their susceptibility to fractures. A periprosthetic fracture is caused by a mechanical weakness associated with body implants.

  1. The body of Mrs. Morgan’s vertebra is fractured. What type of bone tissue makes up the majority of the vertebral body? Describe the structure and function of this type of bone.

The vertebral bone is made up of five sections namely; cervical spine, thoracic spine and lumbar spine, sacrum and coccyx. The Seven vertebrae which is curved and concave towards the front while starting at the axis and ending at the center of the second thoracic vertebrae makes up the structure of the cervical spine. The thoracic spine has five vertebrae, it is curved, concave towards the front and starts at the second vertebra and ends at the center of the last thoracic vertebrae.  The Lumbar spine has five vertebras and is more curved in women than in men. It starts at the center of the last thoracic vertebra and ends at sacrovertebral angle. The sacrum has five joined vertebra which starts at the sacrovertebral articulation. Lastly the coccyx has four (three- five) fused vertebrae.

The main function of vertebral bone is to cover the spinal code, the central nervous system which is responsible for transmission of nerves into the body and receive information from peripheral nervous system. Injury to the spinal code is fatal and would thus require tough protection which is provided by the system of vertebrae bones from the base of the neck to the hip bone.

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  1. The diaphysis of Mrs. Morgan’s humerus is fractured. What type of bone makes up the majority of the diaphysis of long bones like the humerus? Describe the layers of bone tissue found here.

The type of bone that makes up the majority of the diaphysis of long bones like the humerus are the cortial bone and contains tissues such as bone marrow and adipose.  The Fibroblast, vascular endothelial cells are some of the cells contained in the adipose tissue. The blood vessels which is always accumulated in the subcutaneous layer acts as a shield from heat and cold.

  1. Most connective tissue, including bone, is highly vascular. Which anatomical structures in Mrs. Morgan’s compact bone house blood vessels? What sign or symptom in Mrs. Morgan’s case is directly related to disruption of these structures by her bone fractures? How is the sign or symptom related to these anatomical structures?

The anatomical structure in Mrs Morgans compact bone that house blood vessels is osteon, also known as the haversian system. It is cylindrical in shape and it also has lamellae of compact bone tissue covering the central canal. Disruption of the osteon systems has effects such as the ones experienced by Mrs. Debbie Morgan. She experienced severe back pain, a large open wound on her arm and what appears to be bone tissue sticking out of the skin. She also has bruises covering her left shoulder and killer headaches. These symptoms could be as a result of the haversian system.

  1. As a fracture is repaired, new bone is added to the injury site. What term is used to describe the addition of new bone tissue? Identify which bone cell is responsible for this process and explain how it occurs.

The process in which addition of new bone tissues is added to an area where injury has taken place is known as ossification or it can also be referred to new bone formation. Osteoblasts is a cell responsible for secreting new bone, with the help of other hormones such as vitamin D, growth steroids, parathyroids and calcitocin.  The Osteoblast cells are produced by osteoprogenitor cells and are found on the surface of osteoid seams. A protein mixture known as osteoid is formed during these process and in which it later mineralizes to become bone to complete the process of bone formation.

  1. In the final stage of bone repair, some of the osseous tissue must be broken down and removed. What term is used to define the breaking down of osseous tissue? Which bone cell would be best suited for this task?

Bone metabolism also referred to as modeling is a term used to describe breaking down of old bone tissues to pave way for formation of new ones. Osteoclast is the cell responsible for the breaking down of osseous tissues; they are large and multinucleated cells that are found on the bone surface.

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