Category Archives: American History

American Art Project

Question

AMERICAN ART PROJECT – ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS
Statement of Purpose or “Why Am I Doing This?”
It is important to remember, represent, and honor a collective past, but it is equally important to understand the deeper significance of visual records. In this assignment, you will examine works of art available through the website of the Architect of the Capitol. The purpose is to emphasize how art can be used to portray historical events and convey a message when viewed in the context of the age in which it was created. This assignment is not an art critique. Look for connections between events and images. You will NOT be describing the event the artwork depicts, but the period of American history in which it was created. You will be creating either a document or a presentation.

Completing This Assignment:

Part I
• Click on this link: http://aoc.gov/paintings-0 (Historic Rotunda Paintings).
• Click on the individual images for each of the 8 paintings to see them in more detail and read the short article on each of the corresponding pages for these paintings.
• Choose 4 images and write a 200–300-word paragraph for each of them addressing the following:
1. When was the image commissioned and hung? What is the historical context of this painting? What events were occurring when this painting was created that could have contributed to its content? How are those connections between content and context most clearly presented?
2. Is the artist successful in communicating contextual influences? Is the message too difficult to understand for a modern viewer?
• As a heading for each paragraph, include the image, its title, and the artist.

Part II
• Click on this link: http://aoc.gov/capitol-hill/national-statuary-hall-collection/about-national-statuary-hall-collection (About the National Statuary Hall Collection).
• Read the short overview and description of the collection and search to find the 2 statues that represent your state.
• Copy the image for each representative of your state into the document or presentation.
o If you are not a resident of the United States or do not claim a “home state” for any reason, you are free to adopt any of the 50 states as your own for the purposes of this assignment.
• After the image, include the individual’s name and the state he or she represents.
• In a 200–300-word paragraph for each image,
o give a short summary of the individual’s historic significance and
o give an evaluation of whether this individual is a good choice to represent your state.

Sample paper

American Art Project

Part I

Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull

Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull    

[1]This is an oil on canvas painting by John Trumbull. The commissioning of the painting took effect in 1817. Two years later (1819), the painting was purchased. It was hung almost a decade later in 1826. The painting was made during the struggle for independence in the United States, which was under the control of Britain. The painting is a remembrance of the time the draft of the Declaration of Independence was submitted and to the Second Continental Congress. The Second Continental Congress was a meeting held at Pennsylvania State House, Philadelphia. During this meeting, it was passed that the thirteen American colonies were sovereign states, free from British influence and control. The draft of the Declaration of Independence was adopted a week later. There is a strong connection between content and the context of the painting. The painting depicts Thomas Jefferson, a key author of the draft, handing the Declaration to John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress. The painting also depicts other members involved in drafting the Declaration of Independence. The painting fits the context in that this was the day the draft document was handed to the Second Continental Congress for scrutiny and adoption. The painting is a reminiscence of the historical moment. The artist is successful in communication the contextual influences because just by looking at the painting, one can see Thomas Jefferson passing the declaration to John Hancock. Any modern view can easily understand the message. In modern times, many viewers may relate this to a petition.

Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn

Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn

This is an oil on canvas painting by John Vanderlyn. [2]Congress commissioned the painting in 1836. The painting was hung in 1847 in the Capitol Rotunda. This painting represents an interesting period in the history of America. This is the period when Christopher Columbus arrived in the West Indies. Columbus was on a mission to find a route connecting Europe to China when he landed in the West Indies. The painting depicts the moment that Christopher Columbus is said to have discovered the New World, although unknown to him. While Columbus arrived on the West Indies islands in the late 15th century, the painting was made in the mid-19th century following commissioning by the Congress. The major event surrounding the creation of this painting is neoclassicism. This is a period in history when artists in various fields drew inspiration from classical art especially from Ancient Rome and Greece. The connections between content and context are clearly presented by the drawing of Columbus and his men newly arrived on the Island, while the natives peek and others bow. Columbus and his men stand next to the sea, fully clothed, while the natives have no clothes. Vanderlyn is successful in communicating the contextual influences. A viewer can clearly see that Columbus and his men are sailors who seem sophisticated in dressing and weapons they are carrying. On the other hand, one can see the natives who appear to lead simple lives. The painting is quite simple to understand for a modern viewer due to the aforementioned reasons.

Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman

Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman

[3]This is also an oil on canvas painting. The painting was commissioned in 1839 and hung in 1840. The painting depicts the 17th century American history. This was the period of colonization in the United States and the subsequent spread of Christianity in the region. The painting depicts a baptism ceremony held at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1613 or 1614. Jamestown was the first permanent colonial settlement in the United States. The reason why this baptism is considered important is because it depicts the first ever converts to Christianity in native America. The painting shows Pacahontas, an Algonkian chief’s daughter, receiving baptism. The events occurring during this period mainly relates to Independence of the various American states from British rule. This painting could be an indication that native Americans had finally become submissive to the European culture(Tompkins, sss). Baptism indicates civilization for the native Americans, which is a result of colonization. The connections between content and context are clearly presented by the different dressing codes. The priest and Pocahontas are depicted wearing bright clothes, which signify holiness. The artist is successful in communicating the contextual influences because a viewer can be able to note the different culture between the natives and colonists by way of dressing. The message is not difficult to understand for a modern viewer since one can see there is baptism at the altar.

Discovery of the Mississippi by William H. Powell

Discovery of the Mississippi by William H. Powell

This is an oil on canvas painting that was commissioned on 1853 and hung on 1855.[4] The painting depicts Spanish explorer known as Hernando De Soto at the banks of the Mississippi River. De Soto was the first European explorer to have seen the river. This was in 1541 when European interests in the New World were highest. De Soto was a great Spanish explorer and conqueror. There were a number of events occurring during the creation of the painting. First, the United States was still reeling from the effects of colonization. De Soto was among some of the mean who had explored the New World, fighting the native inhabitants and seeking riches. Second, slave trade had only come to an end a few decades earlier. De Satos engaged in slave trade during his explorations. The connections between content and context are clearly presented by illustrating De Soto, his men, natives, and the Mississippi River. There is also a show of an assortment of weapons used in fighting off native Indians. The artist is not successful in communicating contextual influences. This is because the painting depicts so many activities occurring at the same time. In addition, the artist does not give prominence to the Mississippi River in the painting. In the same line, it is difficult for a modern viewer to understand the message.

Part II

National Statuary Hall Collection

Stephen Austin, Texas

Stephen Austin, Texas

Stephen Austin is one of the most significant individuals in the history of Texas. [5]He is regarded as “The Father of Texas”. This is because he is credited with the founding of the State of Texas. Brought up in Missouri, Stephen Austin worked as storekeeper and managed his family’s mining business. In 1820, Austin’s father, Moses, had moved to San Antonio seeking for a land grant from the Mexican authorities. In 1821, Moses received permission to settle over 300 families. However, he died before he could accomplish his goals, leaving the work to Stephen Austin. Stephen Austin resettled continued what his father had started. However, he faced opposition from the Mexican government, which refused to recognized the land deal signed with his father. Through diplomacy, Austin was able to convince the Mexican government to give him the land grant. He was finally awarded the grant and made Texas’ empresario, in charge of controlling the resettlement and development of the land. Stephen Austin acted as the mediator between the colonists and the Mexican government. In 1833, Austin presented to the Mexican government a constitution for Texas. This constitution demanded amongst other things, the recognition of Texas as a state on its own. In 1835, Austin sought military help from Washington, which culminated in annexation of the state of Texas by the US. Stephen Austin is a good choice to represent Texas. This is because he did a lot in resettling American families and fighting for recognition of Texas as a state on its own.

Sam Houston, Texas

Sam Houston, Texas

This is another notable figure in fighting for the state of Texas’ independence. [6]Sam Houston was born in 1793 in Virginia. During the War of 1812, Houston served in the military but resigned in 1818 to study law. In 1819, he became the attorney general representing Nashville District. He served in the US House of Representatives between 1823 and 1827. In 1829, he became the Tennessee governor but resigned after about two years. Following his resignation, he engaged in diplomatic missions involving the state of Texas and Indian county. In 1833, he was appointed as one of the delegates petitioning for the separation of Texas and Cohuila. Throughout this period, Houston increasingly protested against Mexican government’s control of Texas. [7]In 1835, he was appointed an army commander following the emergence of an armed struggle. His vast experience in the military helped Texas in securing victory. This contributed in the independence of the state. Sam Houston is a good individual to represent the state of Texas due to his immense contribution in securing Texas’ independence. During his presidential terms, Houston promoted peace with the Mexican government by avowing open confrontation that could result to war. He is also credited with improving Texas’ economy.

Bibliography

“America’s Story.” Texas. Last modified April 11, 2017.             http://www.americaslibrary.gov/es/tx/es_tx_houston_1.html

“Baptism of Pocahontas.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017.             https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/baptism-pocahontas

“Declaration of Independence.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 4, 2017.             https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/declaration-independence

“Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11,        2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/discovery-mississippi-by-de-    soto

“Landing of Columbus.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017.             https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/landing-columbus

“Sam Houston.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017.     https://www.aoc.gov/art/national-statuary-hall-collection/sam-houston

“Stephen Austin.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/national-statuary-hall-collection/stephen-austin

[1] “Declaration of Independence.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 4, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/declaration-independence

[2] “Landing of Columbus.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/landing-columbus

[3] “Baptism of Pocahontas.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/baptism-pocahontas

[4] “Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/historic-rotunda-paintings/discovery-mississippi-by-de-soto

[5] “Stephen Austin.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/national-statuary-hall-collection/stephen-austin

[6] “Sam Houston.” Architect of the Capitol. Last modified April 11, 2017. https://www.aoc.gov/art/national-statuary-hall-collection/sam-houston

[7] “America’s Story.” Texas. Last modified April 11, 2017. http://www.americaslibrary.gov/es/tx/es_tx_houston_1.html

Related:

Atlantic Slave Trade Summary

Atlantic Slave Trade Summary

American History in Video:

Atlantic Slave Trade Summary

This video by Tanya Hart explores the horrors of slavery and the social impacts of the trade, which involved four continents. Goree, an island in Senegal, is a 15th century Mediterranean Sea Village famous for its use as a transit route for slaves. Over the last few centuries, historians have documented the events concerning slave trade in the Goree Island. Nonetheless, these are not the usual historical accounts of slave trade – the historians include vivid details of the events drawn from writings by the slaves themselves. For instance, the video includes vivid narratives of how Europeans captured slaves. The narrative depicts great European hostility, which involved burning of property and the killing of men women and children. The Europeans murdered children since they were young and could not provide the much-needed labor.

The video provides viewers with an interesting account of how the slave trade started and gained shape. The new world (America) presented Europeans with vast opportunities for farming and other economic activities. However, the Europeans faced a critical problem, which was lack of enough labor force. Driven by the demand for labor, the colonies had nowhere else to obtain labor except from Africa. The demand for labor was significantly high in the West Indies, where slaves were brought to work in sugar plantations. The video presents an interesting aspect of slave trade in that, although the Portuguese started the trade, it had been part of African traditions for thousands of years. Wealthy and powerful African families had slaves of their own. However, slavery in the African continent was practiced on smaller scale.

The Portuguese used collaboration to acquire slaves in various parts of West Africa. They collaborated with African fishermen by luring them using alcohol, guns, clothes, and other material items. Goree Island comprised of a mix of cultures, including African cultures, Dutch, Portuguese, French, and British. It is at this island that La Maison Des Esclaves, the famous Point of No Return, is located. At this point, captured slaves were put in ships and taken to different destinations. Captured family members could end up in different countries, never to see each other again. Tight packing of slaves became common, whereby slaves were given the least possible space on a ship. This led to high number of deaths, with up to 20% of slaves dying while in transit. Most of the slaves were captured from Central and Western Africa. The Europeans could incite villages or tribes into violence in order to obtain a window of opportunity to capture slaves. It is sad to note that even after slavery came to an end, racism still persists in various parts of the world, including the US.

References

Bonnie martin and james F. brooks, editors.linking the histories of slavery: North america and its             borderlands. 2016. The American Historical Review 121 (3): 1056

Cranston-Reimer, Sharlee. 2016. It is life you must write about”: Fixity and refraction in dionne brand’s A map to the door of no return: Notes to belonging. Canadian Literature       (228/229): 93.

Dalton, John T., and Tin Cheuk Leung. 2015. Dispersion and distortions in the trans-atlantic        slave trade. Journal of International Economics 96 (2): 412-25.

Northrup, David. 1994. The atlantic slave trade. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath.

Obikili, Nonso. 2016. The trans-atlantic slave trade and local political fragmentation in africa:     TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. The Economic History Review 69 (4): 1157-77.

Pettigrew, William A., and Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture.     2013. Freedom’s debt: The royal african company and the politics of the atlantic slave         trade, 1672-1752. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Porter, Anna. 2014. Goree island: The door of no return. Queen’s Quarterly 121 (1): 38.

St. Clair, William. 2007. The door of no return: The history of cape coast castle and the atlantic slave trade. New York: BlueBridge.

Tanya, Hart. (n.d). American History Video. Retrieved from             http://search.alexanderstreet.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/view/playlist/408827

Walvin, James. 2013. Crossings: Africa, the americas and the atlantic slave trade. London:         Reaktion Books.

Walvin, James. 2013. Crossings: Africa, the americas and the atlantic slave trade. London:         Reaktion Books.

Related:

Bacon’s Rebellion – A Justified Action or Personal Power Grab?

 

The American War for Independence – Treason or Justified Rebellion?

The American War for Independence

As the year ends this December 1783, I can only reflect on the events that has shaped the American history over the last decade. Notable is the American War for Independence, which we all feel is a justified course towards liberation from England’s highhandedness. Many may wonder why this nation has chosen the “unrighteous” path towards war. The Catechism states that war must be avoided at all costs due to its evils and the resulting injustices (Keown, 2009). Nonetheless, Catechism also accords governments the right to engage in war for self-defense purposes if peace efforts have waivered. It is worth noting that the colonists have made all efforts to engage Great Britain in talks, but these have failed. This has led the colonists into a war for liberation from the British control.

Several factors have infuriated the colonists into a call for independence from Great Britain. Great Britain has closely monitored the expansion of the colonies towards the west. It has made plans to deploy over 10,000 troops in the colonies to protect their interests. However, many colonies perceive the troops deployment as Britain’s plan to curtail their liberties, such as expansion into the western settlements. The involvement of Great Britain in the French and Indian War has left the nation with a huge public debt (Leutze, n.d). Further, Great Britain made plans to burden the colonies with taxation in order to pay off the debt. The American colonists have rejected the taxation plans since they will destroy their economics and increase the cost of living.

In the recent past, Britain has passed a raft of policies that directly affects the economies of all colonies. These policies have a negative impact on every person. The first policy was the Stamp Act passed in 1765. This act has placed taxes on all printed material, raising even the cost of printing wills. Following protests by colonists against this tax, Britain went ahead to introduce Townshend Acts. These acts mandate the colonists to pay taxes on imported goods from 1767 (Leutze, n.d). The colonists are against any form of taxes by Britain. There has been a growing concern among the colonists that Britain is not supposed to levy any taxes on them. In 1773, Parliament signed into law the Tea Act (Leutze, n.d). This allowed East India Company to export tea tax-free to the colonies at the expense of local tea producers.

Mistrust between colonists and Britain have contributed to the War for Independence. In 1768, British officials captured a merchant ship, ‘Liberty’, belonging to a local merchant, John Hancock (Leutze, n.d). This action by the British custom authorities has aggravated the contention by locals against Britain. The capture of the ship has contributed to the unification of the colonists who went on the streets to protest against the British Parliament and the levies or taxes imposed on them. Following these protests, British Parliament has responded by sending more troops to Boston, fueling conflicts with the locals. Lastly, the colonies experience a power vacuum because the King is far away and not in touch with reality of what is happening on the ground (Keown, 2009).

References

Leutze, E. G. (n.d). Creating a Nation: 1763 – 1791. Road to Independence. Retrieved from             http://www.ugisd.org/docs/ugss/teachers/chap051.pdf

Keown, J. (2009). America’s War for Independence: Just or unjust? Journal of Catholic Social    Thought, 6(2): 277-304. Retrieved from            https://kennedyinstitute.georgetown.edu/files/KeownAmericasWar.pdf

Related:

Bacon’s Rebellion – A Justified Action or Personal Power Grab?

Bacon’s Rebellion – A Justified Action or Personal Power Grab?

Bacon’s Rebellion

I am writing this to inform you about the political state of affairs at Jamestown. Over the past few months, political antagonism has risen due to a power struggle between the incumbent governor, Sir William Berkeley, and Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., a cousin by marriage to the governor. Upon Bacon’s arrival in the state of Virginia in 1675, the governor awarded him a council position, which was a noble act (“National Park Service (NPS),” n.d). There is reason to believe that Bacon has become more interested in a personal power grab in the state of Virginia. Further, there is reason to believe that Bacon is taking advantage of the current political tension between the colonists and the local Indians. I may not attribute the growing problem to the governor, but to a series of natural misfortunes that have befallen the state.

In the recent past, the state of Virginia has witnessed an unprecedented economic recession occasioned by a decline in tobacco prices, high restrictions in the English market, intense competition from other states such as Maryland, and rise of imported goods (mercantilism) (“NPS),” n.d). Further, the state of Virginia has experienced erratic weather, characterized by lengthy dry spells, hurricanes, and even floods. These factors have led to increasing frustration among the colonists, who in turn blame the local Indians for their misery. Reports indicate that the antagonism begun on July 1675 when Doeg Indians invaded Thomas Mathews’ plantation, leading into several Indian deaths (“NPS),” n.d). The Indians claimed that Mathews had failed to pay for some items he took from them on loan. The colonists organized a retaliatory attack, but they mistakenly went for the wrong Indians (Susquehanaugs).

There have been unsuccessful attempts by Governor Berkeley to quell the ensuing violence. One of these attempts resulted in deaths of several chiefs when he called for a meeting (“NPS),” n.d). Berkeley has continuously rallied for calm among colonists and the need for peace. On the other hand, Bacon has refused to heed to the call for restraint, instead choosing to launch an attack against some Indians he claims they stole corn. The recent actions have caused sharp divisions between the two leaders as well as the residents. For instance, a faction of the colonists led by Bacon believes that Berkeley’s administration is inherently corrupt. They cite a recent case where the Long Assembly gave Berkeley’s colonist friends the right to trade with Indians while denying others, including Bacon, the right to trade (“NPS),” n.d). In addition, reports indicate that Berkeley denied Bacon a position to act as the leader of a local militia.

Following the incidents, Bacon attacked the Pamunkeys, driving them away from their land. In return, Berkeley has attempted to exercise his authority as the governor by labeling Bacon a “rebel”. It is understood that Bacon has already surrounded himself with well-armed militia of about 200 men (“NPS),” n.d). Bacon continues to mount attacks on Indians as Berkeley fights had to maintain peace. The recent turn of invents clearly indicate that this sis a personal power grab orchestrated by Bacon. In the meantime, Berkeley fights hard to maintain his seat as governor.

Reference

National Park Service (NPS). (n.d). Bacon’s Rebellion. Retrieved from             https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/bacons-rebellion.htm

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The American Civil War

The American Civil War

Question

The American Civil War was the bloodiest conflict in American History to date. It has left an indelible mark on the nation in a variety of ways. As you review the course material, including A. K. McClure’s address, what impresses you about the lessons that can be learned from this period? Was there something in McClure’s address that made you stop and think? How do you see this war in relation to the history you have learned since Module/Week 1?

Sample paper

The American Civil War

After reading this week assignment and readings, it is correct to state that there are many lessons that all American can learn from the civil war. The lesson was so informant and educative, and through it, I was able to learn that the issue of slavery was the leading factor that highly contributed to the eruption of civil war. One of the most important lessons learned from the readings was that a divided nation or a community that creates sectionalism stands a high chance of failing just like America did during the civil war. The issue of slavery divided the country into two major fighting and warring parties.  The southern part of the country was fully supportive of slavery and believed that it lawfully had a right to secede while the northern region felt that all people were equal and were against the slavery and the slave trade in general. This difference and conflict between the southern and the northern region led to war killing hundreds of thousands of America. If only the war was fought in the Supreme Court with the help of the constitution, all these lives would have been saved[i].

Going by the statement made by McClure that the history of any great nation of to-day has its foundation of arbitrament of sanguinary battle, I believe that in future there will be causes that will force the military to fight for the lives and freedom f the American people. However, any future conflicts or disagreements should be peacefully resolved with the help of the constitution of the country. It is interesting to know that Abraham Lincoln who came from the northern region at first thought and felt that he was not against slavery but in the real sense he fearlessly fought against the slave trade[ii].

[i] Thomas C Mackey, A Documentary History Of The American Civil War Era, 1st ed. (Knoxville, Tenn: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2013).

 

[ii] Lisa M Brady, War Upon The Land, 1st ed. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012).

Bibliography

Brady, Lisa M. War Upon The Land. 1st ed. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.

Mackey, Thomas C. A Documentary History Of The American Civil War Era. 1st ed. Knoxville,              Tenn: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2013.

Related:

Antebellum in America

Antebellum in America

Question

The material for this module/week has covered much of what was happening socially, politically, and culturally in antebellum America. There were many factors involved in increasing sectional tensions in the United States during this period. What, other than the debates concerning slavery, did you notice from the material? Is there any information that you might not have thought about before taking this course?

Sample paper

Antebellum in America

From this week readings and assignment, it was easy to point out that there were other issues politically, economically and socially that were rampant during the antebellum in America and they played a key part at the beginning of the civil war. For example, the beginning and advancement of the print media played an important part at the beginning of the civil war in the country. Through the print media, the ordinary citizen and the entire population was able to accept newspapers which led to the outburst of written textile and the writing of provocative abolitionist facts and tracks. Moreover, the introduction and use of telegraph helped to unit large part of the population through sports largely men who have always gathered at saloons miles away from where boxing matches or horse race was taking place[i]. Additionally, the art of pictures spread quickly throughout out the country where a large portion of the people started sending their portraits through the mail. At the same time, most people began purchasing framed pictures of famous celebrities, as well as political leaders as well as pictures of mistreated slaves, from all over the country thus prompting a negative reaction from humanitarian and a section of political leaders especially, from the northern region.

One of the most important lessons learned from this reading was that a single mind could change the course of the country by looking at Andrew Jackson who championed nationalistic oratory and made the Whiteman believe that they were an integral part of the American political society. Through this campaign, there was the formation of Congress party and playwrights that fought for social equality and in the process inspired the maximum voter turnouts in America[ii]. I would have not imagined America had such a rich history before this course.

[i] David R Meyer, Networked Machinists, 1st ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010).

 

[ii] Peter Brock, Radical Pacifists In Antebellum America, 1st ed. ([Place of publication not identified]: Princeton University Pres, 2016).

 

Bibliography

Brock, Peter. Radical Pacifists In Antebellum America. 1st ed. [Place of publication not                            identified]: Princeton University Pres, 2016.

Meyer, David R. Networked Machinists. 1st ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,                     2010.

Related:

American history Journal 5

American history-Journal 6

Question

The materials for this module/week have covered everything from the emergence of new religious denominations to the growth of the abolition movement. In your entry, give some consideration to the reasons all these changes may have occurred when they did. Think about all the material concerning religion you have covered since Module/Week 1. Can you see some patterns? What could be an explanation for the growing diversity in religious belief in America? Is it more secular in nature or more spiritual?

Sample paper

American history

After carefully studying last week assignment and readings, I have easily identified the various social issues that affected most Americans in the 19th century.  Most of these challenges brought a new measure of worry to the ordinary citizens as well as the future of the entire country. The primary social issue that affected t large percent of the population was inequalities, slavery and drug abuse such as alcohol abuse among most individuals both male and female. As a retaliation, most individuals sort comfort and guidance from religion with the hope that they will lead a better and healthy life. Therefore, religious beliefs become more diverse focusing on training and managing risks[i].

However, as some portion of the population was seeking refuge in religion, there were those who thought and felt that religion did not help and thus, they became secular reformers. The moderation reform campaign and movement was then formed in the wake of rising number of cases of alcoholism in most American communities and societies.  Moreover, there was the creation of prison reform at the same time which focused on detaining all law breakers in the society to keep the citizens safe as well as reducing the influence of the few corrupt individuals. Through the prison system, the society was able to isolate the offenders to allow them to repent their sins. Additionally, I also learned how the social issues present in the American society at the time highly contributed to the establishment of different types and genres of religion as well as religious beliefs.  The social and economic development of the society largely depended on the religious beliefs of the people. Therefore, it is correct to state that the American societal was and is more spiritual than secular in nature[ii].

 

[i] George Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union, 1st ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

[ii] OUP Accepted Manuscript”, American Literary History (2017).

Bibliography

“OUP Accepted Manuscript”. American Literary History (2017).

Van Cleve, George. A Slaveholders’ Union. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Related:

American history Journal 5

American history Journal 5

Question

In your materials this module/week, you have seen how America changed over the first half of the 19th century. Those changes were both positive and negative politically, economically, culturally, and socially. The information you studied is usually new to many students and, to some, comes as a surprise. What excited you in your reading? Was there anything that provided some explanation of why America looks the way it does today? Do you have a new perspective on American life in the period between the American Revolution and the Civil War?

Sample paper

American history

From the reading of last week assignment, I was surprised to learn that there were two main issues that were the main topics of the nineteenth century.  First, there was the continuous manifest destiny grasped America and the making of a mainland force leading to the First World War. The second issue that took the 19th century by storm was servitude.  The constitution of the country led to significant changes in the national life of the people (Ward, 2008). The signing of the constitution and other minor changes ended up being a striking, effective structure for tending to significant issues affecting the lives of most common American people. Notably, the constitution was completely against slave trade which was rampant in the country which was determined by horrendous civil war.

Through the reading and assignment, I realized that the strong constitution adopted by the country significantly contributed to the economic development in the country moving from generally rural to the world’s most essential mechanical force.  Moreover, I was surprised to learn that history specialist did not entirely agree on the advantages that came along with the constitution.  Some of them concentrated on the positives such as the improvement of new mechanical advances, an extending working class and the formation of opportunities and chances for American and Europe’s disposed.  On the other hand, there are those who concentrated on the negative such as the convergence of riches, unjustifiable and poor working conditions as well as social issues such as segregation (Gordon, 2016).  However, communism in the 20th century has changed the reputation of dispersing riches and fizzled capacity to make riches which has positively and in a significant way changed America for the better.  However, all credit goes to those forefathers that sacrificed their lives during the revolutions.

 

References

Gordon, R. J. (2016). The rise and fall of American growth: The U.S. standard of living since the Civil War.

Ward, A. (2008). The slaves’ war: The Civil War in the words of former slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Related:

American history

American history

Question

This module/week has examined the political issues that surrounded the formation of the Constitution and the years of the early republic. The partisanship that developed during the first twelve years of the constitutional period often takes many students by surprise. Many of them think that the United States easily achieved greatness in its early years. What did you find most surprising in your course materials this module/week? Has it changed your thinking about America’s founders or about the modern political climate?

Sample paper

American history

Through this week readings and assignment, I have gained new understanding and insight regarding the formation and development of the American Constitution and all the suffering that our ancestors had to endure. The formation of the American Constitution took place between May 25 and September 17, 1787, began with the formulation of the articles of confederation. It was ratified by James Madison to become what is now widely known as the United States constitution and the bill of rights. The articles of associations were primarily changed because most of the lawmakers felt that they were giving the Congress more authority and power than they deserve. Interestingly, the articles of associations were finally changed after 16 months of discussion and debate[i].

The most interesting fact about the readings and the assignment is how the American government was formed back then and how it is still formed today. The first American government was created in 1789 making the U.S one of the universe’s first modern national constitutional countries. The government is often formed by the pillars of federalism and republicanism that proposes the sharing of power between the state and the federal governments. The knowledge gained from this study has completely changed my perspective, attitude, and feelings towards the founding fathers and about the modern political climate in the country. The founding fathers of the nation set the way for the modern government and politics which got me thinking and wondering where would be America today if there were no revolution war or the ratification of the United States Constitution. It is mind blowing to learn how this great nation was formed but disappointing at the same time to see greedy leaders misusing the freedom the founding fathers fought for many years ago.[ii]

[i] Robert James Maddox, American History, 1st ed. (Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin Pub. Group, 2007).

[ii] Mustafa Malhut, “System And History”, History Studies International Journal Of History Volume 3 Issue 1, no. 3 (2011): 203 – 216.

Bibliography

Maddox, Robert James. American History. 1st ed. Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin Pub.                   Group, 2007.

Malhut, Mustafa. “System And History”. History Studies International Journal Of History                        Volume 3 Issue 1, no. 3 (2011): 203 – 216.

American War for Independence

American War for Independence

Question

Many students think they know about the American War for Independence, but few understand how complex the arguments were and how long the war lasted. In your studies this module/week, what impressed you about the formation of the American nation? Was there anything presented in the material that you had not thought about before?

Personal Reflections Journal

After successfully completing this week’s module, I learned plenty of things such that the American Revolution and the war for independence.  It was interesting and fascinating to learn how some of the states in the U.S. achieved their independence from the colonialist after years and years of war and resistance. Moreover, it was interesting to know that the colonial government introduced the stamp act that was focused on taxing the Native Americans for playing cards during their leisure time (“Nation Building and National Identity Formation,” n.d).  Moreover, it is quite clear from the readings that there are many events and activities that led to war for independence that got the British colonialist thinking of the best way to suppress their resistance.  In retaliation, the British legislature passed a series of punishing laws which to Americans were intolerable and was meant to discourage them from fighting for their rights.

Additionally, I detected a similarity between the protests that was used in the early days to fight for freedom with some that are used in different parts of the universe today.  Most of the Native Americans were against the fact that they were not afforded the same rights and freedom of most British citizens in the country.  But the colonialist ignored their protests by passing laws demanding more and more tax such as the Tea Tas. As a result, the Americans were ready to fight and sacrifice their lives for the future of their country and siblings (Lecker, 2013). The war was fought for months claiming a large number of American lives. By the time the declaration of independence was announced on 4th July 1776, both parties had endured a great amount of loss regarding human resources, time and resources. The surrender at Saratoga ended the war for good.

References

Lecker, R. (2013). Keepers of the code: English-Canadian literary anthologies and the representation of nation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Nation Building and National Identity Formation. (n.d.). History Education in the Formation of Social Identity. doi:10.1057/9781137374769.0009

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