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Angels and Demons

Question

This assignment addresses how the principles that you have learned throughout this course can be applied to your understanding of what it means to be a Christian.

1. Describe the course concepts that are related to your topic, demonstrating your reflection and analysis. Do not simply summarize what was presented in the course.
2. Demonstrate real ownership of the ideas that you present by providing unique insight as evidence of your careful consideration of the topic.
3. Provide a logical link between the description of the concepts from the course and the conclusions or implications that you draw in your reflection. In other words, your conclusion should be logically derived from the application of the course concepts to the description of your topic.
4. Demonstrate learning initiative by exploring conclusions and implications beyond the boundaries of your classroom discussion.
5. Focus on depth of understanding, rather than breadth of coverage.

Sample paper

Angels and Demons

Introduction

An intriguing subject in the Christian circles revolves around angels and demons. The Bible clearly acknowledges the existence of the two heavenly powers. A number of angels paid homage to select individuals as documented in the Bible. On the other hand, the Bible also talks about demons, with their ability to torment or even haunt individuals. The two powers relate in opposing ways, with angels created to love and adore God, while on the other hand the demons reject God in totality. As such, there exist a warfare between angels and demons, a warfare whose roots are not clearly established. Majority of people in the U.S. alone hold beliefs on the existence of demons, and their ability to possess people. This is regardless of whether these individuals subscribe to any religious affiliations. This paper will examine the concept of angels and demons in line with teachings of the Bible and other relevant sources.

Part One: Angels

Theological definition

The theological definition of an angel is God’s messenger. Angels are heavenly beings or superhuman who were created to serve God (Wallace, 2014). The theological definition also includes human beings who act as God’s messengers. The word “angel” is thus used to refer to particular spiritual beings. Under the theological definition, messengers who exude supernatural powers qualify as angels. Messengers who exude supernatural powers are no doubt, heavenly beings and thus qualify as angels. Angels are important beings since they help God in fulfilling His will on earth. According to Hopko (n.d), human beings will be like angels upon resurrection – having only the spiritual dimension and thus no bodies.

Biblical definition

The Bible provides definition of angels in numerous chapters. For instance, Hebrews 1:14, describe angels as messengers who “render service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation.” In Hebrews 1:14, is clear that angels are spirit in form, “are they not ministering spirits…” Hebrews 12:22-23 clearly outlines the difference between angels and human. The chapter shows that angels and humans are two separate groups, and thus humans do not become angels when they die. In Mathew 22:30, it is clear that angels belong to no particular sex, but are immortal beings. Deriving from the many descriptions of angels in the Bible, angels can generally be defined as spiritual beings that serve God through various ways such as by becoming messengers.

Practical Application

Angels’ main role is to serve God through various ways. For instance, Angel  Gabriel is depicted in the Bible as a messenger. In Daniel 8:16, it is written that  a loud voice called out and said “Gabriel, give this man an understanding of the vision.” Angels execute the will of God. Three angels are mentioned in the Bible, including Angel Michael and Lucifer. Although they were all meant to serve God, Lucifer rebelled against God, and later became Satan, forever opposing God. Angels play a number of roles which includes answering prayers, messengers, to worship and praise God, to guide, to strengthen and encourage, to deliver people from danger, and among others. These roles are evident in various chapters of the Bible

Part 2: Demons

Theological definition: The theological definition depicts demons as spiritual beings that rejected God entirely. Demons were once angelic beings that rejected God (Wallace, 2014). Theologically, demons and angels share the similar powers, only that demons are opposed to God. Demons, just like angels, are spirit beings. However, demons are immoral and seek to corrupt human beings. Demons have the power to possess individuals. When demons possess individuals, the spirits command everything that the person does. Demons are immortal, just like angels. However, their spirits wander from place to place, the reason they seek to possess individuals.

Biblical definition: from a Biblical perspective, demons are unclean spirits that seek to possess man. In the Old Testament, mentioning of the term demons is rare, appearing only twice. The New Testament contains various instances where demons are mentioned as unclean spirits that possess individuals and cause harm or suffering. In Judges 9: 23-24, God sent a demon to Saul, which tormented him for a period. In 1st Kings 22:19-23, Ahab’s prophets were possessed by lying spirits. Jesus also encountered demons during his ministry. The Bible records that Jesus has power over demons, and thus the ability to cast out demons that possess individuals.

Practical Application: Demons possess human beings by entering the bodies of human beings and taking their form. Demons play a significant role in hindering human beings from receiving salvation, and therefore eternal life. Demons prevent people from receiving the word or acting in accordance to what the Bible teaches. Demons exist to cause anguish among human beings, they seek opportunities to strike and cause despair among individuals.

Conclusion

To conclude, the Bible clearly highlights the existence of angels and demons. Both are spiritual beings created by God. However, they work in opposing ways. Angels bring the message of hope to human beings; they encourage people; and serve God just as human beings should do. On the other hand, demons seek ways to attack human beings, to enter their bodies, and to prevent human beings from gaining salvation. God forewarns human  beings about evil, cautioning them to stay away from evil so as to inherit His Kingdom.

References

Hopko, T. (n.d). Orthodox Christianity and the world. A Russian Orthodox Church Website.        Retrieved from http://www.pravmir.com

Wallace, J. W. (2014). Seven important differences between angels and demons. Cold-Case         Christianity. Retrieved from http://coldcasechristianity.com/2014/seven-important-         differences-between-angels-and-demons/

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The Seven Social Sciences

Biblical Worldview Essay

Question

The goal of the assignment is to demonstrate that you are able to practice your chosen major/program of study in a manner consistent with a biblical/Christian worldview. For this assignment, you will write a 600–1,000-word essay addressing the following topic:

Foundational to the Christian faith is the belief that mankind is created in the image of God. Explain how this belief affects the way you interact with people within your chosen vocation.

 

Biblical Worldview Essay

Introduction

Despite coming from varied and different religious backgrounds, one thing is common, and that is that we believe we are all created by God in his own image and likeness. Particularly, the Christians believe that we are the children of the same Father, God Almighty irrespective of our skin color and races. The knowledge that we are all same and equal in the eyes of the Lord should help us create and develop moral and ethics to enable everyone to have and equal opportunity in life. From Christian teachings, the human being is above all creation and should live with much cohesion and love considering that he has the power to differentiate between bad and good (Goheen, 2008).

Example 1

Considering that human being reflects the image of God, as a human resource manager, I should give all individuals equal opportunities (Genesis 1:26-27). Many are the times that human resource managers are tempted to divide their workforce by their color skin and races. On other occasions, they may practice tribalism and nepotism by hiring individuals from his family and tribe. However, this should not be the case. Everyone should get a chance to compete fairly and justly to get the job in question. On another occasion, the human resources are biased on hiring men over women thus segregating women by their gender. Being created in the image and likeness of God, we all have a right to equal opportunities. I should practice fairness, justice, and equality during the hiring process.

Related: George Washington’s “Farewell Address” 

Example 2

Since humankind is created in the likeness and image of God, as a teacher I should be free and fair to all students (Genesis 5:1-2). Children are innocent and mistreating them by academic ability, background, families or races is ungodly. There is no one single person who chooses to where to be born, to whom, or his color. As a result, as a teacher, I should embrace the diversity in my class and use it as strength to help the weak students rather than making them feels inferior to others. Since I represent God in my vocation, I should lead by example and show my students how to live as one, as children of God my teaching them good morals and ethics.

Example 3

Another vocation that really needs an individual to display his or her acceptance of the teachings that human being is created in the image of God is being a judge (Genesis 2:7). A judge is tasked to ensure that justice is administered to all individuals in a particular area of jurisdiction. Considering that humanity carries the image of God, as a judge, I should ensure that justice and fairness are administered to all who come to court to seek them. To be in a position to observe this, I need to forget about my race or my confrontation I had with the victim on an earlier occasion. I should examine each case independently and leave nothing untouched to ensure the oppressed and victimized in the society have a chance to smile again after getting justice.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we can say that irrespective of our occupations and vocations in the society and country as large, we all need to remember that we all represent God in all we do. We may be tempted to bend the rules to fulfill our desires and interests, but this would definitely jeopardize other people’s chances of fairness, justice, occupation and life. It is always good to put ourselves in situation and shoes of the other person and try to feel their pain and the situation they are going through (Wallace, 2007). By observing this golden principle, the world can become like a village full of love, and we can live as children of the same father.

References

Goheen, M. W. (2008). Living at the crossroads: An introduction to Christian worldview. . Baker Academic.

Wallace, J. R. (2007). Servant leadership: A worldview perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(2),, 114-132.

Related: Civil rights-Worldview Analysis Essay

Becoming an Informed Voter – Researching Your Congressional Delegation

Becoming an Informed Voter – Researching Your Congressional Delegation

Recent Political history of Kentucky

Kentucky is a Jeffersonian commonwealth, and was originally part of the state of Virginia. In 1782, Kentucky became an independent state from Virginia after a split (Barone, 2013). Kentucky’s 3rd Congressional District is the largest of Jefferson’s county. The district’s current representative is John Yarmuth, who won the seat on a democratic vote. John Yarmuth was first elected in Kentucky’s 3rd Congressional District in 2006. In 2014, he was reelected back to the U.S. House on a democratic ticket, defeating other competitors such as Michael Macfarlane on a republican ticket, and Greg Puccetti, an independent candidate. In 2012, John Yarmuth defeated Brooks Wicker who vied on a republican ticket. Kentucky’s 3rd Congressional District is inclined towards the Democratic Party. John Yarmuth is an average Democratic member – as such, most of his votes in parliament reflect the wishes of the Democratic Party members. Yarmuth has served on a number of committees including the Budget Committee and the Energy & Commerce Committee.

The state of Kentucky is largely Republican, especially in the choice or support of presidential candidates. Kentucky has two appointed senators in the U.S. Senate and six representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives. The longest serving senator is Mitch McConnell, having clinched the seat in 1984 through a majority win (Barone, 2013). Rand Paul serves as the junior senator after his election in 2011. Both of Kentucky’s senators support the Republican Party. The Republican influence in Kentucky is mainly due to Senator Mitch McConnell’s efforts. Since his election, McConnell has been particularly influential by helping Republican candidates win elections. In 1998, McConnell provided major support for Jim Bunnings to capture a senate seat in Kentucky (Barone, 2013). After showing weaknesses, McConnell also devised an exit strategy for Bunnings in 2010 since it looked clear that he would not recapture the seat.

How representatives and senators voted in the recent presidential and congressional elections

In the recent presidential elections held in 2012, Mitch McConnell declared his support for Mitt Romney who was vying for the U.S. presidential seat on a Republican ticket. Mitt Romney contested against Barrack Obama, who vied on a Democratic ticket. Mitt Romney lost the elections. Junior senator Rand Paul also declared his support for Republican Party flag bearer, Mitt Romney, while sidelining Democratic Obama in the 2012 presidential elections (Howley, 2013). Kentucky’s representatives include Ed Whitfield (1st District), Brett Guthrie (2nd District), John Yarmuth (3rd District), Thomas Massie (4th District), Harold Rogers (5th District), and Garland Barr (6th District) (Kentucky, 2016). Whitfield, Guthrie, Massie, Rogers and Barr are all Republicans, while Yarmuth is a Democrat as earlier mentioned. In the 2012 presidential bid, Yarmuth endorsed President Barrack Obama, a fellow democrat. The other representatives supported the Republican’s flag bearer Mitt Romney.

In the recent congressional elections held in 2014, Sen. Rand Paul endorsed Mitch McConnell for the senate seat. Speculations were rife that Rand Paul would endorse a tea party challenge candidate (Howley, 2013). His endorsement of the long-running senator cleared the air. Mitch McConnell also supported the junior senator for his election bid in the 2014 congressional elections. Mitch McConnell and Rand Paul endorsed Michael Macfarlane for the 3rd District House of Representatives election bid which he lost to Yarmuth. The U.S. House of Representatives members, Whitfield, Guthrie, Massie, Rogers, and Barr endorsed Republican candidate Rand Paul for junior senatorial position and the incumbent Senator Mitch McConnell. It is clear that majority of the House members endorse candidates based on their party affiliations.

Kentucky’s Political Party Affiliations

Kentucky is leaning more towards the Republican side. During the 2012 presidential elections, 61% of Kentucky residents voted for Mitt Romney, the then Republican candidate. Only 38% of the residents voted for Barack Obama who was vying on a Democratic ticket (Barone, 2013).  In the last five decades, Kentucky was strongly Democratic, a position evident through mainly voting for Democratic candidates. However, in the recent past, Kentucky has leaned more towards the Republican Party. In the last four presidential bids, Kentucky has shown strong liking for the Republican Party, by voting in great numbers for Republican candidates. Currently, there are five Republican members in the U.S. House of Representatives, and only a single Democratic Party member. This represents a strong inclination towards the Republican Party. In the 2008 Democratic Primary, the current President Barack Obama lost to Hillary Clinton, reflecting the residents’ strong support for Republicans. Currently, it would be advisable to anyone vying for any electoral position to do so on a Republican Party ticket.

Related: Psychological Therapy -Reaction paper

In the recent period, the Republican Party has dominated most electoral positions at the grassroots. To start with, its senators are from the Republican Party. These are Mitch McConnell and Rand Paul. Secondly, majority of the United States House of Representatives members are Republican (Stolberg & Blinder, 2015). There are five Republican members and only one from who is from the Democratic Party. A few independent candidates have successfully vied and won in any of the electoral positions in Kentucky. A Republican, Matt Bevin, also holds the gubernatorial seat. Democratic candidates have traditionally won the gubernatorial seat in Kentucky. In the last five decades or so, Kentucky has predominantly voted Democratic Party governors. In 2003, a Republican governor won the seat, serving up to 2007 when Steven L. Beshear replaced him on a Democratic Party ticket. Matt Bevin’s win on a Republican ticket reflects the strong influence of the Republican Party, and its dominance in the region. According to Stolberg & Blinder (2015), the political climate in Kentucky is “ripe for a Republican”.

Kentucky’s 3rd District had a long tradition of supporting the Democratic Party. According to Benen (2016), Democrats have controlled Kentucky’s State House of representatives since the early 1920s. Currently, the Democrats dominate the Kentucky’s legislative chamber in the South. In the recent past, the Republic Party has gained increasing support. From 2008, the House has had more Republicans compared to the Democrats. In 2008, Republicans held four seats while the Democrats managed to capture two seats. In 2010 House, the Republicans were again four while the Democrats were two. The year 2012 represents the most significant change with five seats for the Republicans and one seat for the Democrats. Kentucky’s 3rd District showed its strong support for the Democratic Party by voting John Yarmuth. Yarmuth has won the last four elections on a Democratic ticket. The last Republican representative was Anne Northup who held the position between 2004 and 2005.

Mitch McConnell is the current Kentucky’s senator. He clenched the seat back in 1985. Born in 1942 in Alabama, he attended University of Louisville for his higher education and graduating with B.A. degree in history. In 1969, he joined the University of Kentucky College where he studied law. McConnell began his career as Senator John Cooper’s intern in 1964. His stay with Coopers gave him the inspiration he needed to view for the senate seat. He also worked as an assistant to Marlow Cook, who became a senator in the 1970s. He also worked for Gerald Ford and Antonin Scalia. In 1974 to 1975, McConnell worked as the Deputy United States Attorney for Legislative Affairs. In 1979, McConnell became Jefferson County’s Judge-Executive, a position he held until 1985 when he vied and won the U.S. Senate. McConnell won the U.S. Senate against a two-time incumbent, Huddleston Walter.

John Yarmuth became Kentucky’s 3rd Congressional District representative in 2007. He holds a bachelor’s degree in American Studies, having graduated from Yale University. Between 1971 and 1975, Yarmuth worked as an assistant to Marlow Cool who was a U.S. Senator by then. In 1976, he began his own publishing platform by launching the Louisville Today Magazine. From 1982, he worked as a vice president at the University of Louisville. In 1990, Yarmuth launched the Louisville Eccentric Observer, a local political newspaper for which he was also a columnist. In 2007, Yarmuth took office as Kentucky’s 3rd Congressional District representative in the U.S. House of Representatives. Over the recent election period, Yarmuth has been able to maintain his seat by winning the subsequent elections.

In 2010, Mitch McConnell received a 96 percent rating from the American Conservative Union (ACU). The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) rated the senator at 25 percent in 2015 (Vote Smart, 2016). The Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) gave a 0 percent rating to the senator. The senator received a 100 percent rating from the Family Research Council (Vote Smart, 2016). Overall, Senator Mitch McConnell received low ratings from a number of quarters. His low ratings could be an indicator that the senator has become unpopular in the region. According to the Morning Consult (2015) poll, Senator Mitch McConnell received the highest disapproval rating, gaining 49 percent disapproval rate among the Kentucky voters. Only 40 percent of Kentucky residents gave a positive approval on his job performance (Morning Consult, 2015).

John Yarmuth received a 4 percent rating from the American Conservative Union. This was a low rating from ACU. From the American Civil Liberties Union, he received a 90 percent, which was a good rating. He received a 90 percent score from the Americans for Democratic Action ratings. The Family Research Council gave him a 0 percent rating. John Yarmuth did not have any CC rating. John Yarmuth’s overall ratings seem to be high. Other bodies have given favorable ratings to the U.S. House Representative, meaning he is popular among Kentucky’s 3rd Congressional District residents. Yarmuth has higher chances of winning a reelection compared to McConnel, even though they are not vying for the same seat. Based on these ratings, I would classify Mitch McConnell as conservative. His stance and strict adherence to policies have made him unfavorable with most of the rating organizations. On the other hand, John Yarmuth is liberal. He is liberal because most of his opinions tend to favor civil liberties and social justice in the U.S.

References

Barone, M. (2013). The almanac of American politics 2014. Chicago, IL: The University of         Chicago Press.

Howley, P. (2013, March 27). Rand Paul endorses Mitch McConnell in 2014 Senate race. The     Daily Caller.

Kentucky. (2016). Representatives. Retrieved from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/members/KY

Morning Consult. (2015). The most (and least) popular senators in America. Retrieved             https://morningconsult.com/senate-approval-bernie-rubio-cruz/

Stolberg, S. G., & Blinder, A. (2015 Nov. 3). Matt Bevin, Republican, wins governor’s race in     Kentucky. The New York Times.

Vote Smart. (2016). Mitch McConnell’s Ratings and Endorsements. Retrieved from             http://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/53298/mitch-mcconnell#.V5z0N_l97IU

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How goegraphy affect my daily life

Psychological Therapy -Reaction paper

Question

After reading Chapters 7 and 8 in McCarthy & Archer (2013) and performing additional research on your own, write a 4-6 page reaction paper in which you discuss the following:

  1. Explain how thought-focused treatment systems are inherently different from psychoanalytical/psychodynamic approaches in treating psychological dysfunctions.
  2. In REBT, “rational” means that which helps people to achieve their basic goals and purposes. Therefore, irrational beliefs are those that interfere with goals. Do a web search and find the eleven or twelve irrational beliefs (called “IB’s”) used by REBT therapists. Choose two of them and provide an example for each.
  3. Cognitive therapy is directed at common cognitive distortions, or faulty thought patterns. These send us into depression. Examine the list of cognitive distortions based on Aaron Beck’s work. Choose two and provide an example for each.
  4. Explain briefly the terms “shaping” and “token economies” used in behavioral based therapies and give an example for each.

Sample papers

Psychological Therapy -Reaction paper

Physical and psychological health comes first in the priority list of every individual. Moreover, the government of every state ensures that every citizen has access to medical services. However, this does not mean that there are no cases of unhealthy citizens. One of the health issues that are rather common among people across the world is psychological dysfunction. Psychological disorders have been identified and classified into various categories depending on their characteristics (Association., 2013). Some examples of psychological disorders include eating disorders, mood disorders, personal disorders, psychotic disorders and sexual disorders. Most of these disorders are caused by abnormalities in the mind that result from persistent behavior patterns that affect day-to-day operations of a human brain. Some of these disorders are transferred from parents to children while others are caused by chemical imbalance in the brain, childhood experiences, and illnesses.

Question 1

However, no one perfect medication can be prescribed to all patients suffering from psychological disorders. Over the years, psychologists have developed various treatment methods. Two of the most widely used treatment systems include the thought-focused treatment systems and psychoanalytical/ psychodynamic approaches. These approaches were developed to help therapists and health care facilities in general offer upgraded interventions and treatment based on the characteristics and nature of the disorder and the desired results. The origin of thought-based treatment systems can be traced from the ancient days when psychologists began to challenge and pull away from psychoanalyst approaches. Psychoanalyst approach was basically based on the theories that explain human functioning based on the interaction and forces within the individual, especially unconscious forces and between different structures of the personality (Brands, 2007). The primary goal of the psychodynamic approach is to attain the best balance possible for the functioning of ego that is ruled by the principle of reality. On the other hand, thought-focused treatment believes in cognition, emotions and behavior of individuals. Psychoanalysis focuses more on the emotions of the individual rather than his cognition.  The primary objective of the thought-focused treatment is to assist patients create awareness of and modify their thoughts to change their perspectives on certain things. The thought-focused therapist usually listens to their clients narrate their problems and assist them in analyzing the problems and modify their cognition (Brands, 2007). On the other hand, psychodynamic approach takes long, and the therapist maintains a non-judgmental and positive attitude towards their patients.  Most of the psychological disorder patients go for thought-focused treatment approach rather than psychoanalysis therapy because, in thought-focused treatment, the patients engage in active communication with the therapist something that is not present in the other approach. However, despite the approach and the time taken, both kinds of treatment should give close if not similar results.

Question 2

The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is one of the most used therapy top help psychology patients. Dr. Albert Ellis was credit with the development of this cognitive behavior therapy back in 1955. The primary aim and objective of a therapist who use this philosophical approach are to analyze how different persons distort information relayed to them in different ways.  REBT is an action-based approach that attempts to manage cognitive, emotional and behavioral disturbances. Dr. Albert Ellis stated that too much thinking about a scenario and events could lead to emotional and behavioral upset and hence distort information about those particular events (McCabe, 2010).  There are some irrational beliefs that we keep on sending to ourselves as individuals that prevent us from growing emotionally. Such irrational beliefs include:

  1. To prove my worth to everybody who matter to me, I must do well to get their approval.
  2. Other people must treat me kindly and fairly or else they are bad.
  3. I must have an easy, enjoyable life or I cannot enjoy living it at all.
  4. All the people that matter to me must love me and approve me, or it will be awful.
  5. I must be a higher achiever, or I will be worthless.
  6. Nobody should ever behave badly and if they do I should condemn them.
  7. I must not be frustrated in getting what I want and if I am it will be terrible.
  8. When things are tough, and I am under pressure, I must be miserable, and there is nothing I can do about this.
  9. I can avoid my responsibilities and dealing with life’s difficulties and still be fulfilled.
  10. My past is the most important part of my life, and it will keep on dictating how I feel and what I want to do.
  11. When faced with the possibility of something frightening or dangerous happening to me I must obsess about it and make frantic efforts to avoid it
  12. Everybody and everything should be better than they are and if they are not, it is awful.

Selective abstraction is one of the irrational beliefs where victims make decision and judgment based on specific information specially the past and disregarding any other information. Moreover, patients are more personalized and self-centered and thus believing that they are better than anybody else, and thus they can condemn all who wrong them (Broyd, 2009).

Question 3

Most of the mood disorder patients undergo cognitive behavior to help distort the negatives thoughts that an individual may have to himself and change his mood about the life as a whole. Below are some of the cognitive distortions that a patient may experience.

  1. Filtering- taking negative details and filtering them to take all positive aspects.
  2. Polarized thinking- seeing things as either black or white we are either success or failure.
  3. Overgeneralization – generalizing things based on a single event or evidence.
  4. Jumping into conclusion- thinking that we know why people act and react the way they do.
  5. Catastrophizing- having a negative attitude and always waiting for disaster to strike.
  6. Personalization – where an individual believes he is better, and all people should follow his example.
  7. Blaming – holding other people responsible for our misery and pains.

Patients suffering from cognitive disorder tend to catastrophize things by exaggerating the importance of insignificant ideas such as reasons for their failure. Moreover, these patients are constantly blaming the people next to them in the case of failure for example poor school and work performance (Association., 2013).

 

Question 4

Shaping as used in behavioral therapy is not a method used to manage inappropriate behavior, but rather it is a method that helps a patient in setting goals and his objectives. Shaping provides the guidance and directions on how to set these targets (Broyd, 2009). On the other hand, a token economy is a behavior modification method based on systematic reinforcement of individual behavior. These tokens are usually in the form of symbols that can be exchanged for reinforcers.

In conclusion, we can say that there is no one best therapy approach, and therapists and doctors should examine each patient independently before treatment. However, both methods should give similar results. In addition, for the therapy to be successful, the efforts of both the patient and the doctors are needed.

References

Association., A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

Brands, A. M. (2007). A detailed profile of cognitive dysfunction and its relation to psychological distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13(2),, 288-297.

Broyd, S. J.-B. (2009). Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: a systematic review. Neuroscience & biobehavioral reviews, 33(3),, 279-296.

McCabe, M. A.‐M. (2010). Psychological and interpersonal dimensions of sexual function and dysfunction. The journal of sexual medicine, 7(1pt2), , 327-336.

How goegraphy affect my daily life

Reaction Paper-Core values of person-centered counseling

Question

After reading the assigned chapters in McCarthy & Archer, write a 3-4 page reaction paper in which you discuss the following:
                a. Describe in detail the three core values of person-centered counseling (unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding, and congruence). 
                b. Assess the value of applying these aspects universally across all treatment approaches. Please explain your position. 
                c. Psychopathology is the manifestation of mental/behavioral disorders. Does psychological dysfunction exist in the existential therapy model? Please explain your findings.

sample paper

Reaction Paper

Core values of person-centered counseling

The first core value of person-centered counseling is unconditional positive regard. This value refers to the ability of a therapist to accept and value other persons as they are, and to appreciate and respect their self-determination rights. This hypothesis was put forward by Carl Rogers. The central concept underlying the hypothesis is that all individuals can potentially alter their opinion on self, their attitudes, and also their self-directed behaviors (Cooper et al., 2013). The attitude of the person-centered counselor greatly determines the outcomes of the interaction with the client. The counselor should uphold the humanity of the client at all times. Under no circumstances should the counselor’s perceptions about the client be altered by any of the client behaviors. Unconditional positive regard is thus an attitude that all person-centered counselors must uphold towards their clients.

The second core value is empathetic understanding. This refers to the ability of the counselor to understand the client’s feelings; not just a mere understanding but being highly attuned and the ability to perceive client’s inner feelings as if they were the counselor’s own feelings (Cooper et al., 2013). In this way, the counselor can be able to respond to client’s concerns in an empathetic manner and at the present time. Empathetic understanding can only be of importance to the counseling session if the counselor perceives the client’s feelings at the present time, or if the counselor has another chance to interact with the client.

The third value relates to congruence. This is regarded as the most important element in person-centered counseling. Congruence refers to the ability of the therapist to remain genuine or open during the interaction with client (Cooper et al., 2013). The counselor should be able to express in an honest way the internal as well as the external experiences. The counselor is authentic and does not shy away from telling the truth. During the interaction with the client, the therapist should be deeply involved in his or her interaction with the client. The counselor should show genuine feelings or interest as opposed to feigned feelings. In line with this, the counselor should be able to draw on his or her own personal experiences which can greatly improve the outcomes of the interaction.

The value of applying the aspects universally

Unconditional positive regard is important when applied universally across all treatment approaches. It helps counselors to be nonjudgmental when dealing with clients. Also when applied across other treatment approaches, the concept can be of great use especially to physicians when treating patients (Thomas & Woods, 2003). The concept enables physicians to be impartial about their patient’s sufferings or ailments. Unconditional positive regard enables therapists or even physicians develop respect towards their clients. Applying the concept also enables therapists and physicians to accept others as unique individuals who have the right to self-determination. As such, it enables individuals accept the beliefs, opinions, and views of others.

Empathetic understanding enables individuals understand others from an inner frame of reference. It enables therapists and physicians to learn about how their clients perceive things or how they think and feel. In that way, they are able to provide the best possible care to them. Applying empathetic understanding enables therapists to respond to clients without personal perceptions, and hence become objective during the session. Congruence enables therapists to communicate to clients the true nature of things. It also enables them to be aware of their true internal experiences. The awareness of the internal experiences can enable the therapist to intentionally avoid harming the client if by saying some truths the client will become offended (Thomas & Woods, 2003).

Psychological dysfunction and existential therapy

Existential therapy holds the view that inner conflicts within individuals are brought about by confrontations that arise from the various dimensions of existence. These dimensions include: the physical dimension, the spiritual dimension, social dimension, and psychological dimension. The inner conflicts are driven by givens of existence which include: meaninglessness, the inevitability of death, existential isolation, and the responsibilities associated with freedom. There exist multiple existential views. As such, there are diverse opinions regarding psychological dysfunction. Nonetheless, the dominant view is that psychological dysfunction does exist in the existential therapy model.

Psychological dysfunction is brought about by one’s inability to adequately handle existential anxieties that arise from the normal course of life and related to the givens of existence. It may also be attributed to the refusal by an individual to tackle the anxieties that result from life’s givens of existence which are meaninglessness, freedom, persistent thoughts on mortality, and isolation. An individual may be unable to deal with normal anxieties in life such as isolation and meaninglessness of life. Such an individual may be said to be in a psychologically dysfunctional state. Yalom (1980) contends that psychiatric problems such as substance abuse, depression, suicidal tendencies, somatization, and others reflect underlying existential issues. Psychopathological manifestations occur to individuals as ineffective ways of coping with existential anxieties. Psychological dysfunction thus exists in the existential therapy model.

References

Cooper, M., O’Hara, M., Schmid, P. F., & Bohart, A. (2013). The handbook of person—centred             psychotherapy and counselling. United Kingdom, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thomas, D., & Woods, H. (2003). Working with people with learning disabilities: Theory and     practice. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York, NY: Basic Books.

How goegraphy affect my daily life

 

Is information technology a natural resource? Can human intelligence be considered a natural resource?

Question

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: Is information technology a natural resource? Can human intelligence be considered a natural resource?.  End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: If  you want to set up an industry, what factors will you consider in the location of your industry? Explain. End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Discuss the following article: The language that unites and the language that divides us: Why was Arabic kept and Serbo-Croatian abolished? (see attached pdf document)

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

  1. Discuss the following article: Making global labor fair (see attached pdf document)

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

  1. Watch the video Into the Tropics, and discuss

http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=40762

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

  1. Watch the video on Gas, Gas, Gas, and discuss the following question. How is the use of biofuel impacting the economic livelihood of rural China?

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/pcp/pls_0558813755/geography_videos/vid_page.htm?projCode=dig5&vid=gas

Answer

GEO 215

Question 1

Information technology cannot be regarded as a natural resource. Natural resources are defined as something natural such as a mineral deposit or freshwater that is of importance to humans. Natural resources are categorized into renewable and non-renewable resources. Information technology is a human construction, and therefore not a natural resource (Warner, 2009). Information technology is the result of the work of human intelligence and labor on available natural resources; and not naturally available. Nature provides the natural resources with which man exploits to in order to develop various products. Human intelligence can be defined as mental abilities that determine learning, information processing and memory. Human intelligence cannot be regarded as a natural resource. Human intelligence represents the potential for humans to exploit natural resources, but in itself is not a natural resource which can exploited for commercial gains. Human intelligence is the mental power to do things, but not a natural resource. The question to review is: what is the importance of natural resources to the economy?

Question 2

There are certain factors considered while setting up industries in a particular place. The availability of raw materials greatly determines the location of industries. Most industries are set up near the source of raw materials especially where raw materials are bulk in size. The quality of physical infrastructure also determines the location of industries. More industries are located in areas with high quality infrastructure such as roads, railways, and communication network. Roads and railways facilitate the movement of raw materials and finished goods in and out of the industry. Communication helps link an industry to distributors, customers and suppliers. The availability of market is also an important factor to consider. Nearness to a market is important since it enables a company to reduce transportation costs. Nearness to the market is of great importance where the final product is bulky or highly perishable. It is also important to consider government policies. Government policies may determine the level of tax, availability of credit, and subsidies to industries all of which are of great importance to the survival of an industry (Sauvant, 2009). The question to consider is: what do you think the government can do to attract foreign investors to set up industries locally?

Related: global warming 

Question 3

The article by Zabarah (2012) explores the reasons why the Arabic language was kept while Serbo-Croatian was abolished. According to the article, this was mainly due to ideological constraints. In the 19th century, the Arabic language underwent major reforms by addition of new terminology. Political and cultural motivations also led to the acceptance of Arabic language. In late 19th century, Arab national thinkers felt a greater need for a United Arab community in light of emergence of other communities such as the German community. The United Arab community would use the Arabic language for unification purposes. The Arabic language was beyond race or tribe barriers, unlike other Western European languages; it was a language for everyone. This means that as long as a person could be able to speak the Arabic language, one was considered as part of the Arabic culture. On the other hand, the lands under the influence of Serbo-Croatian language were divided along religious lines. Further divisions arose in the naming of the language between Serb linguists and Croatian IIIyrians. Both the Serbs and Croatians revered their deep language traditions, making it difficult to adopt a common language standard. The different factions each with its own language characteristics led the abolishment of Serbo-Croatian language in favor of Arabic language. The review question is: what is the essence of language?

Question 4

The article “Making global labor fair” looks at the plight of workers involved in developing world-leading brands as well as supplying raw materials, and the nature of global supply chains. In the majority of countries which are suppliers of raw materials, one fundamental problem stands out – the issue of child labor and slavery. Child labor and slavery is an issue of international concern, and despite being outlawed under the international human rights watchdog, the issues still remain a common phenomenon in majority of countries around the world. In most parts of West Africa such as Congo, Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire and Zimbabwe, child labor and slavery are key challenges bedeviling the societies. Such countries where child labor and slavery are rife represent failed governance. As the writer reckons, these places mark the beginning of the global supply chains which are largely unregulated. Some of the supply chains contain unscrupulous individuals. Due to lack of regulation, consumers are left at the mercies of the suppliers and manufacturers. The question to analyze is: what can governments do to eliminate child labor and slavery in war-torn countries which are the major suppliers of raw materials?

Question 5

The video “Into the Tropics” reveals intriguing details of the conquest of Europeans in Africa. The video answers the basic question; how were the Europeans able to conquer large parts of the world? The European region represents one of the earliest civilizations in the entire world. From the video, geography favored Europe – the area was endowed with rich agricultural lands suitable for farming and animal rearing. This availability of food hastened development in the region comparing to other parts of the world. With the coming of Europeans to Africa, three fundamental forces shaped the continent in ways that had never been seen before. These were guns, germs and steel. Having lived in close proximity with domestic animals, the Europeans acquired diseases from animals. However with time, they developed resistance to these diseases. When they came to Africa, the indigenous people had no resistance to such diseases. As a result, diseases such as smallpox decimated entire populations. The Europeans possessed superior weapons such as guns which also helped them conquer most parts of the world. The question is, do you think civilization would have spread to other parts of the world had Europeans remained in Europe? If yes, at what pace?

Question 6

The use of biofuel has a significant impact on the economic livelihood of the rural China. Like many other countries around the world including the developed nations, there exists growing income gaps between the rural and urban areas. Majority of people in the rural areas are unable to afford basic commodities such as access to electricity and running water. In China’s Guangxi Province, the situation is no different. Some homes are not connected to the national electricity grid, making them to rely on wood as their major source of energy for cooking. In addition, even the households connected to electricity still rely on firewood to cook due to the high cost of electricity. The use of biofuels has transformed the lives of many individuals in rural China. This involves use of human and animal waste to produce methane gas for cooking and lighting. The use of bio-energy not only reduces emission of greenhouse gases but also improves the health of rural dwellers. Bio-energy is clean unlike firewood which produce soot. Majority of rural women are also saved from the daunting task of looking for firewood in the forest. The key concern is; what are the impacts of biofuel production on the environment?

References

Into the tropics. Retrieved from: http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=40762

Sauvant, K. P. (2009). Investing in the United States: Is the US ready for FDI from China?.                 Cheltenham, Glos, U.K: Edward Elgar.

University of Phoenix. (2014). Making global labor fair.

Warner, J. (2009). Human Information Retrieval (History and Foundations of Information                Science). MIT Press.

Zabarah, D. A. (2011). The language that divides and the language that divides us: Why was           Arabic kept and Serbo-Croatian abolished. Routledge: Taylor Francis Group.

How goegraphy affect my daily life

Consider the effects of colonization on the global economy today. Describe its impact on trading practices and patterns. How does it affect local cultures worldwide

Question

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: Consider the effects of colonization on the global economy today. Describe its impact on trading practices and patterns. How does it affect local cultures worldwide? Provide specific examples of its effect. End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: How do you differentiate between Cultural Evolutionism and Cultural Diffusionism?  Under what circumstances would you consider each of these to have happened?

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: How do large animal farms compete with the need for crop food to feed humans? How could large animal farms be affected by urban sprawl? Are large animal farms sustainable practices today? Explain

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: If you were allowed to farm only one kind of crop, which type of crop would you choose that would be most beneficial for humans? If you could raise only one type of animal on a farm, which type of animal would you choose to be most beneficial to humans? Would this practice be considered sustainable today? Would it be a food security risk for a nation?  Would it be economically feasible? Explain

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question: Is the world currently at the point where it can no longer feed the population? Explain your answer. What kind of agriculture would be needed to change your answer? What other information from the many geographic subfields would need to be considered? Discuss

End your post with an open-ended question to encourage responses from the audience (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

References:

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places & Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

  1. Discus: Films Media Group (2012). Global Food Equity (19:59) From Title: Global Food Equity.

http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=48971

Answer

GEO 215

Question 1

Colonization had pervasive and profound impacts on global trading practices and patterns. Colonization resulted to massive trade expansion in most parts of the world. However, this trade was largely fueled by slavery and the use of indentured servants. The European colonization of the African continent led to the growth of slave trade, with slaves being exported to the American continent (Abbattista, 2011). The Europeans exploited the continent for its natural resources and human power. In return, the Europeans improved infrastructure by building roads and railway, and improving the communication network. The improvements of roads and railways was meant to facilitate the movement of raw materials from the interior parts to the ports for exportation. In America, colonization led to exchanges of new commodities which significantly improved trade. The Europeans greatly improved overseas trade leading to creation of new wealth in African and America. Colonization led to the changes in cultures of the local populations. For example, most local populations abandoned their traditional religious beliefs in favor of Christianity which was introduced by the Europeans. In India, the Europeans introduced alcoholic drinks (Abbattista, 2011). The critical question is: was the aggregate impact of colonization positive or negative to the world?

Question 2

Cultural evolutionism is hinged on Darwinian Theory of Evolution.  Cultural evolutionism theory argue that cultural change in humans is akin to the Darwinian evolutionary process, disregarding the genetic evolution aspect (Wasamba, 2015). In other words, cultural evolutionism occurred among all societies following a common track whereby communities underwent transformation from simple hunter-gatherer economic activities to more advanced civilizations. On the other hand, cultural diffusionism holds the view that cultural changes occur as a result of contacts and borrowings between communities which leads too exchanges of information and ideas. According to the school of thought, cultural traits thus spreads across different communities influencing development in such communities. Cultural evolutionism occurred during the early ages where there was little contact among communities. Various communities progressed at a different pace transforming themselves from hunter-gather communities to farming communities. Cultural diffusionism occurred during the colonization period whereby the European colonialists interacted with different communities thereby influencing their cultures (Wasamba, 2015). The question here is: what theory between the two has the strongest impact on cultural change and why?

Related : Geo 215

Question 3

There has been a high increase in the human population over the last century. This increase in population has increased pressure on land available for cultivation and for animal production (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). Large animal farms take up space that could be used for crop production, leading to reduced crop yields for human consumption. Large animal farms also use resources such as water resources that could be channeled to support crop production. Urban sprawl is largely uncoordinated development. Large animal farms can be affected by encroachment, decreasing the amount of areas covered by the animal farms. Urban sprawl often results in fragmentation of large animal farms into small areas that are not productive. This is because of subdivisions caused by factors such as laying of pipelines, road and railway network, and other infrastructure developments. Total loss of animal farms may also occur due to urban sprawl. Large animal farms are still sustainable farming practices even today. This is because they are suitable for practicing agricultural activities such as rotational grazing. This avoids overgrazing which destroys habitats. This leads to the question: what are the impacts of urban sprawl on the ecosystems and habitats surrounding the city environments?

Question 4

The type of crop that would be most beneficial to humans would be wheat. Wheat is used for both human and animal consumption. Wheat has served as an important source of nutrients to people for centuries. Wheat is crushed into flour and can be used in preparing different foods such as breakfast foods, bread, spaghetti, macaroni, and other foods. Wheat can also be used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. The vegetative part of wheat plant can be used as livestock feeds. The most beneficial animal to humans would be cows. Cows provide humans with both milk and meat. There are a number of milk and meat products that can be derived from cows. These include cheese, cream, yogurt, ice cream and other dairy products. Beef from cows is also an important source of animal protein. This practice is not sustainable. Farming one type of crop can contribute to soil degradation. Rotational farming would be the best. Multiple livestock species would be the most beneficial. Keeping different animal species can enable them to utilize all plant species available on a piece of land. It would be a food security risk for a country since there are less available sources of food. It would also not be economically viable since there could be issues with land degradation. This leads to the question, what farming techniques are the most beneficial to farmland?

Related: Water budget and the Importance of Calculating a Water Budget

Question 5

The world can no longer feed its entire population. Over 800 million people are currently facing starvation. Climate change has contributed to extreme weather conditions such as prolonged droughts and floods, leading to food shortages in areas which were previously productive (Panesar & Marwaha, 2013). Emergence of new diseases has also contributed to current food shortages. Adoption of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) can help reverse the trend. Genetically modified crops are resistant to pests, diseases and some are drought resistant. This can help improve agricultural yields. Other forms of biotechnology solutions includes reducing the growing cycle of plants such as maize. The use of biotechnology has led to creation of new crop species and varieties that perform better, leading to increased crop production. Adoption of irrigation and water management practices can also help improve crop yields. Due to changes in precipitation across different regions, there is need to control water resources and adopt efficient irrigation methods such as drip irrigation. Other information to consider includes the quality of soils and the impact of temperature on various crop varieties. The critical question is can biotechnology fully reverse low crop yields caused by climate change factors such as prolonged droughts? What kind of ethical issues revolve around GMOs?

Question 6

The video “Global Food Equity” analyzes the reasons why there are food shortages in some places. Surprisingly, the video reveals that the world produces enough food for each and every individual. The concern thus is, why does 1 in 7 people go to bed hungry every day? The answer is quite simple; there is inequitable distribution of food worldwide. There are also other factors which contribute to food shortages such as inadequate water for cultivation, low financial power, drought, poor transport network problems and distribution issues. Vulnerable groups include the indigenous tribes, the elderly, homeless, children, and among others. The factors that affect food productivity in a particular region may be dived into natural and human factors. Natural factors include the geography of a region and natural disasters such as drought. Human factors include conflicts, education, government policies, technological developments, social economic status, and culture. Food shortages in developing countries is also attributed to the emergence of biofuel industries in Europe and America (“Media Group,” 2012). The critical question is, can food shortages become eliminated if food distribution systems were improved?

Related:Urbanization Analysis, Green Options & Global Warming Strategies

References

Abbattista, G. (2011). European Encounters in the Age of Expansion. European History Online.     Retrieved from: http://ieg-ego.eu/en/threads/backgrounds/european-encounters/guido-             abbattista-european-encounters-in-the-age-of-expansion

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places &              Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company.

Media Group. (2012). Global Food Equity. Retrieved from:            http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=48971

Panesar, P., & Marwaha, S. (2013). Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food Processing:      Opportunities and Challenges. CRC Press.

Wasamba, P. (2015). Contemporary oral literature fieldwork: A reseacher’s guide. Nairobi:             University of Nairobi Press.

 

How goegraphy affect my daily life

How will climate and weather trends affect the physical Earth over the next 500 years based on current pollution trends

Question

How will climate and weather trends affect the physical Earth over the next 500 years based on current pollution trends? What changes could be made by humans to alter the current pollution trends and produce a different outcome than the one you previously projected . (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

  1. In Week three use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question

What would happen to the Earth’s climate if the flow and temperature of the oceans were altered due to ocean basin earthquakes? . (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

  1. In Week three use the ebooks and the selected readings available to you in this class to answer the following question

How does weathering and other geological processes affect the landforms of a place.  Provide examples. . (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the reference.

  1. Discuss attached pdf document: South Dacota State university research: Tracking Changes on Earth’s Surface . (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

  2. Discuss attached pdf document: On the Politics of Sustainability a Long Way Ahead . (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)

answer

GEO 215

Question 1

Climate and weather trends will have a profound effect over the physical earth. To start with, the earth’s average temperatures will be unbearably high. This will lead to such problems as reduction in ice cover & melting of the polar ice caps, changes in permafrost, and also changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). Most regions will likely experience severe droughts, leading to desertification. A gradual rise in sea level will displace those living near the sea or in low lying regions. The intensity and frequency of extreme events such as storms will be extremely high. There are some changes that can alter the current pollution trends. First, humans must completely shift from fossil fuels to clean sources of energy in order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases. Second, new potential technologies such as trapping and storing carbon dioxide gas will likely reverse the current trend. Lastly, increasing forest cover will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). The major concern is: will there be an alternative source of energy that can fully replace fossil fuels?

Related : Global warming

Question 2

There are several ocean basins ocean basins with different temperatures and levels of salinity such as Arctic, Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Southern Ocean. Water in these basins is always in circulation. Ocean circulation is controlled by earth’s rotation, sun, and plate tectonics movement. Surface winds greatly determine the climate of an area. Weather systems are greatly influenced by differences in temperatures between the sea and land. This is because the ocean temperatures influence the ocean currents which are responsible for bringing rain or other climatic conditions such as a warming effect over land. Altering the ocean temperatures would therefore lead to changes in the climate of regions especially in areas where climate is modified by ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream. The flow of the ocean would have similar effects to climate due to the mixing of warm and cold waters (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). The critical question is: what are the chances that the flow and temperatures of the oceans may be altered the near future?

Question 3

Weathering can be defined as a chemical or mechanical process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces. Chemical weathering is caused by the action of chemicals in water on rocks which causes them to either become weak or crumble or to dissolve. Chemical weathering has a significant impact on areas with limestone rocks or marble. Chemical weathering in limestone areas leads to formation of various features such as swallow holes, scars, underground features such as stalagmites & stalactites, and rock pillars. Mechanical weathering also affects the landforms of a place. Mechanical weathering causes rocks to crumble into smaller pieces. In the polar zones and areas covered by ice, glaciers break down rocks as they move down a mountain creating various landforms such as hanging valleys, glacial troughs, arêtes, truncated spurs, and other features. Other geological processes such as soil erosion result to formation of gorges, river valleys, river deltas, waterfalls, and other features (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). The critical question is how does weathering affect the shape of young and old mountains?

Question 4

The document titled “Tracking Changes on the Earth’s Surface” reveals the critical role research plays in monitoring changes on the earth’s surface that are largely attributed to human activities. The unique thing about the study is that it is being conducted through the use of modern technology, and does not involve physical travel to the regions under observation. The study involves analyzing images taken over time to find clues about any changes to the areas being studies that might be the result of natural or man-made causes.  The study of changes on the earth’s surface, better known as terrestrial monitoring, is particularly being used to analyze deforestation which will help scientists understand the various effects of deforestation. Technology plays a critical role in enhancing terrestrial monitoring. This is because it is extremely difficult to assess the level of deforestation from the ground, making analysis of satellite images as the only viable option in studying deforestation. The question is; will terrestrial monitoring enable scientists to accurately determine deforestation rates and possible impacts?

Question 5

The article “On the Politics of Sustainability a Long Way Ahead” exposits the concept of sustainable development and the need for human beings to embrace it before it is too late. The article stresses on the importance of modern societies to plan for the future in their utilization and exploitation of various resources. Sustainable development is a concept that will require innovative practices and creativity in order to develop solutions to problems bedeviling societies and to plan for future generations. The article further describes eight themes that may help communities achieve sustainability. Some of the key themes discussed include governance, education, cultures, demography and others. Governments play a crucial role in determining sustainability in resource use through formulation of policies. Education can also play a critical role in enhancing sustainability through inculcating positive behaviors among the youth. In terms of culture, a global shift in people’s value system towards sustainability may help save resources for future generations. The concern remains as can sustainable development be achieved in the real world?

Question 6

“Tracking Water from Space” is an educative video detailing potential technologies that could be used in measuring water distribution on earth. The distribution of water around earth has been highly impacted by climate change. For instance, higher temperatures have seen more water being held up in oceans from the melting ice caps. GRACE mission is meant to utilize two satellites orbiting around earth to measure distribution of water. Success of this mission means that scientists will be able to accurately measure the amount of water lost by an iceberg, or the amount of water on the ground following a downpour. GRACE mission is a revolutionary technology that for the first time will allow scientists to easily collect vital data on water distribution on earth without spending too much time on the ground. GRACE mission provides visual maps that show the distribution of water on the entire globe. This will enable scientists learn how climate change is affecting various regions. However, in what ways will the GRACE mission help fight climate change?

Question 7

The video “Moyers & Company: Climate Change – The Next Generation” assesses some of the actions that groups as well as individuals have taken to fight climate change and global warming. Juliana is an 18 year-old who started campaigning against government’s inaction regarding climate change while still a teenager. The video asserts that in the current word, disasters such as flooding, storms, and drought have become severe and frequent, phenomena which can only be attributed to climate change. It is with this knowledge that people must take concrete actions to avert a catastrophe. Over the recent past, organizations and support groups are more vocal in the fight against climate change. In 2014, the UN Global Summit was held to pressure governments to cut emissions. Juliana has adopted a radical approach in the fight against climate change. Her approach involves taking legal action against the state in a bid to compel the state to take active measures to mitigate climate change. The concern is: do the courts have the legal mandate to compel the government to take such measures?

Related: GEO 2015 – HYDROLOGICAL AND CARBON CYCLES

Question 8

The video titled “The Mendoza Case: A “Green Rights” Legal Ruling in Argentina” demonstrates the power courts yield in relation to matters environment. The video shows that the courts may actually be the solution to curb the increasing pollution and ultimately climate change in the world. This is evidenced by a Supreme Court ruling which directed that the government was responsible for providing a clean and safe environment for every individual. Contrary to expectations, the river had become an eyesore and a threat to public health due to heavy pollution from industries, sewer lines, farmlands and shanty towns that lined the banks of the river. Following the Supreme Court ruling, the government engaged in concerted efforts to clean the entire river basin. Years later, the river is free of most of the garbage that lay on its banks. However, the river still poses significant health risk due to the high concentration of chemicals on the river bend.  The critical concern is: will civil suits force governments to implement climate change mitigation measures?

References

Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places &        Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company

GRACE: Tracking Water from Space. Retrieved from:        http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=47556

Moyers & Company: Climate Change—The Next Generation        http://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=60355

The Mendoza Case: A “Green Rights” Legal Ruling in         Argentinahttp://fod.infobase.com/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=60293

O’Riordan, T. (n.d). On the Politics of Sustainability a Long Way Ahead. Retrieved from:                 www.environmentmagazine.org

South Dakota State University Research. (2016). Tracking Changes on the Earth’s Surface.

How goegraphy affect my daily life

GIS and GPS

Question

Write a paper consisting of 350- to 700-words that develop an expanded understanding of geographic information systems (GIS) and geographic positioning systems (GPS) for your current or future career field and how it is used today. Research and discuss two the following aspects:

  • Relationships of the geographical subfields and how they might be incorporated into a GIS/GPS application in your field.

  • Research if there are ways to obtain training on applying GIS/GPS in your specific career field. Would you find these types of trainings helpful? Why or why not?

  • Changes that trigger other changes, such as natural disasters. How can GIS/GPS be applied to track the changes and help us understand potential threats like global warming, recurring events, or natural disasters within your perspective career field and/or regional areas.

answer

GIS and GPS

          Question 1

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a system which enables people to capture, analyze, interpret, manipulate and present geographical data. A Global Positioning System (GPS) is a system that enables users or people to know their exact position or location at all times, and in any part of the world (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). Physical geography and human geography form the major subfields of geography. Physical geography is concerned with natural phenomena or the natural world. On the other hand, human geography is concerned with people, cultures, and their impacts on the natural environment.  These subfields are related in a number of ways. Both physical and human geography analyze the impacts of carbon emissions on climate, which can be classified in both human and physical geography. Both of these subfields are also related in that they examine the relationship of human beings and the natural environment.

The geographical subdivisions can be integrated into a GIS/GPS application in the field. Practice in civil engineering requires the integration of both human as well as physical geography. Civil engineering is concerned with design and construction of structures such as roads, buildings, bridges, dams, and others. GIS/GPS systems can be used to obtain important data such as traffic monitoring, surveying, and assessing the possible impacts of a particular project on the environment. In surveying, the systems enables engineers to obtain important data such where to place mileposts, signs and other traffic signals. This involves both the physical and human subfields.

Catastrophic weather events such as floods, disease outbreaks, drought, storms, and others can cause great damage especially where people are living in congested areas. Disaster management deals with both physical as well as human geography (Tomaszewski, 2014). When disasters strike even the natural habitats are destroyed. A global information system can provide crucial details concerning the area affected by disaster such as the population density, enabling civil engineers to thoroughly plan for ways to address such disasters in those areas. A GPS system can be used to map the entire area.

            Question 2

There a many ways civil engineering students can obtain training on GIS/GPS application in their career field. Some institutions offer a training course on geographic information systems, global positioning systems, mapping, remote sensing, visualization, and analysis (Tomaszewski, 2014). Training on applying GIS/GPs is not only carried out through physical interactions with tutors in classrooms but also through online classes. Prospective students can register for online classes which allow them to study from far off places and at their own convenience. Students graduate with various qualifications depending on the depth and time taken to complete their studies. For instance, students may graduate with certificates in GIS/GPS. Students wishing to obtain higher accreditation can obtain a Master of Geographic information Systems degree which can enable them design geospatial systems, analyze data, and engage in geospatial technology project management.

These types of training would be very helpful in my career. To start with, training on applying GIS/GPS can enable one to acquire the right technical competencies and information literacy that a proficient GIS/GPS user needs. Training exposes individuals to modern tools and techniques that are applicable in the field of civil engineering, enabling one to stay ahead of others. GIS/GPS skills are very crucial in civil engineering. Civil engineers can apply GIS/GPS in assessing the situation of local road infrastructure. For instance, civil engineers can use GIS/GPS to determine the accurate lengths of the road, or to come up with the total number of local roads.

Training is also helpful because it can equip civil engineers with important skills such as design, project management, mapping, and others related to geospatial knowledge. These types of training can also help an individual to pursue more advanced programs. Lastly, these types of training would be helpful because they can help the learner in getting the latest insights about the technologies since they are constantly changing, with new uses and applications being discovered from time to time. Thus, training can significantly improve an individuals’ knowledge and skills enabling them to become more productive and effective in their day-to-day activities (Tomaszewski, 2014).

 

Reference

Dahlman, C. T., & Renwick, W. H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places, &     Environment (6th ed.). : Pearson Education Company.

Tomaszewski, B. (2014). Geographic information Systems (GIS) for Disaster Management. CRC             Press.

 

Art museum

Art museum

For years, the art has been around, and human beings have widely embraced the idea of putting their work into art whether in a painting or drawing. To make sure that some of the finest creativity is preserved for generations to come to view and to enjoy, people designed and constructed art museum where these artistic works would be preserved. Therefore, an art museum is a building for the exhibition of art, particularly visual art. There are a different kind of museum around the world both public and private but are widely differentiated by the ownership of the collection (Carrier, 2011,). One of the common arts an individual can find in a museum is a painting of Jesus Christ carrying the cross which is widely associated with the Renaissance period in Europe.

Renaissance represents a period in the European human advancement instantly taking after the middle ages and traditionally held to have been portrayed by an improvement of enthusiasm for established grant and values. Christ carrying the cross is one of the most cherished and respected paintings that was designed and painted by Hieronymus Bosch back in the early 16th century. This paint is mostly found at the museum of fine arts in Ghent, Belgium. This piece of the painting shows Jesus Christ carrying the cross above a dull background surrounded by few people who can only be made because of their heads. Jesus wears a woeful expression; his eyes are closed, and he has a head reliant. Additionally, at the bottom corner of the painting, there is an image of the impenitent thief, who sneers against three other people who are eventually mocking him (Kubissa, 2011). On the other side of the painting at the top right of the painting, there is the penitent thief portrayed by a very pale skin while being confessed by an ugly looking monk. Moreover, at the bottom left of the painting, there is an image of Veronica with the Holy Shroud with half-open eyes and her face is looking back. At the top left of the painting, there is an image of Simon of Cyrene, but his face is upside upturned.

One of the most important roles of an artist in the society is to record history so that the future generation can have a reference material. Art is a form of communication that can be used to reach out and touch diverse people from all over the universe. The recorded art can also lift the spirit of people when they are down as well as create controversy especially in situations where the people do not fully understand the message contained in a piece of art. However, it is worth noting that the role of an artist in the society widely depends on the personality of the artist (“Modern Miracle: Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola di San Rocco,” 2017,). The primary intention of the artist in this painting is to show the sufferings well as the last minutes of Jesus Christ’s journey on earth before he was crucified. Therefore, the artist wants to show that people will eventually suffer and pass through trials before they succeed or achieve their goals.

The piece of art is high value among the Jews considering that Jesus was a Jew and it represents the Jewish culture. It also Shows the life journey to the cross which popular among all Christians. Some of the popular cultural elements in the picture are the clothes worn by the people in the painting, the holy shroud in Veronica’s hands as well as headgears worn by the different people in the society depending on their role and class.

References

Carrier, D. (2011). The Art Museum Today. Curator: The Museum Journal, 54(2), 181-189. doi:10.1111/j.2151-6952.2011.00080.x

Kubissa, T. P. (2011). ‘Christ Carrying the Cross’, the first rediscovered painting by Matthijs Willenhoudt. Oud Holland – Quarterly for Dutch Art History, 124(4), 231-233. doi:10.1163/187501712799818187

A Modern Miracle: Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola di San Rocco. (2017). The Lives of Paintings. doi:10.1515/9783110495775-003

Public art