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The Future Outlook of Media Music for Composers

Question

Write an essay on the future outlook of media music for composers.  Some topics you discuss may include the following: 

The changing social media landscape and how that impacts career strategy for composers.

Streaming music and future of public performance royalties. (If most composers maintain a “comfortable” lifestyle due to their Pro royalties, and if those royalties are gradually going away due to the streaming music model…what does that say about the future viability of the profession of being a media composer?)  Or…is this entire premise completely wrong?

The importance of developing a brand. How much does successful branding play a role in getting hired on a project?

What a composer is worth?  How much can one charge for their services?  Why is there such a vast compensation difference for composers essentially all doing the same job?

The differences between traditional “employee” work, as seen in most unionized Entertainment industry jobs and the entrepreneurial /  “independent contractor” job of a media composer. 

The impact and influence of technology on the viability of someone making a successful living as a media composer.

Sample paper

The Future Outlook of Media Music for Composers

Media music has been experiencing a series of evolution after the sound synchronization breakthrough was recorded in the late 1920s. Since then, media music composition has been given high level of attention, with majority of film composers focusing on producing unique and highly sophisticated music to enhance their marketability. However, this is not without facing a number of challenges that range from change of technology to growing level of competition in the market, to an extent of some composers offering free services. Technological change is one of the factors influencing film music composition and dynamic changes in the music industry. Film composers are currently utilizing the real instruments to enhance and support their synthetic sound.  This may be not be needed tomorrow to satisfy the audience needs, especially since most of the audiences may not be able to differentiate between synthetic and real sound. Technology advancement is likely to enhance democracy in the composition act. New technology comes with new and endless chances to generate new sounds via new composition methods. The modern technology is thus anticipated to play a great role in changing media music composition dynamics. It is also expected to contribute a great deal in molding the film music composition future. This paper discusses the future outlook of the media music composers.

The Changing Social Media Landscape and How That Impacts Career Strategy for Composers

The world is experiencing extensive use of the internet and mobile devices to access social media platforms and network. Social media refers to the collection of applications that comprise of collaborative projects, blogs, multimedia sharing sites, and social networking sites. The growth and expansion of social media use has highly been associated to the growth of internet coverage in both developed and developing nations, and extensive use of smartphones across the globe. Based on 2018 statistics, there are over four billion individuals around the globe using the internet. Among them, over three billion individuals are said to use social media every month, with 90% of these individuals accessing their platforms of choice via mobile devices (Datareportal, 2019).  Social media is used for different purposes by different people. Some use it just for social networking, sharing with friends and relatives and advancing social network. On the contrary, there is a very large group of individuals who use social networks to market their businesses. Most organizations have considered opening social network page or platform to interact with their customers, especially through sharing information on new products or services advancement, or getting customers feedback. In other cases, individuals have taken into using social network to market their skills, talents, brand or their own products. This has highly made it easier for majorities to access the market and to attract a considerable number of audiences, compared to how the situation was before. This has highly enhanced growth of upcoming professionals with little market command, or those working alone and not under any organization or registered company.

The use of social media for marketing has been highly embraced in the music industry. With invention of video attachment in normal social media accounts such as YouTube, most upcoming composers are trying to produce their work without following the normal procedures followed in traditional production of music. This helps in cutting production expenses and increasing the chances of easy marketing of personal music skills and talent to the targeted audience. YouTube is one of the most extensively used social media platform in the world. YouTube is currently said to have more than 1.8 billion users each month, becoming the second highly used social media from Facebook that contain over two billion users. This increases the chances of modern music composers using YouTube to stream their music, a step that offers them a chance to reach their targeted audience. With this regard, social media is perceived as an important element in the future changes in the media music composition, by eliminating the complexity initially experienced in music composition and production, especially for beginners (McAndrew & Everett, 2015).

The Importance of Developing a Brand and Brand Success Role in Getting Hired On a Project

Brand development refers to the process of strengthening and creating the professional identification that define what one does. Brand represents a contemporary product features and characteristics that are unique and identifiable with a certain product or talent. Modern products or skills are only known by use of their brand. Brand stands for the perceptions of the consumers and the product sentiment and performance. It is therefore important for any individual to build his or her brand, with intention of making it intensely known and identifiable in the market. Music composers should focus on developing him or herself as a brand in the market. To do this, a composer must define him or herself as a unique brand with unique features that are only related to him or her. This can include the piece style where one gets into the market with a unique composition style that is hard to be copied and that defines a specific individual. The unique feature can also include creativity and high level of flexibility in ones composition among other features. These features play a great role in identifying a brand and in enhancing its marketability (Keller, 2009).

Another aspect that determined brand development and marketability is the brand strategy. This includes how one selects the brand name, brand logo, and brand slogan and the strategies used to introduce the brand into the market. Brand name, logo and slogan should play a great role in marketing the brand. The name should be attractive, easy to remember and somehow associated with the composer style. Brand development also includes using effective brand marketing strategy. A composer should be able to identify the targeted customers; films directors and producers, and consider using marketing strategies that will reach them. Some of the strategies include offering free composition as portfolio, opening webpage to offer parts of their products, having YouTube streams, working as a composer assistance where one can get chances of meeting more producers and directors under a famous composer, and maybe get a chance to sneak their portfolio. Targeting small productions that can easily take free services can also be used as a marketing strategy and brand development, among other strategies (Kayser, 2013).

Brand success is highly measured by the level of acceptability and demand in the market. A strong brand is likely to be loved by its targeted customers, and hence it is likely to be highly successful. Once a brand is successful, it is quite easy to sell the brand. In this case, a composer with a strong brand is highly likely to secure jobs, projects and contracts in the market without struggle. Such composers are highly likely to have a higher bargaining power in terms of payment. Successful brand in film composition is considerably expensive, since it is of high quality. This means it has a higher competitiveness in the market, and it is always likely to be sourced by directors of big projects that focus on quality. There is a high association between brand success and ability to secure jobs as a music film composer. It is therefore important for future music composers to focus on building their brand to make a strong brand, to be able to gain market dominance in this competitive field.

What a Composer is Worth?  How much can One Charge for their Services?  Why is there Such a Vast Compensation Difference for Composers Essentially All Doing the Same Job?

Music composer worth varies from one composer to another based on individual’s quality of compensation or brand strength. Majority of upcoming composers offer their services for free. This makes it hard for composers with low quality music or upcoming composers to secure a well-paying contract. In most cases, the payment varies based on individual experience, where those with high experience get a chance to secure well-paying projects compared to newbies. In addition to this, quality plays a great role in salary quotation of an individual composer. Famous composers with strong legacy in their music composition can charge higher than other composers with the same level of experience in terms of year of operations but without high performance legacy. Composers with unique style that is highly liked in the industry or that can fit in vast majority of films are in high demand in the market. This gives them a chance to have a higher price per minute of finished music bargaining power than replaceable composers. In addition, creative composers who are highly flexible, and easily introduce different styles to fit different scenes and still manage to maintain high quality are also highly marketable (UNIDO, 2013).

Based on the above discussed factors, composer worth varies greatly in this industry. In a normal lineup, their price varies from 50$ to $1000 per minute of complete music. However, the compensation of those with strong brand and legacy in the market varies greatly. Their pricing is way above the normal defined range, with some receiving tens of thousands for a single minute of complete music. This means, different composers can have different worth based on their content, skills, level of experience, creativity, style, level of development in the market, and directors’ trust in their ability to give quality music at any given time, in any given situation. The worth also varies based on individuals’ ability to market their skills. Those that are good in marketing their skills are likely to fetch better deals than those that are not able to market their brand.

The Differences between Traditional “Employee” Work and the Entrepreneurial or “Independent Contractor” Job of a Media Composer

The traditional employee work centers on establishing a standard working condition and compensation for different professionals working in the entertainment industry, based on individual qualification and level of experience. This is mostly enhanced by formation of unions that ensure that there are laws that dictates on professionals working condition, employment and dismissal terms, promotion, salary provision and salary addition, as well as workers disputes resolution in their place of work. On the other hand, independent contract job involves building one’s brand with the aim of commanding the market. Entrepreneurs focus on self-development to gain a high competitive advantage in a manner that they can command a high level of compensation, way beyond what is set in a traditional set up (Fim-Musicians.org, 2016).

The main difference between the traditional employee and the entrepreneurial or independent contractor is that, the latter always focus on self-improvement, to enhance their level of payment, while those in a traditional setup can only follow the set promotion and salary increment laws. In additional to this, entrepreneurial or independent contractors bargain for their pricing based on their level of performance. This creates a great difference in the operability of the two, and the levels of earning. Those in independent contract always focus on creating legacy and strong brand name to increase their chances of being rehired or re-contracted. On the contrary, those in unions or permanent employment only work as a routine to get their monthly pay. This limits their level of growth and development, as well as their ability to adapt the use of new technologies to enhance their competitiveness.

Composers in traditional form of employment are permanent workers with high job security and guaranteed salary, while those in entrepreneurial are in a business with high level of uncertainty. Entrepreneurs’ ability to remain in business is highly determined by their brand image in the market, quality of their compensation and their price competitiveness. Destruction of one’s brand image can result to lose of business. They thus invest a lot in protecting their brand image, and in improving their quality of performance, to improve their worth. The current high competition in the industry gives those entrepreneurial composers a higher chance to survive in the industry in the future, compared to those in traditional employment. This is due to the fact that as entrepreneurs try to remain competitive, they get to learn and to embrace technological changes taking place in their industry today. Those in traditional employment however do not put extra efforts to remain viable in the market as entrepreneurial composers do (Fim-Musicians.org, 2016).

The Impact and Influence of Technology on the Viability of Someone Making a Successful Living as a Media Composer

The world has been experiencing technology advancement in the last few decades. This is still anticipated to continue in the future, especially with regard to development of apps that focus on life enhancement in different sectors.  Technology has made life easier, especially for young composers who are trying to introduce themselves in the market. With the new technology, young and broke composers can use free available media such as YouTube to stream their performance and release it in social media. This creates a likelihood of getting customers to appreciate and endorse their work and talents, creating a chance for future employment. Technology has highly enhanced marketing and individual introduction in the market. It has also made it easier for known and experienced composers to expand their market to international level. With internet and social media, composers of all levels get a better chance to market their abilities, talents and styles, increasing their visibility in the market. Technology also widens ones market, increasing chances of being hired (McAndrew & Everett, 2015). However, this only happen to those that are aggressive enough. Technology advancement increases the level of composers visibility in the market and hence the level of competitiveness. Although technology assist in enhancing composers accessibility, it plays little role in enhancing individual composition quality. It is therefore unlikely for technology alone to enhance individual ability to be successful. On the contrary one must have what it takes to produce quality music, and technology will supplement this by enhancing marketability of such individuals.

References

Datareportal. (2019). Digital 2019: global digital overview. Retrieved from https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2019-global-digital-overview

Digital Humans. (2013). The effect of digital & social media on the music industry. Music Panel Interviews from Like Minds. Retrieved from< https://theorganicagency.com/blog/effect-digital-social-media-music-industry/>

Fim-Musicians.org. (2016). The future of work in the media, art & entertainment sector, meeting the challenge of atypical working.  Retrieved from https://www.fim-musicians.org/wp-content/uploads/atypical-work-handbook-en.pdf

Kayser, M. L. (2013). Personal branding secrets for beginners: a short and simple guide to getting started with your personal brand (short and simple series). Blue Ink Publishing. Kindle Edition

Keller, K. L. (2009). Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment. Journal of Marketing Communications, 15(2-3), 139-155.

McAndrew, S., & Everett, M. (2015). Music as collective invention: A social network analysis of composers. Cultural Sociology, 9(1), 56-80.

UNIDO. (2013). Creative industries for youth: Unleashing potential and growth. Retrieved from https://www.unido.org/sites/default/files/2013-05/13-81037_Ebook_0.pdf

My Career Goals

Question

A 500-word paper describing your career goals
– Complete My Degree at CTU
– Once Degree is complete, become a senior level Siemens employee in the procurement and Supply Chain division
– Live a happy and fulfilled Life.

Sample paper

My Career Goals

I have had numerous goals in my life, some of which I have achieved and some that I am yet to achieve. The most important thing is that I maintain the same vigor in achieving all goals I set to achieve. Currently, I am working on completing my degree at the university and attaining the highest standards possible. Throughout the course of my studies, I have put great effort in order to ensure that I acquire the relevant foundational knowledge as well as practical skills that I can apply to the field of logistics or supply chain management. By completing my degree at CTU, I will have the opportunity to work in local and multinational corporations where I can build my career.

Once I complete my degree, I look forward to working at Siemens AG. Siemens is one of the largest manufacturing company in Europe with operations across the United States and in other countries. The company has multiple divisions including energy, health care, building technologies, automation, consumer products, financing, mobility, and services. Siemens AG is notable for its resource-saving and energy efficient technologies it has offered to market. The company has achieved this great feat by investing heavily in research and development. I hope to join this multinational company and become a senior level employee in the procurement & supply chain division.  The procurement & supply chain component of any organization is critical in ensuring the delivery of quality goods and services.

The major role of supply chain management in organizations is to ensure that materials are availed at the right time, the right place, and in the right quantities. Supply chain management also aims at ensuring that materials are of the right quality. This is importance since it determines the quality of the final products. My goal is to apply the foundational knowledge as well as the practical skills gained in the course to reduce logistical costs and create sustainability in the company’s supply chain. Sustainability is an important concept especially in the face of the current increased pressure on available resources. The goal of sustainability is to ensure the company acts responsibly with regard to utilization of resources in order to ensure environmental and socioeconomic progress.

It is worth noting that several global forces are shaping the current business environment. These forces include digitization, globalization, urbanization, demographical changes, and climate change. These forces have a significant impact in the way businesses operate. They are critical in determining the competitiveness of a business. These forces may open new opportunities for business or close previously profitable ventures. As a procurement and supply chain manager, one of the major role will be ensuring that the business overcomes the global forces that increase the risk of doing business.

I plan to work for about three years after which I will enroll for my masters. This will be the perfect time for me to improve my knowledge in business since I will have acquired relevant practical skills. Lastly, I hope to live a happy and fulfilling life. I hope to accomplish this by bringing up my own family. This will bring in me a sense of fulfillment.

 

Global financial management

Questions

Evaluating Performance

The most popular way for international expansion is for a local firm to acquire foreign companies. One of the most benefits for international expansion is global distribution capability that helps expanding the market share.

There are different implications of running a company that is within or outside of the European Union. If you were the head of a firm based in the United States, please answer the following questions, providing the rationale behind your answers:

1. Would you seek to acquire a company within the European Union or outside of it? Why?

2. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the choice you made.

3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages inherent in the option you did not choose.

4. Explain why an MNC may invest funds in a financial market outside its own country.

5. Explain why some financial institutions prefer to provide credit in financial markets outside their own country.

Answer

Global financial management

In the recent past, businesses and organizations have been working hard to beat off competition and win over a larger market share than their competitors. One of the easiest ways that companies in different regions have been using to be on the top is joining regional trade blocks in an attempt to have bigger and powerful bargaining power. One of the famous and powerful economic and political blocs that have been widely used by organizations, particularly in Europe is the European Union. For decades, the European Union has been acting as a unified trade and monetary body for close to 28 countries located in Europe. The primary objective of the union is to make its members more competitive in the global market as well as balancing the needs of its member state. For years, the union has been known to eliminate all border control of the member states which in turn allows for free flow of capital, goods, services, and people as they attempt to grow and expand (Nugent, 2017). Additionally, the member states often enjoy from environmental protection strategies and efforts, research, and development as well as energy designed and implemented by the union. This assignment will attempt to identify the basic reasons that can push firms and countries to join this worldwide economic and political bloc.

Question 1

Over the years, the European Union has been changed to match the needs and wants of the changing business environment as well as that of the member countries. Despite the fact that the current European Union was formed in 1993, research shows that the organization itself was formed in 1945 by founding fathers such as Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman and Winston Churchill with a sole objective of reducing if not eliminating the constant and bloody wars between neighbors in Europe back then (Nugent, 2017). Given its achievement over the years, I would seek to acquire a company within the European Union for the reasons provided below.

Despite having a common political interest among its members, the European Union is more focused on the economic gain of its member countries more than the political gain of the members. Therefore, the union designs and implements schemes of laws and regulations that are meant to create in different ways a cohesive economic entity of its member states. Research shows that the union has successfully minimized if not abolished border tax within its member countries to allow for the free transfer of goods, services, people, and capital in large quantities within the Union. Additionally, through its trade policies, the Union has made it possible for its members to use a common currency known as the Euro which is to create a large pool of skilled labor, thus providing an opportunity for easy distribution and allocation of labor (Wendt, 2009). Therefore, by joining the European Union, the company is likely to enjoy cheap and efficient labor, a common pool of financial power, increased trade as well as the increased market for the company products.

Notably, this economic bloc has worked hard to design and implement a customs union with a common external tariff. Research shows that as much as the economic rules and regulations made by the company promote internal competition within the member states, it also gives them a competitive advantage over other companies outside the union as they can bargain for better prices for their products and labor as a unit. Therefore, companies within the union can achieve higher profits and return on their investments by bargaining as a bloc to customers outside the union. Moreover, countries within the union can enjoy from the common policies for agriculture, transportation and trade as there is a free transfer of knowledge and skills from one nation to another (Wendt, 2009). Therefore, a country that is within the union is set to enjoy equity and stabilization in the currency and economy provided by the union.

Question 2

The prospect of joining one of the largest political and economic organizations in the globe today has helped in modernizing and improving the living standards of most countries in the region. Member countries often show their commitment to human rights, the rule of law, and a market economy, which in turn promotes collaboration, integration, and cooperation within the members. Some of the benefits enjoyed by the member states include:

Tax-free trading between the member states – as discussed earlier, the union has put efforts in minimizing if not eliminating border tariffs which means that people, goods, and services, as well as capital, can freely move within the union. As a result, there is decreased the cost of trade within the union thus increasing the revenues for individual companies and promoting them to grow to new heights (Wendt, 2009).

Opens up more opportunities – the fact that the union has 28 member countries that work together in political and economic matters, there is a higher chance that a company joining the union will enjoy from the increased marketplace and larger market to sell their goods and services. Movement of products and resources within the union is free which in turn creates more opportunities for the member states. The increased marketplace opens up more opportunities for job and education for a company and its employees, particularly those from non-developed areas (Isani & Schlipphak, 2017).

On the other hand, some of the disadvantages of joining the union include:

Communication barriers – despite the fact that the union has worked hard to introduce a common currency that can be used by all member states, their main challenge has remained to be the communication barrier. Moreover, the fact that the union has 28 member countries that have different national language makes it hard to communicate to all member citizens from different countries. Different languages and cultures within the union have a negative impact on the unity of the bloc, which may have an impact on the operations and success of individual companies within the union.

Question 3

Irrespective of the fact that those joining the union can enjoy notable advantages, those countries and companies that are not within the union also have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Some of the notable advantages of not joining the union include:

They enjoy the full autonomy of their company – once a company or a country joins the union, it is forced to some if not all the authority to the union particularly when it comes to the designing and implementation of the trade policies (Bakker & De Vreese, 2015). The union is also known for taking power from individual countries, which means companies within the union cannot do contrary to the union as they take an oath to honor and follow all the treaties of the union.

The company can serve its interest – one of the many advantages of not joining the European Union is the fact that a company can serve its interest without worrying about the feelings and perspectives of other companies and countries. As a result, the company can set its tariff, tax rates and market targets. The policies, decisions, and rules set by the union are not implemented to protect the individual interest of member countries or their companies (Bakker & De Vreese, 2015).

Disadvantages of failing to join the European in the long term include the fact that the company may incur the exchange rate cost as it will not qualify to use the common currency used by the union. Research shows that the union sets a particular tariff for nonmembers, which mean that a company that is not within the union is likely to fail to enjoy the benefits of a common currency.

Question 4

Multinational companies have been investing in the foreign portfolio for years. Some of the notable advantages of this practice include portfolio diversification as it gives investors an opportunity to engage in the international diversification of assets. Additionally, investing in a foreign portfolio gives a company an opportunity to enjoy from international credit as they can borrow in foreign countries to fund their operations (Isani & Schlipphak, 2017,).

Question 5

Provision of credit to foreign companies gives an opportunity for a company to diversify its risk, thus, eliminating if not minimizing the chances of losing their investments. Additionally, this practice gives an opportunity for a company to capture and exploit emerging markets and opportunities both locally and in the international market. This diversification provides a base for growth and expansion for a company. Finally, foreign companies are known to offer high rates, which in turn improve the revenues and returns of local companies.

References

Bakker, B. N., & De Vreese, C. H. (2015). Personality and European Union attitudes: Relationships across European Union attitude dimensions. European Union Politics, 17(1), 25-45. doi:10.1177/1465116515595885

Isani, M., & Schlipphak, B. (2017). In the European Union we trust: European Muslim attitudes toward the European Union. European Union Politics, 146511651772583. doi:10.1177/1465116517725831

Nugent, N. (2017). The government and politics of the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan Education.

Wendt, C. (2009). A common tax base for multinational enterprises in the European Union. Wiesbaden: Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Gabler.

Burger King Case Analysis -BBA 3210, Business Law

Dave Empire Courier Service Case Analysis -BBA 3210, Business Law 5

Question

Case Analysis

Dave is a driver for Empire Courier Service. Around the company, Dave is known as sort of a hothead. During his previous employment at another company, Dave had been involved in a workplace fistfight with a fellow employee, resulting in criminal charges.

One day, between deliveries and in a company vehicle, Dave decides to get lunch. While leaving the parking lot at Big

Burrito Bistro, the favorite lunch spot for most Empire Courier employees, Dave negligently causes a car accident with

another vehicle, resulting in injuries to Victor, the driver of the other car. As Dave and Victor are waiting on the side of the road for the police to arrive, Victor comments to Dave, “Oh, you drive for Empire Courier Service. It doesn’t surprise me that Empire hires bad drivers because their service stinks, and their prices are too high!” Dave is so offended that Victor would insult his employer’s professional reputation that he punches Victor in the face, causing Victor to suffer even more injuries. Empire Courier Service does not, as a matter of policy, do criminal background checks on its employees.

Considering the legal principles discussed in Chapter 20, explain who is liable for Dave’s negligence for causing the car accident, and explain who is liable for Dave’s intentional tort for punching Victor. Provide your answers in a case analysis of a minimum of 500 words. Cite any direct quotes or paraphrased material from outside sources. Use APA format.

BBA 3210, Business Law 5

Dave Empire Courier Service Case Analysis -BBA 3210, Business Law 5

The relationship between the employer and employee is explained in the agency relationship or the agency theory. The agency theory largely focuses on solving the problems that can exist between the employer who is largely known as the principle and the employee widely known as the agent. However, it is worth noting that the only problems that can be solved using this theory are work-related challenges as a result of unaligned goals distinct aversion levels to risk. According to the theory, all agency relationships involve a particular level of confidence and trust between both parties (Kubasek, 2016). Additionally, the employee is required to work in the best interest on the principle for his activities often creates legal obligations for the principal. In the case given, Dave is the agent and is required to put the interest of his principal ahead of his own interests work in the best interest of his principal who in this case is the Empire Courier Services. Therefore, his actions such as careless driving and negligent accidents will eventually have legal implication on his employer.

Despite the existence of this strong relationship between the agents and their principal, agents are always liable for the torts they commit. According to the law of the country, there is a substantial difference between torts prompted by the principal himself and the torts which were not prompted by the principal making him or her innocent in such a case. Therefore, if the principal gives clear instructions and directions to his agent to commit a tort or had the knowledge of the repercussions of the agent’s executing his directives would bring harm to someone, the principal becomes liable for the injuries inflicted. Therefore, in the case above, the Empire Courier Services is innocent based on the direct liability principle. However, according to the vicarious liability principle, the principal is always liable for all actions and activities of their agents despite the fact that they may not be aware of their agent’s actions. Moreover, the principle says that the principal may expressly prohibit the agent from engaging in the activity, but still become liable for the injuries caused by his agent. (Forbes-Pitt, 2011) The principle of respondeat superior means that the principal is practically liable for every activity and action were undertaken by his or her agent. The modern basis for vicarious liability states that the principal often organizations with employees have the wherewithal to incur the costs of paying for any injuries traced in one way or another to the events they set in motion.

Therefore, in this case, Empire Courier Services can be held liable for the actions and activity of their employee who negligently causes an accident. Additionally, despite the fact that the company did not summon their employees to defend their professionalism, it is clear that Dave was trying to protect his employee and the company should be held liable for the tort committed (Forbes-Pitt, 2011). His liability for the accident and the punch should be carried by the Empire Courier Services based on the respondeat superior which places liability on the principal for any injuries or harm caused by an agent.

References

Forbes-Pitt, K. (2011). The assumption of agency theory: A realist theory of the production of agency. London: Routledge.

Kubasek, N. B. (2016). Dynamic business law: The essentials (3rd ed.). . New York, NY: : McGraw-Hill Education.

 

Forrest Gump Case Analysis

Implementation and Control

Question

What competencies were you able to develop in researching and writing the course Comprehensive Project? How did you leverage knowledge gained in the intellipath assignments (Units 1- 4) in completing the Comprehensive Project? How will these competencies and knowledge support your career advancement in management?

( Executive Summary and a SWOT analysis )

  1. What are the important elements of strategy? Why?

  2. What issues may arise if your do not identify all the potential disadvantages of your plan?

  3. Why is it crucial to provide both proactive (during the implementation) and reactive (after completing the implementation) feedback to management?

Answer

Implementation and Control

I have been able to develop several competencies in researching and writing the course Comprehensive Project. One of the competencies I have developed is research skills. I have improved my skills in various areas such as integrating different resources, summarizing information from lengthy resources, analyzing and documenting reports, and finally project management skills. I have also been able to develop strong analytical skills such as the ability to analyze complex ideas. I leveraged on the knowledge gained in the intellipath assignments by applying what I learnt in completing the Comprehensive Project. The intellipath assignments have increased my general knowledge in research and writing of research papers. In addition, the intellipath assignments have enabled me to learn a lot concerning the business field, including sound business practices. These competencies and knowledge will allow me to be able to conduct sound business research in future and thus make informed decisions.

There are several important elements of strategy. These include a vision, goals, objectives, expected outcomes, means of ensuring accountability, SWOT analysis, core advantage, customer analysis, key performance indicators, and action (M3 Planning, Inc., 2008). Strategic decisions making is a critical determinant of the performance of an organization. These elements are important because they determine the success or failure of a strategy. Failure by the management to take into consideration the important elements of strategy could lead to failure in achieving desired outcomes.

Failure to identify all the potential disadvantages of a plan may ultimately result to the failure of the plan. This may arise due to failure to mitigate the potential risks or disadvantages in the plan. Identifying the disadvantages can allow one to draw mitigation plans in advance and know what to do in case the risks arise. Failure to identify all the potential disadvantages can also mean failure to take into consideration a serious business risks that could lead to business failure.

Providing proactive and reactive feedback is critical during the implementation of a plan. Providing proactive feedback enables the management to track the progress of the plan to see whether it is moving as per expectations (Binder, 2016). Proactive feedback can also serve as a tool for the management to provide motivation to the staff, thus improving their performance. Reactive feedback allows the management to conduct an evaluation of the project to determine whether it achieves set goals. In addition, reactive feedback allows the management to correct any problems that may arise after the implementation of the new plan.

References

Binder, J. (2016). Global project management: communication, collaboration and management   across borders. CRC Press

M3 Planning, Inc. (2008). My strategic plan. Retrieved from           https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=L6lMojXU7hUC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs       _ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Related

ToolsCorp Corporation SWOT Analysis

ToolsCorp Corporation SWOT Analysis

Question

ToolsCorp Corporation is a fictitious company that does not exist anywhere. For the purpose of this course, it is located it in Tennessee. It builds power tools, lawn mowers, lawn furniture, microwaves, and ranges. All products are manufactured locally and sold through large retailers that place sales papers inserted in every Wednesday and Sunday paper. Although they have a thriving business in the United States and Canada, ToolsCorp is trying to break into the global marketplace.

  • A complete strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis (including at least 5 factors from each category and full explanations of why each factor is important and why it was placed in the category) of the environment that exists within ToolsCorp and the environment that ToolsCorp is proposing

Answer

ToolsCorp Corporation SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Strong position in the U.S. and Canadian markets

This is one of the key strengths for ToolsCorp Company. ToolsCorp has established a strong presence in the U.S. and Canadian markets, which means the company has a strong footing in the local region. Having a strong position in the local region is important because it indicates the company’s potential to succeed even outside the local market. This factor was placed in this category because it relates to the company’s internal characteristics that promote its product marketability.

Strong brand portfolio

ToolsCorp has five different brands in the market. Products include lawn mowers, microwaves, power tools, lawn furniture, and ranges. Having such a diversified brand portfolio helps in satisfaction of consumers’ diverse needs. In addition, having such a brand portfolio attracts more customers to purchase the company’s products compared to when a company is offering a single product. Strong brand portfolio is an internal organizational characteristic, and thus falls under the strengths category.

Ease of expansion due to established business

It is easier for ToolsCorp to expand into the international market since the company has already established a local presence successfully. For instance, it will be easier for the company to project each product category demand in the international market by relying on sales figures from the local market. This factor was placed in this category since it is an internal strength of the organization.

Larger market for the products

Expanding into the international market will enable the company to expand operations by tapping into new and potential markets. By entering the global marketplace, ToolsCorp will have an unlimited market for its products. This factor was placed in this category because having access to international market will give the company an internal advantage to produce more products.

Human resource expertise

Since ToolsCorp has been in operation for some time, it has an experienced human resource team involved in the manufacture and marketing of various products. This team will be critical while expanding in the international market. This factor was placed in this category since it is a factor within the company’s internal environment.

Weaknesses

Increasing bureaucracy in the company structure

Operating in a global environment will lead to increased bureaucracy in the management structure of the company. This could lead to high operational costs and inefficiencies. This factor is within the internal environment of the company, thus the reason it was categorized as a weakness.

Lack of business diversification

ToolsCorp operates in only one business segment, which is manufacturing. Failure to diversify operations into other business segments such as financial services means the company could be affected adversely if the manufacturing segment performs poorly. Failure to diversify is an internal factor that leads to certain disadvantages.

Limited presence in overseas market

Currently, ToolsCorp has limited presence in the international market, operating only in the Canadian market. This means that the company does not have the necessary experience for operating in various overseas markets such as China, Europe, Australia, and Africa. This factor is an internal factor limiting the company and thus categorized as a weakness.

Brand dilution

Since the company has a variety of brands, this contributes to brand dilution. Brand dilution is the weakening of a particular brand and may result when there is high brand extension such that consumers lose faith in some products. This can also result since the company will have to use different names for each brand of the product. Brand dilution is an internal factor, which the company has total control.

Weak distribution channel

Expanding into the international market may require the company to establish a new distribution channel for its products. Currently, the company relies on large retailers who may not have the capacity to distribute products to foreign markets. This is an internal disadvantage thus the reason it was categorized as a weakness.

Opportunities

Expansion into the international market

ToolsCorp can take advantage of an expanded market by targeting the international market. Focusing on the international market will present unlimited opportunities to increase production by targeting the new markets. This factor is an opportunity since it exists in the external environment of the company.

Stamp its presence in emerging economies

ToolsCorp can be able to take advantage of strong market growth in various emerging economies such as Brazil, Malaysia, China, Turkey, Kenya, and Nigeria. Targeting such markets can lead to a high demand of the company’s products and thus faster returns. This factor is within the external environment of the company and can facilitate its growth.

Use of e-commerce to reach the international segment

ToolsCorp can utilize e-commerce to reach the international segment at a cheaper cost. E-commerce in this case would involve the selling of various products through the internet. This platform can allow the company to reach a wider international audience using the least time and money resources. The factor is within the external environment of the company and provides a chance for growth, thus an opportunity.

Ease in penetrating international markets through joint ventures

Since the company has a large market share in the local market, it is easier to acquire other businesses in overseas countries and expand operations there. The company has adequate resources to engage in joint ventures or acquisitions. This factor is within the external environment of the company, thus a business opportunity.

Protection from trade cycles

Expanding into the international market will help protect ToolsCorp from trade fluctuations in the local market. When there is recession in the local U.S. market, the company can be able to offset the impacts by selling more of the products in other markets not affected by the local economic conditions. This factor is within the external environment of the company. Since the company can take advantage of the factor, it represents an opportunity.

Threats

Fluctuation in currency exchange rates

Targeting the international market will expose the business to certain risks such as currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could significantly affect the financial position of the business (Sweidan, 2013). For instance, a strengthening dollar against another currency could hamper exports to the country. This factor is a threat since it is within the external environment and presents a risk to the business.

Increased competition

One of the challenges that ToolsCorp might face is increased competition from other firms producing similar products in the international market. In overseas markets where another firm dominates the market, it could be difficult for ToolsCorp to gain a sizable share of the market. This factor is outside the control of ToolsCorp and creates a disadvantage, thus a threat.

Legal and political challenges

It could be difficult for the company to establish its presence in the international market especially where there is need to open operations in overseas countries. Legal and political factors may act as barriers to operating in international markets. These are factors that the company cannot be able to control and thus a threat.

Tough operating environment

The U.S. manufacturing industry has been on a decline owing to the high costs of doing business. This is partly due to new regulations such as imposing taxes on steel imports used in manufacturing (BBC News, 2018). Companies increasingly prefer moving operations to other areas such as Mexico where production costs are lower. This external factor has certain negative implications to the business, and thus a threat to the company.

Cultural barriers

ToolsCorp could face significant cultural barriers in international markets. For instance, certain cultures have unique ways of doing things and the people there may not necessarily prefer purchasing the company’s products. It could take long for the company to change the people’s culture. This is an external factor since the company has little or no control.

References

BBC News. (2018, May 31). US tariffs: steel and aluminum levies slapped on key allies. BBC.    Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44320221

Sweidan, O. (2013). The Effect of Exchange Rate on Exports and Imports: The Case of Jordan.   The International Trade Journal, 27(2): 156-172.

Related: SWOT Analysis

 

 

Effective employees program 

Question

You know that many factors affect the overall satisfaction of employees. As part of your efforts to continually improve performance and employee satisfaction at your own organization, you decide to learn what other top companies are doing in this area. Consolidate your research into 4-6 pages that can be shared with decision makers at your organization.

Choose one of the Top 100 Best Companies to Work For from this year’s list. Use the library and Internet to research the company and its employee programs.

Describe the employee programs that have helped this organization make the Top 100 list.

Explain how the effectiveness of these programs can be measured.

Explain the measures used to compile the Top 100 rankings.

Describe how a performance management system can lead to positive organizational outcomes.

Include as much specific information as possible to support your ideas.

Cite resources using APA style.

Please refer to the following multimedia course materials:

Unit 5: Developing Strategic HR Policy

Answer

Effective employees program 

The success of Tesco is attributed to the Company higher degree to engage its employees. Employee engagement is a crucial technique for Tesco, which aims at attracting skilled workers besides retaining the staff. Tesco has a large workforce that might present challenges in active involvement. Employees in Tesco also have individual needs and expectations in their career and therefore listen, and Fix principle has been the main listening concept adopted by the firm to boost its employee engagement.  The aim of this concept was to ensure that the company’s clients remain a better location for shopping and workplace driven by outstanding employee engagement. Also, the listen and fix concept enabled a deeper understanding of salient issues in every aspect of the firm operation. The company has initiated a yearly survey dubbed Viewpoint. The dissertation increased our knowledge of the definition as well as the drivers of workforce engagement in Tesco.  The Tesco PLC is a multinational Company and therefore faces a range of cultural settings. 

Another crucial factor that has enabled Tesco to maintain its rank in the top 100 most influential company is enhanced employee’s productivity. Employee productivity is a critical element towards the success of any profit-oriented organization (Cihon & Castagnera, 2008). A production manager should therefore, be concerned with the best ways to promote employees’ productivity, which then culminates to increased firm productivity. However, this can be achieved through proper research on the variables that determines the employee productivity. Moreover, such studies only become feasible when the right research design is employed. A good research design becomes the driving force for the practical study outcomes based on the appropriate research question, the problem as well as hypotheses. Therefore, for the production manager to efficiently determine the linkage between job performance (dependent variable) and several independent variables such as (skills required for the job, rewards (pay and other benefits, employee motivation and job satisfaction). However, for sufficient motivation, job satisfaction and performance which in turn leads to increase in job performance, there must be attractive rewards to employees. In relation, Tesco has maintained this as one of its cultural aspect hence employees relate so much to it. The research is a cause-effect one and therefore, there is a need to choose the design that is appropriate to link the employee’s performance and the reward and other variables. 

Every firm should understand that segregation in workplaces is, in essence, a major blow to the ability of such companies to realize their goals. No form of discrimination is accepted in the firm, and every new management system is oriented to uphold this as a virtue of the company. Segregation of employees has been made punishable by law by the corporation’s ethical codes.  The principle of triangulation should thus take center stage in any organization as this justifies the fact that a combined effort of two will always override the efforts of a single individual.

Importance of Motivation

In general situations, there is a unique connectivity between employee motivation and productivity. Looking at it from a liberal ground in Tesco, the employers and potential employers consider the importance of employing such strategies for their workforce. In return, production level significantly increases directly hiking business goals.  In the motivation process, however, it is key for an employer to consider personality differences since it was highly likely for each employee to have individual preferences, besides the pay sheet, each of us needs a driving motivational factor to keep us on toes.  

Significantly, the need for feedback from managers and supervisors invokes the feeling of appreciation and recognition.  Frequent tips of rewards recognition such as the employee of the week make employee feel attached as part of the success resulting in better team harmony. Relatively, it is evident that salary is usually an appropriate form of motivation, however, independently it is insufficiently and most of the time requires backup (Bhola & Raskar, 2013).   

Nurturing and Promotion of the growth

 In the process of nurturing, one gets to spend quality time with coworkers hence providing holistic development at personal levels. In relation, managers who take time in nurturing their workers have more understanding of background and values of their employees. Through this positive involvement growth in the workplace is enhanced, the demonstration in small ways is noticeable hence significant impact on the employees work attitude. Positivity in the workplace also gives direction to a peaceful and workable environment in the office. An active mind operates in a satisfied state enhancing its full potential and productivity.       

Program Measure 

The effectiveness of the program is measured on a long-term basis. Conversely, it is true to say that employee performance is dictated by several variables that independently play a significant role. In the case study, the effectiveness of the program is measured through frequent interaction with the employees so as to share the company’s strategic moves and to work on the falls of the enterprise as a holistic team (Cihon & Castagnera, 2008). The management ensures that the employees felt appreciated and accounted for. Another strategy used is the creation of institutional departments that air the grievances of the employees as they offer labor services to the company.  

Measures used to compile the top 100 rankings

A business classification means the listing or ranking of different enterprises or products based on specific criteria. The criteria used however is dependent on the nature of the company. Examples include:

  •   Banks are ranked through the use of dollar volume
  •   Insurance companies ranked in accordance to premiums earned
  •   Advertising companies listing is embedded on their annual billings
  • Retailers companies according to profits per employee

In relation, in some cases, multiple criteria may be used to create a single ranking. An example of this includes the ranking of mutual funds which is based several criteria. The same results to a more sophisticated indexing procedures in determining the fund’s performance. The most common business ranking is the Fortune 500 published in Fortune magazine in the April issue. Other publications of Fortune include Service 500 in May, Global Services 500 in August and Global Industries 500 in July.   

Performance Management System 

Tesco utilizes the performance management to maximize the employee management. The article appreciates the challenges of globalization to Multinational Enterprises on integrating and localization. The overarching problem, however, is how the Tesco Company Human Resource Management practices can be standardized keeping them maximally efficient. Tesco, therefore, recognizes the need to engage the employees to realize its future success and to remain a competitive firm. In Qatar, there is rampant staff turnover running at some epidemic proportions. Therefore, learning to about workforce engagement as well as building employee loyalty to Tesco firm is fundamental for the future of the Company in Qatar. The cultural differences in UK and Qatar are noted based on the hierarchical organizational needs. Such variations are also inevitable on whether to focus on group or individual. Therefore employee’s responses to managers and organization throughout the work hierarchy rest on such differences as well as the systems put forth to manage the performance of the Company. Therefore, the degree of employee engagement in Tesco firm depends on these cultural variations. There is a connection between performance management and employee engagement in a cross-cultural business operation settings is a concept that cannot be overlooked (Bhola & Raskar, 2013). Performance outcome is directly linked to the company’s performance management. In relation, the company will be at an upper hand at the expenses of the companies that do not engage in performance management. The most significant outcomes are the enhanced productivity of the firm.

References

Cihon, Patrick J., & Castagnera, James Ottavio. (2008). Employment and Labor Law. South-Western Pub

Bhola, S. S., & Raskar, S. S. (2013). A Comparative Assessment of Employee’s Perception towards Motivational Practices of Engineering Industry in Satara. Golden Research Thoughts, 2(10).

Egberi, E. (2015). Motivation and Employees’ Productivity in Local Government System in Nigeria. Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 1(3), 148-163.

Gafor, N. H., & Rashad Yazdanifard, A. (2014). How Leaders and Managers Aptitude Results in Either a Boost or Diminishing Morale of the Employees. Global Journal of Management And Business Research, 14(6).

  Training and Development

 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT  

Question

You and the other members of the HR team have conducted an analysis of your organization and found that performance management processes are highly inconsistent among departments. Some departments have a process of a formal annual appraisal, while other departments do not provide employees with any documented feedback on their performance. Also, some departments have a process of documenting employee performance issues; others seem to follow a process of no documented warnings before recommending termination.

Your team recognizes the benefits of establishing a developed performance management program and will present its plan to the CEO next week.

Individual deliverable (1–2 page Word document): (50 points)

Using the Internet and the library, locate information on performance management systems.

Choose one type of program and describe it for your colleagues.

Include a real-life example of an organization that currently uses or has used this type of program.

Be sure to include how this program handles performance appraisals and the disciplinary action and performance coaching processes.

Answer

 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT  

For any organization to keep track of the performance of individual employees as well as the organization in general, they have to create, develop and adopt performance management systems. Performance management presents a platform to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of employees. However, performance management should be a continuous process between an individual employee and the management to plan, monitor and review work objectives and goals (van Dooren, 2015). This essay will attempt to shed light on performance appraisal as a form of performance management.

Performance appraisal is commonly used in organizations to determine potential managerial candidates, adjust the salaries and compensations for each level based on the performance of those occupying those levels. In this system, the management and the individual employee analyze his or performance to identify and pinpoint the needs for further training as well as the need for improvement in various fields. The basic purpose of this system is to give the employee ample time to reflect on their work as well as helping them to identify the need for improvement and training. Often, employees hold a discussion with their superiors citing the problems they encounter as they go about their daily work as well as giving suggestions on how to make the situation better as well as improving the working environment.

The best way to conduct a performance appraisal is to conduct an appraisal interview, which involves the exchange of performance information and data between a manager and the employee that is designed to conduct an evaluation of an employee while at the same time creating a career development plan (Bernardin, 2013). In conclusion, we can say that performance appraisal helps a business to implement its strategic plan which in turn helps to achieve organizational objectives and goals.

Works Cited

Bernardin, H. J. (2013). Performance appraisal. Psychology and Policing, , 257.

van Dooren, W. B. (2015). Performance management in the public sector. Routledge.

Describe at least 3 methods you could use to measure employee morale.

  Training and Development

Question

Conduct a phone or personal interview with a Training Manager. Ask them to describe the role that training and development plays in their company utilizing the following questions:

Who conducts the training and how often is it delivered?

Who receives the training in the organization and what are the topics?

What are the typical steps in the training process in your organization?

How are your training efforts evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency?

answer

  Training and Development

 

Abstract

This document contains the findings that were as a result of an interview with a training manager in a reputable organization on training and development. It covers the impact that training and development has in an organizational setting. These roles are discussed in the context of who is required to conduct the training, the beneficiaries of the training and the topic they are to be trained on, the steps followed in the training process together with the evaluation methods so as to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. It is therefore important to note that organizations are incorporating this into their systems to embrace the numerous changes that are happening in the market place as a result of globalization.

 

It is every organizations expectation that at the end of every training and development, necessary changes will be effected so as to improve productivity which can be measured using profit margin ratio , reduce employee turnover, increase efficiency and effectiveness and decrease the need for supervision of employees as they will understand what they need to do when, where and how. It came to my knowledge that the gap in the organization was on information systems which have been as a result of embracing technological changes that have been brought about by the numerous innovations. (Stephen, Larry, John &Glen, 1995)

Training process would involve clearly stating the organizations goals and objective as to why the changes in the information system were adopted, and conducting a need assessment to figure out what the employees expect to learn at the end of the training. Objectives of the training should also be clearly articulated and communicated to the selected category of employees who are to receive the training. It is also at this stage that an agreement would be met on how the training would be conducted and then choosing a means of evaluation which would   act a guide to gauge the impact that the training had to the organization and its employees. After all is set training will be conducted with the hope that all that is set to be achieved at the end of the training will be achieved and implemented to the later. The last process would be evaluation, without it, it would be impossible to gauge the impact that the training had on the operation efficiency of the organization.

It clearly came out from the interview that majority of employees are yet to be conversant with the changes that were implemented such as working online through the server and how to access documents that have been posted on the server. The training was scheduled to be conducted by the overall information technology expert by demonstrating practically on how the introduced systems operate and allow room for consultation for those who might still seek clarification.

The current employees of the organization will be receiving the training but the training will be conducted on the basis of departments as the systems in each department are configured separately. The topics to be covered in the training are: communication, mobility and collaboration, data storage and management, information system governance and policies and security and risk management. Security and risk management will be given a lot of emphasis for accountability purposes.

At the end of the training the training efforts will be evaluated by using the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model which consists of; reaction, learning, behavior and results. The first level which is reaction will involve asking questions to the trainees to find out their opinion on the process and if they thought it was relevant. Learning measures the degree to which the trainees acquired the intended knowledge, skills and attitude. The employees’ behavior will be monitored to find out if there is any change as a result of the training. Results focus on measurable activities such as reduced absenteeism, increased turnover and also employee’s morale. (Donald, 1975)

References

Meir Liraz. Employee Training Process. Retrieved on 17, September, 2016 from   www.bizmore.com

Stephen .H. Bell, Larry .L. Orr, John .D. Blonguist, & Glen .G. Cain. (1995).Methods Used to     Evaluate Employment and Training Programs in the Past

Donald .K. (1975). Evaluating Training Program.

Training Design and Development ( UNIT 2 )

Training, Evaluation and Validation

Question

Barbara Maddock, the Director of Information Technology, stopped you on your way to lunch to inquire about ways to evaluate some training. She is planning some training in the area of providing better customer service in the technical support center. You had to rush off to a meeting, so you told her that you would send her a memo outlining some ways to evaluate the training.

 

Write a brief memo explaining the major concepts of evaluating and validating training to the Barbara Maddock, the Director of Information Technology.

 

Be sure to explain the concepts in such a way that someone without a comprehensive background in training will understand the ideas and be able to apply them. (If you must use training jargon, be sure to provide an explanation).

Address the 4 levels of evaluation

Answer

Training, Evaluation and Validation

Memo

To: Barbara Maddock, Director of Information Technology

From

Cc: Customer care team, Information Technology Team

Date: September 16, 2016

Ref: Major concepts of evaluating and validating training

As I had earlier agreed to help you out on the concepts of evaluating and validating training, I believe that this memo will be of help. I am going to give you a step by step guideline which when followed and implemented to the latter your team will be able to provide better  customer care service in your technical support center. Five levels are used to validate training: reaction, learning, job behavior, organization and ultimate level. These are the key areas which when used one can gauge the effectiveness of training.

Trainee’s reaction will be a good indicator of the success of the training; however, the reactions will vary from trainee to trainee depending on the method of training adopted and the content, the location in which the training took place and the expectation of the trainee. You can use questionnaires to find out what the trainees felt about the whole process, use rating scales or conduct interviews and formal discussions, which are always a good platform since you can learn a lot by the face-to-face interaction.

It would be a great loss if learning has not taken place after the training so it is important to ensure that the employees have acquired the intended skills, which can be evaluated through performance. Communicate the same to the employees prior to the training so that they know what is expected of them after the training ends and incorporate the same to their job to avoid deterioration. After training, it is vital for the skills and knowledge acquisition to be reflected in the organization through appropriate changes in job behavior and that the skills are exhibited in the specific duties of the trainees in their job. (Hamblin .A., 1970)

The effectiveness of the training will be translated to the benefits that the organization will acquire at the end, and measured through the overall profit of the organization. Some of the immediate effects that can be indicators of effectiveness of the training are:

Job satisfaction- If your trainees end up being satisfied with their job then it will be translated to happy customers since they will be treated with utmost care.

Quality and quantity of product – This will also improve since the trainees will understand what exactly the customers want and translate that to the products that are satisfactory to their demand.

Absenteeism- The rate at which employees will be missing to come to work will tremendously reduce, as they will have a clear view of what is expected of them in ensuring that the customers’ needs are meet.

The ultimate level is judged through financial improvement such as improved turnover. However, it is always difficult to measure this as it requires a lot of data collection and analysis. As the director of information technology it is your duty to ensure that the training skills are maintained and if need be request for a refresher training which will remind the trainees on what they had previously been thought and to also seek clarification on the areas that they have found difficulty during the  implementation process.

 

Reference

Hamblin A. C. (1970). Evaluation of Training. Industrial Training International, 5(3): 12-33.

Training Design and Development ( UNIT 2 )