Category Archives: Communications and Media

Communication Apprehension and Public Speaking Among College Students

Communication Apprehension and Public Speaking Among College Students

Communication apprehension is a critical aspect to a student’s public speaking capabilities and consequently employability (Clokie & Fourie, 2016). McCroskey (1980) defined communication apprehension as “an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated (oral) communication with another person or persons” (p. 109). According to Reinsch and Gardner (2014), communication abilities of an individual are significant factors in making hiring and promotion decisions. The perceived communication competence among college students significantly influences how they make choices (Croucher, Rahmani, Sakkinen, & Hample, 2016). On the other hand, the willingness to communicate or fear of communication influences the perceived communication competence among college students (Croucher et al., 2016; Teven, Richmond, McCroskey, & McCroskey, 2010). Broeckelman-Post and Pyle (2017) emphasize on the rising need for college students to develop strong communication skills. In particular, college students should work more on improving their oral communication skills to enhance their employability once they complete studies (Westwick, Hunter, & Haleta, 2016).

In today’s competitive business environment, organizations are increasingly spending large amounts of money in trying to reach out to all stakeholders (Zerfass, VerÄiÄ, & Volk, 2017). As such, the communication competencies of employees are critical in ensuring the success of the organization. Organizations are most likely to prefer employees who exude confidence in public speaking to those who have communication apprehension. According to Rajmohan (2015), the success of an organization largely depends on coordination levels of employees and their ability to communicate. Poor communication among organizational members could be a predictor of poor performance. Communication competency is one of the major basis for evaluating promotion decisions in organizations (Reinsch & Gardner, 2014). Employees having higher levels of communication competency are likely to receive promotions and experience career growth.

College students receive instruction in public speaking as a way of improving their communication skills. Such courses center on basic skills training to improve communication competencies. According to Baccarani and Bonfanti (2015), training courses can help improve the public speaking skills among employees. Introductory communication courses are the most common among college students (Broeckelman-Post & Pyle, 2017). These are of two types: public speaking course, which are the most popular with 61 percent popularity and hybrid courses with 27 percent popularity in schools (Broeckelman-Post and Pyle, 2017). Available research findings indicate that public speaking courses can significantly reduce communication apprehension and public speaking anxiety (Broeckelman-Post & Hosek, 2014). Mixed findings exist on the impact of communication courses to self-perceived communication competence (SPCC) levels among individuals (Westwick, Hunter, & Haleta, 2016). Hunter, Westwick, and Haleta (2014) find strong evidence indicating that basic communication courses can help in reducing public speaking anxiety, while applying standard measurements to evaluate student improvement. Further, the study highlights gender differences in improving students’ levels of public speaking anxiety.

Communication course offered during the first-year of studies in most colleges may not be enough to prepare students for employment (Clokie & Fourie, 2016). Students need higher-level competencies in the employment sector compared to what they learn during the first year of joining college. Low skills among training assistants also pose a great challenge in graduate education (Boman, 2013). This may lead to poor training in communication skills among the first-year students, which negatively affects the development of communication competencies. Hunter, Westwick, and Haleta (2014) identify gaps in assessments concerning public speaking anxiety. Their main findings are that there is need to improve on the current basic speech course as well as the methods of assessment. Assessment methods are critical since they allow instructors to improve on the instructional practices as well as the outcomes of the teaching-learning process (Morreale, Backlund, Hay, & Moore, 2011). Thus, by improving on the teaching and assessment methods, it is possible to reduce public speaking anxiety among college students.

An individual’s communication competence levels significantly affect self-perceived communication competence (Teven et al., 2010). There are limited studies examining the nature of the relationship between communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence. Although the major focus on this study will be on the effectiveness of communication course in reducing public speaking anxiety, a part of the study will be an evaluation of the relationship between communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence. The study will also focus on the impact of public speaking anxiety to a student’s employability levels or chances of getting into the labor sector. The findings of this study will enable instructors at the college level to assess the effectiveness of offering the first-year communication course to students. In particular, the study findings will inform on whether there is need to introduce additional communication courses in subsequent academic years.


Baccarani, C., & Bonfanti, A. (2015). Effective public speaking: A conceptual framework in the corporate-communication field. Corporate Communications: An International           Journal, 20(3), 375-390. doi:10.1108/CCIJ-04-2014-0025

Boman, J. S. (2013). Graduate student teaching development: Evaluating the effectiveness of       training in relation to graduate student characteristics. The Canadian Journal of Higher          Education, 43(1), 100.

Broeckelman-Post, M. A., & Hosek, A. M. (2014). Using in-class versus out-of-class peer            workshops to improve presentational speaking. Basic Communication Course Annual,            26, 57–94.

Broeckelman-Post, M. A., & Pyle, A. S. (2017). Public speaking versus hybrid introductory             communication courses: Exploring four outcomes. Communication Education, 66(2),       210. doi:10.1080/03634523.2016.1259485

Clokie, T. L., & Fourie, E. (2016). Graduate employability and communication competence: Are             undergraduates taught relevant skills? Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 79(4), 442-463. doi:10.1177/2329490616657635

Croucher, S., Rahmani, D., Sakkinen, K., & Hample, D. (2016). Communication apprehension,   self-perceived communication competence, and willingness to communication in         Singapore. Journal of Intercultural Communication, (40), N_A-N_A.

Hunter, K. M., Westwick, J. N., & Haleta, L. L. (2014). Assessing success: The impacts of a             fundamentals of speech course on decreasing public speaking anxiety. Communication             Education, 63(2), 124-135. doi:10.1080/03634523.2013.875213

McCroskey, J. C. (1980). On communication competence and communication apprehension: A    response to page. Communication Education, 29(2), 109-111.     doi:10.1080/03634528009378402

Morreale, S., Backlund, P., Hay, E., & Moore, M. (2011). Assessment of oral communication: A             major review of the historical development and trends in the movement from 1975 to        2009. Communication Education, 60, 255–278

Rajmohan, T. (2015). Interpersonal competencies of executives in service organizations. Parikalpana: K I I T Journal of Management, 11(2), 75

Reinsch, N. L., & Gardner, J. A. (2014). Do communication abilities affect promotion decisions?             some data from the C-suite. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 28(1),   31-57. doi:10.1177/1050651913502357

Teven, J. J., Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & McCroskey, L. L. (2010). Updating    relationships between communication traits and communication   competence. Communication Research Reports, 27(3), 263-270.          doi:10.1080/08824096.2010.496331

Westwick, J. N., Hunter, K. M., & Haleta, L. L. (2016). A digital divide? Assessing self-  perceived communication competency in an online and face-to-face public speaking course. Basic Communication Course Annual, 28, 48–86.

Zerfass, A., VerÄiÄ, D., & Volk, S. C. (2017). Communication evaluation and measurement:      Skills, practices and utilization in european organizations. Corporate         Communications, 22(1), 2-18. doi:10.1108/CCIJ-08-2016-0056

Aphorisms and Propaganda

Aphorisms and Propaganda

For a long period, propaganda has been used during conflicts to influence international opinion. The impact of propaganda is greatest when mass media is involved. Broadcasts have a significant impact on the opinions of people and consequently their actions. Propaganda can lead to conflicts especially in a situation where tension between communities of tribes is high. Propaganda can be used to inculcate false perceptions among individuals. This paper will analyze the role played by propaganda in conflict situations and also look at the power of aphorisms.

The Communist Party in China is known to employ the use of propaganda in its rule. According to Xuecun (1), there has been a radical shift in the way the Communist Party of China uses propaganda in its rule. In the 1950s, huge banners were strategically placed in Tiananmen Square with different glorifying messages about the ruling party. In the recent period, the party uses huge billboards which are placed across different cities. They are mainly placed in public places such as schools, parks, construction sites, and other places. The billboards carry messages such as: “A strong Communist Party means happiness for the Chinese people” (2).

The Bush Administration also employed propaganda during its regime. This is evident in the days leading to invasion of Iraq, where there was need to convince the liberals and democrats to join the call for war. During this period, it was claimed that Saddam Hussein had formed an alliance with the terrorist group, al-Qaeda. There was no basis for verifying these allegations. Additionally, there were claims that Saddam Hussein had in his possession weapons of mass destruction, and also biological weapons capable of mass decimation of the population. This propaganda was used to win various factions to support the U.S. invasion of Iraq (Pillar 1).

Propaganda was widely used during World War 1. During this period, there was need for states involved in the war to influence opinion and win the support of the international community. Various states aimed at justifying their deeds in order to win international support. For instance the British used a secret organization known as Wellington House to create propaganda that would be carried through national newspapers with an aim of swaying international sympathy towards Britain. This secret organization went even further to publish and distribute newspapers internationally with the hope of influencing neutral countries to support Britain.

Propaganda and aphorisms are widely used in the Party in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. All citizens’ rooms were equipped with giant telescreens which were used by the Party to transmit propaganda to the masses (Yeo 8). The propagandas were designed in such a way that the failures of the Party would seem to be successes among the masses. The telescreens could monitor the behavior of all citizens, constantly reminding them that they are under watch. Past records are constantly destroyed as the Party keeps making new policies. The Party uses fictitious stories which are pushed to the people as the truth in order to increase their loyalty. Lies are used as facts to influence the people’s opinions.

From the above, it is clear that propaganda has been used for a long time to shape people’s opinions and to influence their actions. Propaganda is commonly employed by the ruling regime or during times of conflict. The major aim is to influence people’s opinions in favor of the ruling party. The ruling regime may be in need of support from the public for a particular project but on the other hand the public may be reluctant. In order to change their opinion, propaganda is usually employed. This is exemplified in the Party as well as in the examples identified. In all cases, the ruling regime uses the mass channels of communication to put across their propaganda. It is used as a way of ensuring domination of the ruling regime, and blind conformance of their subjects to the subjective and dehumanizing policies.

Aphorisms expresses general truths in often a memorable manner. Aphorism involves delivering messages in a distinct way. It may involve expressing details about sharp observations made or as a terse saying. Aphorisms are made in a memorable way and hence powerful since people relate to them for long periods of time. Aphorisms have the power to influence people’s opinions or actions. As such, they can be used as political tools for influencing people’s opinions.

The primary role of propaganda is to influence people’s beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. Propaganda involves spreading of malicious information by the propagandist which is aimed at depicting a group of people in a bad way. Propaganda is often employed by the ruling class to control the masses. For instance during conflicts, propaganda is used to win the masses support of the war or to generally influence their opinions. Modern governments often use propaganda to change the public’s opinion especially with regard to engaging in war.

Works Cited

Pillar, Paul. “The Iraq War and the Power of Propadanda.” The National Interest 14 September 2011: 1-2. Web.

Xuecun, Murong. “The New Face of Chinese Propaganda.” The New York Times 21 December 2013: 1. Web.

Yeo, Michael. “Propaganda and Surveillance in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four: Two Sides of the Same Coin.” Global Media Journal (2010): 49-66. Print.

Analysis of Media Platform – Conservative Magazine ‘The Weekly Standard’



Question 1

In this current era where we are witnessing great improvement and advancement in information technology, mass media is one of the common in the world today. In the world today, the mass media can inform the citizens of the happenings through various platforms such as the Twitter, Facebook, radios, television sets and even WhatsApp applications. However, the media can give various myths in the attempt to fulfill their self-interests and make the common citizen believe that they exist to provide a service to the community. Interestingly, the media can air their myths ranging from news to advertisement, and one thing that the media is known for is to scare away people. The painful truth is that most of the media outlets exist only to sell their adverts and sell the news that they want the common citizen to hear and know.

One of the myths that are widely broadcasted in the media is that the red meat causes cancer. This is one of the nutrition myths that scare people not to use the red meat (Cottrell, 2011). After all, most of the things that are widely liked and used by the largest percentage of the population can cause cancer. What the media fails to inform people is that red meat poses a cancer risk only to the people with poor diets and lifestyle choices.  If an individual decides to maintain good nutrition and health through not smoking, eating vegetables and regular exercises, red meat is nothing to worry about. The truth is that the media exaggerated the effects of red meat on the human body.

Question 2

The media is known for their manipulative power that makes people do things that they never thought they would do. However, there remains a group of people that are hard to manipulate regardless of the efforts put in by the media personnel.  It is very tough and difficult to manipulate a critical consumer of news because they study the alternative perspective and overall views and as a result, they can learn how to interpret events from multiple viewpoints. Moreover, critical consumers of news seek to understand and insight through multiple sources of information and not entirely relying on the mass media.

However, there is a four-step process and steps that should be followed by each single person to qualify to become a critical thinker.  First, the person in question should seek to understand the basic agenda of the news story construction. The consumer should keep in mind that the sole purpose of the mainstream is to sell their stories. Secondly, the consumer should be in a position to use knowledge of the logic of news story construction first to deconstruct stories in the news and then to reconstruct them imaginatively with alternative biases and slants (Fisher, 2011). Thirdly, he should learn how to re-define issues access alternatives sources, put events into a historical perspective, notice and assess assumptions and implications. Finally, a critical consumer should learn how to identify low credibility stories by noticing vested interest or passion associated with the content.

There was a time I failed to be a critical consumer of the news when I read in the on the internet that the great Real Madrid football club had swapped for Lionel Messi for a transfer fee of 500 million euros. Excited by the news, I quickly opened the link only to find that they wanted to increase the traffic to their site.

 Question 3

Creating a society that has a rich concept that comprises of the intellectually disciplined process and skillful conceptualization, application, analyzation, syncretization and evaluation of data and f information gathered before implementation is the dream of every leader. Critical thinking is crucial in bringing development and advancement to society.

According to Sumner, the first step in creating a critical thinking society is to make the community members to value critical thinking and all those who practice critical thinking.  According to him, critical thinking in society helps to distinguish the characteristics of such community as it puts more emphasis on thinking. Moreover, such a society uses critical thinking as a key to the emancipation of the human brain and mind that guides him on following the right path and distinguishing what to believe and follow when having closely associated alternatives (Willingham, 2007).

Moreover, according to Graham education can play a crucial and important role in ensuring that society has critical thinkers who in turn can gain acceptance and respective from the members of the society and in turn influence others to follow their line of thought. However, education alone is not enough as critical thinkers need the courage to what other people think and say is right to show them an alternative that is better and brings more desirable results


Cottrell, S. (2011). Critical thinking skills: Developing effective analysis and argument. . Palgrave Macmillan.

Fisher, A. (2011). Critical thinking: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.

Willingham, D. T. (2007). Critical thinking. American Educator.

Analysis of Media Platform – Conservative Magazine ‘The Weekly Standard’


The final Portfolio Project for this course requires that students select and critically evaluate a research topic. The purpose of this assignment is to provide an opportunity to synthesize many of the issues about the sociology of media discussed throughout the modules and in the textbook.
For the portfolio project, analyze this media text:  ‘The Weekly Standard’ (a conservative print and online political and current events magazine)
The purpose of your final paper is to critically evaluate a mass media text by applying at least three or more of the major issues or concepts explored by the textbook and course content. These issues or concepts include:
Economics of the production and distribution of the media text
Laws and policies that regulate the production and distribution of the media text
Ways in which structural power constrains individuals and institutions that produce the media text
Ways in which dominant ideologies are transmitted by the media text
Opportunities that exist for individuals and audiences to use the media text in unintended ways
Influence of technology in the production and distribution of the media text
Issues that arise when the media text is distributed globally


Sociology of Media

The media is an institution that plays a significant role in the day-to-day running of a state. However, some constraints significantly affect its operation, and the last product majority of our media texts produce. The limitations stretch from the political, social and economic domains hence it is crucial to examine independently how each of the mentioned section affects the productivity of our media platforms. The paper aims at dissecting these issues through reflecting on the structural composition of one renowned news and entertainment-publishing site, which is the Weekly Standard. With regard to this, the concept of how primary power impact media texts will be analyzed and possible solutions given on the same. Technology and its transitional effect will also be examined regarding the positive contribution it has made possible.

The Weekly Standard

The weekly standard is an American based magazine, which is published 48 times every year. Currently, The Anschutz Corporation under the arm of Clarity Media Group and Media DC owns the magazine. Conversely, the magazine maintains an ideological perspective of neoconservative opinions. News cooperation is regarded as its founding publisher, and the magazine is believed to have made its first debut on September 18, 1995. Most of the subscribers of the text know that it is considered a neo-con bible and it is described as a redoubt of neo-conservatism (Randle, 2001). Consequently, some of the products from the Weekly Standard include regular online commentaries accompanied with other products. Some of the key personnel who have written for the magazine include:

Ellen Bork

David Brooks

Rodger Kimball

John Yoo

John R. Bolton

Elliot Abrams

Other participatory organization that participates in the writing of the articles include:

The Ethics and public policy Center

The Hudson Institute

Foundation for Defense of Democracies

The American Enterprise Institute

Amongst some of its notable staff personnel include:

The Editorial staff, William Kristol who is the editor and Fred Barnes, the Executive Editor. On the other hand, the contributing editors are comprised of Tucker Carlson, Brit Hume, Max Boot and Mary Katharine Ham.

The magazine faced a compromising scandal in 1997 following what they reported as an error in one of its publication involving Dr.Deepak Chopra. However, the general tone of the situation was readjusted and appropriate compensation credited to the affected party.

In contemporary society, the media is an institution that has been termed as an independent body. However, the institution has some constraints that impact is general potentiality that has been known to be a problem to an inclusive of grand magazine publishing organizations. The problem, in this case, revolves in not only an individual perspective but also in other central bodies such as a country’s ideology on political, economic and social matters. As a result, it is crucial to analyze such situational occurrences and examine how deeply rooted such phenomena are in our cultures (Randle, 2001). The focus of this paper is to comprehensively dissect through issues related to media sociology and how they impact contemporary society. An analysis of that will be made through covering essential areas such as ways in which structural power plays a role in regulating the voices of individuals and institutions that produce the media text and ways in which dominant ideologies are transmitted by the press text in today’s society. Other key factors to be examined by the paper include opportunities that exist for individuals and audiences to use the media text in ways that they do not intend and the influence of technology in the production and distribution of the press book. Consequently, technology is one crucial area that has impacted the kind of global communication we have today (Van, 1995). With the description of the issues, the paper will showcase some possible solutions to the mentioned problems and discuss some of the long term and short term ways of implementing the alternatives. Because this is a broad issue, contemporary counter arguments may suggest that globalization and technology are some of the phenomena that humans may not necessarily comprehensively understand, hence is it crucial to articulate specific measures in handling it. For most media text, the availability of technology has been of great help, and it is through the same channels that it is possible to access so many people within a short time frame.

The issues or concepts to be explored include:

How does structural power constraints individuals and institutions that produce the media text. In the contemporary society, social power is a fabricated result of the social relationship between different social formations such as groups and classes or between the various persons as social members. In connection, we may think of personal forms of power; however, this individual power is less compelling and relevant for our regular account of the responsibility of authority in discourse as social interaction may be.

A deeper analysis of social power relationships show that they are randomly manifested in interaction. In relation, the situation can be directly referred to as members of group A being in a tight race with members of group B. In this case, when the potential actions of group A exercise social control over B it is clear that more power will incline towards their side.  Thus, this can be since the thought of activity freely includes the idea of conceivable control by accessible operators, the social control over B by the activities of A instigates an impediment of the poise of B.  At the end of the day, the action of force by A outcomes in the restriction of B’s social opportunity of activity

In what ways is dominant ideologies are transmitted by the media text

The term ideology provokes mixed reactions amongst most of us when we encounter the term. For some, being ideological is perceived as having rigid thoughts even in the face of incriminating evidence in support of the contrary. Conversely, the school of thought from Marxism defines ideology as a rigid belief system that manipulates and justifies the actions of those in power by contradicting through distorting and misinterpreting reality. On the other hand, ideology is under the media umbrella defined as a comprehensive system of meaning that helps in explaining the context of the world and aid in making value judgment about the world itself.

In addition, ideology is intertwined with the concept of belief system, worldview and values. For many scholars, ideology is much more than politics but rather provides a broader perspective of fundamental connotation. In this case, the media text is responsible for defining the social and cultural issues by its motherland’s customs. It is crucial to analyze how accurately media contents applies to the real world take for example the image of Black Americans or women and how exactly they have changed over time. In understanding this concept, we get to understand exactly the roles played by each group and how the media ascribe to the contributions of the respective groups.

The important question, however, is pegged on what exactly acts as the determining factor of what is perceived by the media text as real or not, the underlying options in this category include the options of the most visible, the most influential or the most common? In such a case, it is easier to allocate more credit to power at the expense of all the other categories. Consequently, it is important to understand exactly what can be implicated with such an impeccable act that is so common amongst most of our media texts.

In relation, most politicians use media platforms as sites for dissemination of the ideologies they personally advocate for and the same is reflected in most of the contents of the weekly standard. Consequently, the media is regarded as a key instrumental tool and the same explains why it is always debated on most parliamentary proceedings. In the past, extreme cases of violence have been associated with media text contents with some state officials attributing this to the toxic disposal of inappropriate content to viewers and inclusive of young children.

The media also faces challenges over battles for superiority in terms of which content gets exclusive coverage at the expense of others (Van, 1989). In relation, this brings about the concept of Dominant ideology versus Cultural Contradictions. Additionally, Christianity can be used as the leading historical example for this case study. The same can be explained by analyzing the number of legal systems that adhere to Christian moral values and social norms as their foundational basis. Another relevant example is the magic coverage behind football at the expense of other sports. Some very significant ideological discourse that forms the foundation of societal practices and rules include:

Left wing/right wing politics






In most cases, the article an individual opts for will by 70% influence the outcome of his/her final verdict on the issue at hand.

Impact of technology on the production and distribution of the media text

The estimated global world population is at 6.5 billion but it is only 16.7% of this population is said to have access to the internet. However, this has not really affected the performance of technology in the production and distribution of media texts. In relation, as per now the top global web properties include Microsoft, Google and Yahoo while the top web brand includes AOL, Yahoo, MSN and eBay. In relation, technology has brought up a new phrase of communication; this is a transitional break from the coffee days to updates in sites like Facebook. Personal gain from networking has been credited to sites such as LinkedIn, which create provision for professional communication and networking.

Technology has succeeded in expanding social circles; this is evident in the changing roles of mediums such as televisions. Today, TV’s are used as channels for interacting examples including live tweets and calls, matchmaking endeavors and live texts (Chen, 2012). In relation, Facebook is not only used as a medium through which an individual can communicate with friends but also a platform for marketing products, following certain TV shows and celebrities. It is true to say that technology should be credited for the tremendous effort it has played in the distribution of media texts, the two concepts are inseparable and in relation require to be systematically analyzed in terms of independent survival. However, it is equally necessary to identify the technological gap between different generations and determine how exactly the situational crisis can be encountered.

The crisis faced by the ideological aspect can be diminished through several joint full channels especially across the political arena. In relation, it is important for Americans to subscribe to the notion that only independent thinkers can create the provision to free and liberal articles (Chen, 2012). Regardless of the side of the coin, it is important to understand that large changes must be made in our systems straight from the coverage of the content we have on our screens to the active participation of all Americans during the critical national crisis. The media as an independent institution should also be allowed to exercise her freedom in terms of national politics and economic situations is concerned. The same does not imply that excessive freedom should be awarded to this bodies but rather, focus should be made towards ensuring that they are emulated towards a democratic position.

It is crucial to note that political liberation begins with you as an individual and politicians using media platforms for personal gains should be scrapped off altogether. The ruling class on the other hand should be considerate when it comes to power transition and distribution. In most class struggles, the upper class may have power over the other classes, but this does not directly impact the allocation of resources and political domination. Legal measures can be implemented to ease the pressure caused by the intensified battles for power. Technology, on the other hand, is a complex issue that requires particular attention. In relation, most media text sites should efficiently maximize the potentiality of technology. Rather than just focusing on communication transmission, emphasis should be articulated towards transmitting relevant moral and cultural related information for the benefit of the globe as a whole.



Chen, G. M. (2012). The impact of new media on intercultural communication in global context.

Randle, Q. (2001). A historical overview of the effects of new mass media: Introductions in magazine publishing during the twentieth century. First Monday, 6(9).

Van Dijk, T. A. (1989). Structures of discourse and structures of power. Annals of the International Communication Association, 12(1), 18-59.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1995). Power and the news media. Political communication and action, 9-36.

Use the internet to research tips on designing for people who have visual impairments, such as color blindness

Your local public health department has decided to create a campaign that encourages people to eat more nuts because of their potential health benefits.


Your local public health department has decided to create a campaign that encourages people to eat more nuts because of their potential health benefits. The department plans to focus its education efforts on three main audiences: people over 55, children younger than 12, and college students. As part of the campaign, they need a two-sentence summary of the primary health benefits for each audience.

Find three articles on the health benefits of eating nuts (or a particular nut). Create four versions of your summary that address different audiences:

Appropriate for all of the audiences

Particularly appropriate for seniors

Particularly appropriate for children

Particularly appropriate for college students

When submitting your final summaries, answer the following questions:

What changes did you make to your summaries to accommodate for each of these audiences, and why?

What assumptions about your audiences helped you decide what to include or exclude?

Also, include complete reference information for each of the three articles you used to create your summaries. Lastly, write a one-page memo directed to the Outreach Team of the Public Health Department that includes each of your summaries and justifies your choices.


Your local public health department has decided to create a campaign that encourages people to eat more nuts because of their potential health benefits.

Maintaining a healthy body has been paramount to the most individual. As a result, persons are always careful with the kind of food they eat and in most cases; they ensure they take a balanced diet to avoid malnutrition. Taking healthy food reduces chances of an individual getting sick.  On the same note, eating nuts have been associated with plenty of health benefits which range from increased cognitive function to protection from Alzheimer’s and keeping a person’s heart healthy. As a result, individuals are encouraged to eat indigenous food such as groundnuts and peanuts to live a healthy life. In most cases, indigenous food is naturally free from any chemicals and thus do not pose any harm to a person’s health. This paper will attempt to show the benefits an individual can reap from groundnuts.

Part 1

Peanuts are considered to be very important in an individual’s health status as they contain large amounts of nutrients despite their size. Peanuts have nutritional benefits for individuals ranging from all the age from 10 years old to 60.

  1. Nutritional benefits of groundnuts to individuals above 60 years – aging population has a risk of experiencing memory loss given that their brain does not function like that of youth. However, consumption of peanuts helps to increase memory power as they contain vitamin B3 which is widely referred to as brain food(Jones, 2014).  Thus, with proper peanuts consumption, an elderly individual stands a chance to have their brain function normally.
  2. Nutritional benefits of groundnuts to youths (college students) – college students who constitute a large percent of the youths have an opportunity to promote fertility as groundnuts are known to contain a large amount of folate. Moreover, consumption of peanuts for ladies during or pregnancies increases their chances of having a healthy baby free from serious neural tube defect.
  3. Nutritional benefits of groundnuts to individuals between the ages of 1 -12 years – infants and newborn children stand a high chance of death as their immune system is usually very weak. As a result, groundnuts are proposed to kids as the nuts contain vitamins that reduce mortality risks as well as the development of chronic diseases such as respiratory infections.

Part 2

Benefits of peanuts to all audiences

According to the University of Michigan health system (2011), eating 1.5 ounces per day of groundnuts as part of saturated fat and cholesterol reduces the risk of heart disease. It is widely known that cholesterol is one of the causes of heart diseases and thus consumption of groundnuts helps to fight the level of cholesterol in the body and thus prevent the risk of succumbing to heart diseases. Groundnuts have a healthy fatty acid and high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals that are significant in maintaining a healthy body. Moreover, constant consumption of peanuts lowers body mass index and helps in diabetes management diets to all individuals irrespective of age.

Benefits of peanuts to seniors

10 – 25% of individuals with above sixty years of age have a risk of contracting gallstone especially if the individuals were suffering from asthma and diabetes.  According to a publication of University of California agriculture and natural resources department on safe methods of consuming and handling nuts, they state that frequent nuts consumption helps in cutting the risk of gallstones in both elderly men and women. Moreover, the seniors who have a habit of consuming groundnuts are entitled to benefit from L – arginine which helps to improve the health of artery walls by making them more flexible and less prone to blood clots thus facilitating easy flow of blood to all parts and organs of the body (Akhtar, 2014).

Benefits of peanuts to youths (college students)

According to V. S. Settaluri, C. V. K. Kandala , N. Puppala1 , J. Sundaram on peanuts and their nutritional aspects, state that eating pure nuts rather than peanut butter is better. Moreover, they go on to say that proper consumption of peanuts can help fight depression which is among the youths and college students as a result of life frustrations. Peanuts are known to a good source of tryptophan an amino acid which is essential in the production of serotonin a key brain chemical that helps in regulating moods. On most occasions, the youths believe that they can handle both studies and work, but they end up suffering from stress due to workload, but consumption of groundnut helps to reduce chances of contracting depression.

Benefits of groundnut consumption on children

Early healthy eating habits ensure that children have a healthy life ahead of them.  Statistics shows that my children between the ages of 5 to 15 are trying to lose weight as they are overweight given their young age. However, consumption of peanuts can help such children to control their weight as they contain high proteins and fiber contents that promote the feeling of fullness more than it adopts carbohydrates and thus, these children can control their weights to avoid adverse effects on their later lives. Moreover, peanuts help to protect the children from heart infections they lower levels of serum triglycerides in the body (Jukanti, 2012).


Part 3

Most of the changes done in the second part of the summary are the inclusion of specific nutrients that helps to prevent certain health issues for audiences in those categories. Giving my audiences an opportunity to know specific nutrients in peanuts will help increase their chances of forming a habit of having them. However, all these summaries are based on the assumption that individuals are not constant consumers of groundnuts and that they will not have any adverse effect on their body (Jukanti, 2012).


Internal memo

To: Outreach Team of the Public Health Department

From: nutrition officer

Date: September 23, 2016

Subject: consumption of peanuts

Due to the increase in needs and requirements of a healthy eating habit, I wish to propose to you a new method of keeping your health in check through the consumption of groundnuts.

Groundnuts are known to have multiple of health benefits regardless of the age of individuals consuming them. Some of the notable benefits of peanuts to the seniors include boosting memory capacity as well as preventing the risk of contracting gallstone which is some of the common infections among the old population of the globe.

On the other hand, peanuts have health benefits on the youths and college students as they enhance their fatality through folate and help to reduce the risk of contracting depression due to life frustrations. Peanuts are known to contain tryptophan which is very important in their bodies.

Finally, peanuts have nutritional benefits to children as they help reduce their mortality rate as well as helping them to control their weight considering that they contain fatty acids that fight cholesterol in the body. A good eating habit should start at an early age.

Best regards,



Akhtar, S. K. (2014). Physicochemical characteristics, functional properties, and                                       nutritional benefits of peanut oil: a review. Critical reviews in food science and     nutrition, 54(12), , 1562-1575.

Jones, J. B. (2014). A randomized trial on the effects of flavorings on the health benefits of                      daily peanut consumption. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 99(3), , 490-496.

Jukanti, A. K. (2012). Nutritional quality and health benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.):     a review. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(S1), , S11-S26.

Use the internet to research tips on designing for people who have visual impairments, such as color blindness

Use the internet to research tips on designing for people who have visual impairments, such as color blindness


For this assignment, use the internet to research tips on designing for people who have visual impairments, such as color blindness. Choose a visual from a document or website to evaluate based on guidelines you have discovered. Then, include answers to the following questions in your overall research report:


For the visual example, what works well regarding meeting the needs of those viewers with visual impairments?

What suggestions would you have for revising the design to be more effective for this audience?


Question 1

A person who suffers from vision impairment is said to have a problem of identifying visual objects. Unfortunately according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that individual’s eyesight cannot be corrected to a normal level, and he has to live with this problem for the rest of his or her life. Thus, the only to help such people is through the creation of online websites and objects that can help them live their lives like normal people. An individual who has a visual impairment has a limitation of the eye or the vision system which eventually leads to loss of acuity and the inability of that individual to see objects clearly as a healthy person (Stevens, 2013). There exist various ways to ensure various things such as sites are accessible to individuals who are visually impaired.

One of the best and cost effective ways to consider those who are visually impaired is through the colors that are used to signify certain objects or commands.  With the development, innovation and invention in the information technology and the use of the internet in most of the activities carried out by men; there is a need to create a way and a method in which visual impaired can be in a position to use colors for item identification and commands. Web designers should ensure that they use properly actionable colors which are bright and can be detected from afar. In most cases, green is used to signify the start of a session while red is used to signify danger or an end of a session to accommodate them, the designer should consider using these actionable colors on his site.

In addition to the use of colors on a website, there is the need to for the designer of any website to give allowance for large texts that can be used by the visually impaired individuals. At times, major corrections are not needed to accommodate our brothers and sisters, and a mere technique and alterations by making text larger are all that the user requires. As a result, the designer should consider availing alternative style sheets with larger font sizes to ensure that their text layout does not break when text – only zoom is enabled in the browser. As a matter of fact, most of the individuals who are visually impaired would like to zoom in on the text without changing the scale of the entire site layout (Lamoureux, 2008). Some sites are known to have some incredible small print as their web designers are more focused on aesthetics and see the text as part and parcel of the overall visual appearance of the site. To design a suitable web for these individuals, there is the need to realize that aesthetics is not everything, especially if the web visitors cannot see what is written on the web.

Besides, the designer of a web may find it necessary to provide options and ways to increase the contrast of their sites. Some of the eye infections such as glaucoma lead to a significant decrease in contrast sensitivity. To help such individuals, a designer should ensure that his site is detailed –oriented often utilizing subtle gradients and slight shifts in value to create clean, modern and nonobstructive interfaces. Moreover, he may decide to offer an alternative site with more contrast between elements with bold font for readability purposes. Forming and creating high contrasting color between the texts and background the colors of the texts and background of the web helps individuals with the poor site to differentiate between the various objects in the web page. Using texts and colors with closely related colors such as black fonts on a gray background makes it difficult for people with normal eyesight but even more difficult to those suffering from poor eyesight.


Part 2

The image of the car above may pose a great challenge and difficulties for a visually impaired individual, and the chances are that these individuals may not even notice the presence of that vehicle in a website. To start with, the picture is small in size, and it may not be visible to individuals who suffer from infections such as cataracts have a problem in identifying small objects and may need to zoom in the photo to make it visible. As a matter of fact, this photo is too small even to those individuals who have normal eyesight and thus the designer of the website should increase the image of the vehicle (Zhao, 2010). Large pictures and graphics are more visible and individuals can analyze the photos better than tiny pictures which are even harder to detect their presence

Moreover, the color of the vehicle may not work in favor of those who are visually impaired. Generally, such individuals can only detect bright colors such as orange and green that can be easily identified, but experiences some problems when it comes to dull colors such as purple and black. Considering that the picture may be on a website that has more other pictures with bright colors, an individual may pass the picture thinking it is blank and thus misses an opportunity to see it.

Question 3

The picture can be improved through the increase of contrast between the car and the background of the car. The car is black in color while the background of the car is gray in color and makes it difficult to detect the graphic. A change of color to create high contrasting colors between the car and the background through the use of bright and shouting colors such as orange, red and green, the car can become visible to these individuals. On the other side, there is the need to increase the size of the photo to make it bigger because bigger objects are easily identified and detected as compared to small objects (Lamoureux, 2008). Enhancing the picture would increase the chance and likelihood that the picture will be visible to those suffer from poor eyesight.  Finally, increasing the lighting of the background of the picture increases the probability that the picture can be detected despite having almost the same color as its background. By focusing more light on the vehicle or rather by increasing the light that is focusing on the object of interest, in this case, the vehicle will make it visible to everybody.



Lamoureux, E. L. (2008). Vision impairment, ocular conditions, and vision-specific function:                     the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 115(11), , 1973-1981.

Stevens, G. A. (2013). Global prevalence of vision impairment and blindness: magnitude                            and temporal trends, 1990–2010. . Ophthalmology, 120(12), , 2377-2384.

Zhao, J. E. (2010). Prevalence of vision impairment in older adults in rural China: the China        Nine-Province Survey. Ophthalmology, 117(3), , 409-416.

Media Audiences and Producing/Interpreting Content


For this assignment, you will write a 3 page argumentative essay explaining, analyzing, and critically assessing  production of content on Facebook expands the opportunities for readers and audiences to contribute to the social construction of reality and the social integration of individuals.

In the critical phase of your essay, apply the active audience theory to your example in the new media context, which states that media audiences do not just receive information passively but are actively involved, sometimes unconsciously, in making sense of the message within their personal and social contexts.  Decoding of a media message may therefore be influenced by such things as family background, beliefs, values, culture, interests, education and experiences.  Some types of audience activity include interpreting or constructing media messages, socially interpreting messages, collective organization on producers, and self media production.

To what extent, if at all, does your example help to explain the general potential of the new media to expand the force of audience contributions to the social construction of reality? Address at least two counterarguments in your analysis.


Media Audiences and Producing/Interpreting Content

Recent innovations in the information technology and electronic fields such as Smartphone and computers have made it easy for individuals to actively participate in the social construction of reality and social integration of individuals.  Social platforms such as Facebook, whatsApp, Snap chat and Twitter has given citizens and audiences a platform that they can use to contribute to the social development of their community. The social construction of reality constitutes of knowledge in sociology and communication that aids and determines the construction and development of a jointly constructed understanding of the world that forms the basis for shared assumptions. On the other hand, social integration forms a powerful force in the society that can be exerted by members of the society. On the same note, social integration of people constitutes of the beliefs, values, and norms that make up a collective consciousness and a shared way of understanding each other and the world. This essay will attempt to explain, analyze and assess critically production of content on Facebook thus expanding opportunities for readers to contribute to social construction.

With the expanded social media platform and individual has an opportunity to contribute and post anything on the media actively. Take for example a message such as country comes first before anyone else.  This post may have different impacts on different individuals some positive while others negative depending on the perception of the individual and background. As a matter of fact, social media audiences will definitely contribute to this post by giving their thoughts and thus making them active rather than passive audiences. In addition, it is correct to say that social media and the internet, in general, has come to aid the spread of democracy as individuals can air out their views on certain issues that affect the society (Vicente-Mariño, 2015). However, this does not mean that members of the society will have the same feelings and ideas but internet increases diversity.

However, not all things that appear on the social media platforms are true as most of them are vulnerable to media bias and thus, it is the duty of every single citizen to filter what they see and hear. Moreover, despite being one of the quickest ways to get directly to the consumers and audience, social media can influence an individual belief, value, and lifestyle and it all falls for the individual to decide whether the influence will be positive or negative. In the example above, it is clear that the message shows the potential of the new media in expanding the force of audience in contributions to the social construction of reality. By swaying the opinion of many that putting the interest of their country ahead of their personal interest changes the opinion of many who are willing to make history for their country (Franklin, 2013). This clearly indicates that the new media has an ability to change the opinion of many by inflicting new beliefs and opinion in their minds and souls and hence contribute positively to the society.

On the other hand, social media can also have negative effects on the society depending on the perception of the majority of the community towards a certain subject.  Due to the freedom of expression provided by the social media, people have different opinions and only a small group of same-minded individuals can share the same views and opinion. The majority of the audiences who are actively involved in social media are isolated from everyone by what they believe, and it may not be easy for them to change their opinion and beliefs.  However, my post is susceptible to the concerns expressed by the author of the article depending on the perception and perspective of the reader. Depending on the background of the reader, beliefs, culture, interest and education my readers may interpret the message differently. This shows that every single post and message in the social media is like a two – sided sword that cuts on both sides and thus it will have both positive and negative impacts on the people (Sullivan, 2012). Thus, it is the duty of the individual readers to filter out the positive aspects in every single message, take the positive message and what they need in life then discard or ignore the rest of the message. Moreover, the author is concerned about personalization due to the information in the social platforms which may limit individual exposure to topics and points of view of their own choosing. As a result, individual may choose to personalize this message and take it as their own which may influence their choice of future topics in the social media platform.

In conclusion, we can say that social media plays a vital part in the construction of social construction of reality and social integration depending on the perception and perspective of the people. It all starts with a single individual before spreading to other individuals. However, the individuals in the society should be careful with the information they absorb on the internet, and thus, they should filter it before personalizing it because it may construct or damage social construction of reality and social integration depending on how it is utilized.


Franklin, M. (2013). What metrics really mean, a question of causality and construction                            in leveraging social media audiences into business results: Cases from the UK                                   film industry.

Sullivan, J. (2012). Media audiences: Effects, users, institutions, and power.

Vicente-Mariño, M. &. (2015). From Spectators to Users: Exploring the                                                    Ongoing Transformation of Media Audiences. . Trípodos. Facultat de Comunicació          i Relacions Internacionals Blanquerna., (36).

Ideological Analysis of Roland Barthes

Argumentative paper that examines the specific case of media influence over the political world.


For this assignment, you will write a 3 page argumentative paper that examines the specific case of media influence

over the political world.

Choose a specific political issue dominating a present news cycle. The purpose of your analysis is to reveal how this

particular issue is framed across the four different forces of social integration and the social construction of reality.

First, explain the choice of media text that serves as an example of framing a particular political issue serving the

specific interests of the framer. Next, explain the ways in which media influence of the political world operates to

create a spectacle of political inclusion for average viewers/voters. In what ways does this framing disserve or inhibit

the inclusion of average audiences into the social construction of reality?

In the critical phase of your argumentative essay, include a discussion of the empirical evidence/facts omitted from the

mass media framing of the issue you choose to analyze.


Argumentative paper that examines the specific case of media influence over the political world.

With the advancement of technology, it has become far much easier for media houses to transfer information from one point to another than ever before.  Due to its different outlets, mass media has become one of the most influential fields in the world today. Over the years, this sector has gone through a tremendous revolution ranging from print media to online media nowadays. With technology, citizens around the globe have an opportunity to own a mobile and Smartphone which is an important tool to help them access information quickly and at a low price. In addition, the presence of social media platforms has enabled people to get real-time updates on what is happening in every corner of the world. However, social media and media, in general, can be constructive or destructive depending on how people use it. This paper seeks to describe and give an example of how media affects the political world.

With the United States presidential around the corner, most of the social media outlets and news are intensively discussing and analyzing the poll opinions as well as scrutinizing every aspirant to ensure all the citizens are aware of details concerning the aspirants. News bloggers and media houses take sides when it comes to political issues despite the requirement that they remain neutral so that they can give reliable information to the citizens. Interestingly, new bloggers at times go to the extent of campaigning for their favorite candidates through positive information about them while as they post negative information about other aspirants. Given the faith that some of the citizens have on media people, they will definitely sway width their favorite media personnel and support who the artist or the media person is supporting (Entman, 2007). However, not all the information posted on the social media platform is true especially political information and at times, such information can create bad blood between members of the public on the lines of their aspirants. In worst cases, this biased political news may lead to political turmoil in a country. Social media platforms in most cases become the victims of spreading such news. Of recent, there was a tweet saying that Donald trump’s Make America Great Again Hats are made in China.

A good and developed society should have strong principles by which individuals and the nation at large basis their interactions in order to achieve national unity and social integration. Moreover, a healthy society should be able to share knowledge and examine the development of a jointly constructed understanding of the world that forms the basis of their shared assumptions about reality.  However, this can only be achieved if the members of the society learn how to distinguish truth from the biased news.  Some of the ways the media uses to inhibit social integration and social construction of reality include:

  1. Blind imitation – large percentage of the population, especially the youths, are known to be the best imitators of most of the things that they(Ariyanto, 2007) see in the news ranging from glamor industry to lifestyle. In the same manner, the youths are known most of the things they see and hear from the media and thus changing the way of life and beliefs in which the community has known for years.
  2. Negativity – most of the news in the media and programs aired through most of the channels creates a negative mentality to those exposed to it. Early exposure to violent films and news portraying ugly social practices impacts the lives and mind of the young generation and thus changing the principles of social integration and social construction of reality. When the children are exposed to such context at an early age, it becomes even more difficult and later stages in life to differentiate between good and bad.
  3. Information overload – due to the addictive nature of the media, it makes most of the individuals to stay glued to their screens and Smartphone. As a result, individuals become overloaded with information that may not be true and may not have any value in their lives. At such situation, it becomes difficult for such individuals to differentiate between the truth and media bias leading to fall of social integration principles.
  4. Fact-fantasy confusion – most of the information in the media may not be true and in most cases may all just be fantasy. Media plays the role of propagating biased information making it seem like the truth, and thus it becomes difficult to differentiate between facts and fantasy, and this makes it hard for the society to maintain principles of social integration and social construction of reality(Gasper, 2011).

As a matter of fact, all the hat that Trump was using in his campaign were in fact made in America but through social media, the biased news was spread forcing him to address this widespread hatred of hypocrisy. From this example, it is correct and clear to conclude that it has become very difficult to differentiate what is true and what is not true. At times, media personality is using the media to spread the news that has no basis and thus inhibiting principles of social integration.



Ariyanto, A. H. (2007). Group allegiances and perceptions of media bias taking into         account both the perceiver and the source. . Group Processes & Intergroup   Relations, 10(2), , 266-279.

Entman, R. M. (2007). Framing bias: Media in the distribution of power. . Journal                        of communication, 57(1), , 163-173.

Gasper, J. T. (2011). Shifting ideologies? Re-examining media bias. Quarterly . Journal               of Political Science, 6(1), , 85-102.

Ideological Analysis of Roland Barthes

Ideological Analysis of Roland Barthes


Apply the ideological analysis of Roland Barthes to a single advertisement.  Choose an ad and describe the denotations and connotations of the ad.  Then critically evaluate the dominant ideology that is conveyed.  Point out, if any, counterarguments to the ideologies that are in the ad


Ideological Analysis of Roland Barthes


Roland Barthes developed a way of exploring photographic images using connotation and denotation as a system of a variety of signs. Barthes asserts that an image is made up of two layers, the first one indicating what is represented and the second layer showing how it is represented (Bouzida, 2014). While the application of connotation in an image takes the shape of a complex or abstract concept, denotation is rather concrete. Advertising images primarily try to persuade the consumer to purchase a product. They apply both denotations and connotations in order to achieve this. This paper will examine a single advertisement while drawing on Roland Barthes’ ideological analysis.


Barthes analyzes signs in two general forms: the signifier and the signified. The signifier is material in nature while the signified relates to a mental or psychological representation (Bouzida, 2014). The signifier is thus a representation of the actual images, sounds or even objects. On the other hand, the signified is a mental representation depicting things that people hold such as beliefs or myths. Denotation classification falls in the first signification level. Denotation represents the permanent or literal sense of a word. With regard to advertising images, it refers to literal meanings of the images (Bouzida, 2014). In other words, denotation is the message that the audience receives when they see a particular image without associating it with their cultural beliefs, myths or ideologies.


Fig. 1: Revlon Beyond Natural advertisement image.

The above ad clearly highlights denotations. The ad shows Jessica Alba using a make-up product known as Revlon. The image of the product is displayed, including the color of the product contents. The product promises to transform ones skin tone from white to the exact skin tone. The product comes in five different shades, which all promise an even skin tone. Jessica Alba poses in a seductive manner, looking side-on. This simply makes the ad more appealing. As such, consumers may end up buying the product in the hope that they will have a flawless skin like that of Jessica Alba. This is a form of index denotation, which involves representations through association. The other forms of denotation include icon and symbol denotation.


Connotation refers to the implications that the audience derives from a particular image or ad in addition to what they denote. Connotations can be personal or universal in nature (Bouzida, 2014). They also relates to one’s cultural and ideological influences. Connotations relates to the emotions or feelings exhibited by the audience in relation to their cultural values and ideologies upon seeing an ad. As such, connotations are influenced by particular subjective factors in the society or among individuals. Connotations work hand in hand with denotations. The two are inherently tied in that connotation depends upon the earlier existence or presence of denotation. Connotations are the additional or suggestive meanings that the audience obtains on seeing an ad image (Bouzida, 2014).  Advertisers aim at creating appropriate connotations when developing an ad. When a product evokes the right connotations, the consumers may associate the product with quality of life-style in the end. This may help in developing product quality.

The ad above shows a number of connotations associated with the product. First, the ad uses a media personality, Jessica Alba to create connotations about the product. Jessica Alba is an American actress and model with appearances in major beauty shows, awards, and has also made a debut in the film industry. She is associated with beauty and glamour, having been named in People Magazine among the top fifty most beautiful person in the world. As such, the connotations in the ad revolve around her beauty and glamor. The consumers are likely to associate Revlon as the source of her beauty and glamor and thus end up making a purchase. There is also an aspect of sex appeal in the ad. Jessica Alba is posing seductively giving the connotation of sex appeal. As such, consumers are likely to associate the product with increased sex appeal on using the product.

One of the dominant ideologies that are posited in the ad is that of natural or exact skin tone. The ideology is that upon using the product, the consumer will acquire her natural skin tone from the white skin tone that is caused by a number of factors such as the effects of weather on skin. The ad also indicates that by using the product, one is likely to develop a flawless skin that is even-toned. The ad primarily focuses on women who are inclined to have a flawless natural skin. Counterarguments exist with regard to the ad. First, it may not be possible to achieve such a flawless skin especially with regard to those women suffering from certain skin conditions such as breakout of acne (Rifon, Royne, & Carlson, 2014). The second counterargument is that the product itself may not actually make one look beautiful, for beauty is a multifaceted concept.


Bouzida, F. (2014). The semiology analysis in media studies – Roland Barthes approach. International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved from   

Rifon, N. J., Royne, M. B., & Carlson, L. (2014). Advertising and violence: concepts and             perspectives. United Kingdom, UK: Routledge.