Category Archives: Education

Fun and Fitness Field Day-Event Plan


Fun and Fitness Field Day

Use your field experience hours for discussion with your classroom teacher. You are designing an event; you are not implementing it.


Create a 75-125-word flyer that invites families to the Fun and Fitness Field Day. Within the flyer provide the address, time, place, and all other pertinent information that families will need to know.

Please note that a field day is an event that usually takes place at school. It includes fitness activities such as running races, sack races, parachute activities, water balloon toss, etc. The event plan must be for a field day; it is not okay to change or modify this event.

Event Plan                                                                                                                                        

Design a 100-250-word Fun and Fitness Field Day plan of events appropriate for the young children in your practicum setting that can be used in your future classroom.  The word count is for each activity.The plan should be a plain on a plain Word document. Please be sure to see the example below.

Include the following for five fitness activities appropriate for the age group. For each activity, you must provide the following information:

Description –Provide the name and general description of the activity.

Time and location- Where and when will the activity take place?

Directions-How will you complete the activity? You need to provide the directions/instructions.

Materials-List all materials needed for the activity.

Modification for students with special needs- How will you modify the activity for students with special needs?

Sample paper

Event Plan

Activity 1

Water Balloon Toss: Students will toss water balloons in teams. The game challenges the players to catch a fragile balloon without bursting it and getting wet.

Time and Location: The activity will take place between 2:00 PM to 2:30 PM when the sun is hottest. There is risk of participants getting wet. The event will take place on the soccer field.

Directions: Participants will form teams of about 10 to 15 members (an even number of teams is necessary). Each team will have a balloon filled with water. The teams will form two lines of players, with members from the different teams facing each other. The teams toss water balloons at each other. The last team having an intact balloon makes the win.

Materials: Balloons, water in a bucket, funnel.

Modification: Members with special needs will catch the water balloons from a relatively shorter distance from the opposite team members.

Standard 1: The students will demonstrate competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns (OSPI, 2016).

Activity 2

Sack Races: Participants will place both legs inside a sack reaching up to their waist and compete like in an actual race. Participants compete as individuals.

Time and Location: The activity will take place from 9:00 AM to 9:30 AM. The event will take place on the racetrack.

Directions: Participants will compete in groups. The top three from each group will proceed for the final sack race. The first person to cross the finish line while hopping on the sack will be the winner.

Material: Gunny sacks, ribbon to mark the finish line

Modification: Participants hop over a shorter distance.

Standard 2: Students will apply knowledge of concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics related to movement and performance (OSPI, 2016).

Activity 3

Parachute Activities: Students will engage in a variety of games involving the use of a parachute and balls.

Time and Location: The activity will take place between 10:00 AM and 10:30 AM, at the basketball court.

Directions: Students will hold the parachute on the edges making circle. The students will make waves, engage in merry-go-rounds, play ‘popcorn’, make the ‘mushroom’, roller ball, and ‘poison snakes’.

Materials: Parachute, balls, jump ropes

Modification: Students may conduct some activities while seated, for instance, rolling a ball along the edges.

Standard 1: Students will demonstrate competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns (OSPI, 2016).

Activity 4

Balloon Ball: Students will try to keep balloons off the ground for the longest time possible.

Time and Location: The activity will take place between 11:00 AM and 11:30 AM. The activity will take place in an empty class or hall.

Directions: Students will play in teams. The goal for each team is to keep two balloons off the ground for the longest time possible. Once a balloon touches the ground or bursts, the game ends.

Materials: Balloons

Modification: Students can play catch with the balloons whereby they throw the balloons at each other.

Standard 1: Students will demonstrate competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns (OSPI, 2016).

Activity 5

Animal Races: Students will hope like a frog towards the finish line.

Time and Location: The activity will take place between 12:00 PM to 12:30 PM. The activity will take place at the soccer field

Directions: Students will hop on their legs like a frog from the starting point to a finishing point. The student who completes the animal race first becomes the winner.

Materials: Ribbon to mark the finish line, row markers

Modification: Students may hop over a relatively shorter distance.

Standard 2: Students will apply knowledge of concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics related to movement and performance (OSPI, 2016).


Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) (2016). Washington State Health and        Physical Education K-12 Learning Standards.  Retrieved from:         12LearningStandards.pdf


Diversity and Elementary School Learners

Diversity and Elementary School Learners

Diversity in the Classroom

With increased globalization especially due to improved transportation technologies, the modern classroom has become more diverse than any other period in the history of education. As such, today’s classroom is influenced by various forms of diversity based on factors such as race, culture, ethnicity, religion, and gender. In addition, there is diversity related to academics and the specific learning styles. The later forms of diversity have emerged due to the dynamic learning environment and the emergence of new knowledge and teaching techniques. The teacher should be aware of the different forms of diversity that he/she may encounter in today’s classrooms. This can help in adequately preparing to impact knowledge on the diverse group of students. This paper examines the concept of diversity in today’s classroom as well as the needs of the elementary school learner.

Gender diversity is one of the common forms of diversity in the modern classroom. Gender diversity can enable the teacher to provide a non-discriminatory and supportive environment to all students, and regardless of their gender. Modern day classrooms are more diverse in terms of gender compared to the traditional classrooms. For instance, there are students who consider themselves as gender-nonconforming, while others may identify themselves as transgender. In the past, the teacher could discriminate students for identifying one as transgender. Moving forward, current regulations require that the teacher will develop a conducive environment to learning for all gender. The teacher should not only be aware of the existence of multiple gender but also take necessary action to bring about gender inclusivity in the learning environment. As Parker (2012) asserts, people should always go the extra mile. As such, the teacher should go the extra mile in helping students feel comfortable.

Racial diversity is also common in today’s classroom. Race is unitary and relates to how others see or treat an individual. Racial diversity in the classroom ensures that there are varying understandings and life experiences among individuals. For instance, African Americans and the Whites hold divergent views on many issues touching on politics, lifestyle, religion, death penalty, and other things. The teacher should note that race significantly affects perception. According to Packard (2013), Black students hold distinct communication styles from their White counterparts. They also have different learning styles. For instance, while Black students are more likely to discuss issues to do with minority groups, their White counterparts are likely to discuss issues concerning sexual orientation, class and gender. Black students show a stronger connection between their own experiences and social theory. On the other hand, White students show exhibit a weak connection between their own experiences and social theory.

Ethnicity has a close link to race. This concept refers to the particular way in which people see themselves or one’s group membership. Ethnicity describes one’s affiliation. Thus, an individual can have more than one ethnicity. In order for learning to be effective, teachers must engage the learners effectively to know more about them in a personal manner. This ensures that the teacher does not rely on ethnic stereotypes perpetuated through decades. In addition, the teacher does not rely on the prior knowledge gained from his/her interaction with other students of similar ethnic background. According to Packard (2013), students must feel welcomed  and acknowledged in the classroom environment for them to be at ease and for any meaningful learning to take place. For instance, White students records the highest positive scores when asked their experience of the classroom. On the other hand, Black students reported a lower concerning how welcome they feel in the classroom.

Culture relates to the social aspect of a person’s life. Culture relates to the values, norms, beliefs, and expressive symbols that people learn by associating with others. A normal classroom contains students who hold different beliefs, values, norms, and expressive symbols. The major role of the teacher with regard to cultural diversity is to ensure that students are aware and respect other cultures. In a typical classroom setting, students are more likely to exhibit in-group and out-group behaviors. As such, students are likely to react in a neutral or positive manner when dealing with another student from a familiar culture. However, the learners may be apprehensive of another learner who holds an unfamiliar culture. The teacher should ensure that students could tolerate and cherish different lifestyles of other students. Teaching students to appreciate different cultures is a way of introducing them to the real world. As Parker (2012) puts it, he fear is always there, but it all depends on the choices we make to do about fear.

Religious diversity is also common in the classrooms. Due to immigration, today’s classroom is more diverse than ever in terms of religion. Common religions in the United States include Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and other smaller religious denominations (Southerland & Scharmann, 2013). In addition, there are those who are unaffiliated with other groups such as the atheists. The U.S. adopts a neutral approach in matters concerning religion and education. This means that there is separation of school curriculum and the many religious groups that exists. This helps prevent conflict between the curriculum and religious sects. In science learning, sometimes the student learns about things directly conflict with his/her life. For instance, science theories on origins of life may conflict with some religious views held by some of the students.

Diversity concerning academics and learning styles also exist. Individuals may require different learning styles in order to ensure learning takes place. Al-Azawei and Lundqvist (2015) categorize learners into two depending on the learning styles; the sensing learner and the intuitive learner. The sensing learners are methodical. This means that they can easily memorize facts. In addition, they can be able to follow standard procedures and to follow specific rules. The intuitive learner is defined by two key characteristics; they are highly imaginative and tend to abstract things. The intuitive learners enjoy discovering new things. There is also diversity in the way the learners prefer receiving content. The visual leaners prefer information that is presented visually, such as through diagrams, charts, pictures, and others. On the other hand, there are verbal learners who prefer learning through spoken words.

Diversity exists in the classroom relating to academic success. While some students are academically talented, others could be struggling in their education. Generally, Whites perform better compared to African Americans. Various issues contribute to the academic gap between Whites and the Blacks. Some of these include educational level of parents, poverty levels, and the environment. According to Blume (2016), cross-racial interactions could significantly improve the learning experiences of minority students. The study identifies a number of factors that improve the feelings of belonging among ethnic minority learners. These include the racial climate at school, cross-racial interactions, and co-curricular activities. The teacher should ensure that he/she helps even the weaker students to progress in their education (Parker, 2012). Teachers have the opportunity to transform students’ lives.

Emotional diversity is another key aspect in determining a student’s success. Emotional diversity relates to the diverse range of emotions exhibited by learners in the process of acquiring knowledge. Text anxiety is of the dominant topics in matters involving emotional diversity. Test anxiety can significantly affect the performance of the students in tests and exams. According to Weiner (2015), emotions are intrapsychic as opposed to being the products of a social phenomenon. In other words, emotions are private experiences that may have a positive or negative influence on the person involved. The personal aspect of emotions leads to the emergence of the concept of antecedents and the specific details involved in measurement and identification. For instance, one may develop the antecedents of feeling where one holds the thought that he/she is going fail. It is impossible to consider emotions as social occurrences since some of these are inborn.

Another significant concept relating to diversity in the classroom is multiple intelligences. The concept of multiple intelligence holds that intelligence is fragmented into different specific modalities rather than a domination by a particular ability. The implication of this is that a teacher should assess student using multiple intelligence rather than a specific intelligence. According to the multiple intelligence theory, teachers should consider eight human intelligences. The multiple intelligences include musical/rhythmic, verbal-linguistic, visual-spatial, bodily kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. In the earlier period, the focus was on two multiple intelligences, namely verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical intelligence. Teachers should tailor classroom activities to fit the specific needs of the students in order to implement the multiple intelligence concept. Multiple intelligence approach can be a good way for the teacher to introduce flexibility in learning.

Language is another major source of diversity in the globalized world. Language diversity affects students who come from overseas countries, and especially the non-English speaking countries. The hearing-impaired students who prefer to through regular classes also experience language diversity. When handling students with language issues, the teacher must try to ensure that the language he/she uses is appropriate to the level of those affected by language diversity. The teacher may give more attention to those students whose language skills are below the English level. The teacher should not criticize the students for their poor language skills since this might make them to become disinterested in learning the language.

Physical diversity is also common in most classrooms. The teacher is likely to encounter physical diversity on occasional basis. Physical diversity relates to the various physical abilities of the students. The teacher should educate students about physically disabled and the need to treat them fairly without discrimination. This can ensure that the physically challenged are not segregated or shunned by other students. The teacher must be aware of the stigma associated with those who suffer from some forms of physical disability. According to Parker (2012), people should always be willing to help those others who are not in a better position comparing to the “us”. This is what is described in learning how to care.


Al-Azawei, A., & Lundqvist, K. (2015). Learner differences in perceived satisfaction of an          online learning: An extension to the technology acceptance model in an Arabic sample.   Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 13(5), 408.

Blume, A. K. (2016). Diversity-related experiences and academic performance among ethnic       minority college students. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 5089. Retrieved    from

Packard, J. (2013). The Impact of Racial Diversity in the Classroom: Activating the Sociological             Imagination. Teaching Sociology, 41(2), 144-158. Retrieved from   

Parker, D. V. (2012). Christian teachers in public schools: 13 essentials for the classroom.            Kansas City, KS: Beacon Hill Press.

Southerland, S. A., & Scharmann, L. C. (2013). Acknowledging the religious beliefs students      bring into the science classroom: Using the bounded nature of science. Theory into    Practice, 52(1), 59-65. doi:10.1080/07351690.2013.743778.

Weiner, B. (2015). Examining emotional diversity in the classroom: An attribution theorist          considers the moral emotions. Research Gate.

NAEYC on Technology

NAEYC on Technology

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is a nonprofit professional organization whose main goal is to promote early childhood education among children ranging from birth to about 8 years of age. NAEYC promotes early childhood education through development of education initiatives and public policy. NAEYC maintains a professional website that provides the public with critical information about early childhood programs for their children. With regard to technology, NAEYC aims at promoting technology-based learning in early childhood education. The organization’s statement on technology holds that technology should be integrated in early childhood education as a way of maximizing connections between learners (children) and parents, assessing the progress of children, and in supporting the learning process. This paper provides support on NAEYC’s position concerning the integration of technology in early childhood education.

In the modern period, technology has become an integral aspect in not only higher education, but also in early childhood education. Children are currently growing up in an environment shaped by new technologies, whether at schools, offices, or even at homes (“NAEYC & FRC,” 2012). When technology is applied in the right manner, it may have positive impacts in early childhood education. Shared experiences can promote children’s learning and development, while also improving their relationships with peers and adults. A number of technology tools that may be appropriate in education include computers, tablets, music players, electronic toys, projectors, audio recorders, microscopes, and other digital tools common in learning (“NAEYC & FRC,” 2012). These technology tools have changed the way teachers apply learning materials in the teaching-learning process in the classrooms. The proliferation of digital devices in the modern world means that children are spending more time engaged with these devices. In order to make learning meaningful and engaging to them, there is need to integrate technology in the teaching-learning process.

Available research indicates that technology is a critical component to the modern-day learning environment. Liang, Hsu, Huang, and Chen (2012) conduct an investigation to examine the influence of learning environment in stimulating learner imagination. The authors examine the role of digital technology in various aspects on people’s lives. Four factors are examined and their influence to the learning environment. These include human aggregate, physical component, social climate, and organizational measure. In the recent past, governments across the world have launched e-learning initiatives meant to help improve the education standards. The findings indicate that the social aspect has the greatest influence in stimulating the learner’s imagination (Liang et al., 2012). Technology enhances the social aspect of learning by improving social interactions or connectivity among individuals. There is a strong need for individuals to embrace modern technology through learning. This calls for the need to integrate digital technology tools in the modern education pedagogy to enable people to acquire new skills in use of digital technology.

A section of policymakers in the education sector has raised concerns about the appropriate age for introducing children to the digital media. Some individuals believe that it may be counterproductive to introduce screen media to children in early childhood learning programs. NAEYC holds that infants in early childhood education programs should not be allowed screen time as this might negatively affect their health as well as intellectual development. An organization such as the American Academy of Pediatrics has issued general guidelines regarding infants and screen time. The organization recommends that children under the age of 2 should not be exposed to screens, while those above the age of 2 should only be exposed for a duration of less than 2 hours a day (Birch, Parker, & Burns, 2011). On the other hand, the Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy recommends that preschoolers should enjoy limited screen time of less than 30 minutes per day. The screens in this case include various types of digital tools such as television, digital media, videos, cell phones, computers, and others. Limiting screen time contributes to reduce the risk of developing early childhood obesity.

Although much of the available literature suggests that technology is an invaluable resource to children’s learning process, few researches provide contradictory findings. A number of studies document the negative impacts of technology to children. Carson and Janssen (2012) examine the effects of excessive screen time and the factors contributing to this among children between birth and 5 years. The findings indicate that factors within the home environment such as parents’ cognitive levels have a significant impact on the level of screen time among their children. Of particular interest, excessive screen time is associated with socialization problems, where children acquire sedentary behavior. Carson and Janssen (2012) assert that excessive screen time is associated with a host of other negative impacts on children, such as aggressive behavior, obesity, and may hinder language and cognitive development. As such, there is need for controlled integration of various technology tools in the early childhood learning process.

The issue concerning effectiveness of screen media is insofar inconclusive basing on the available research. A part of the available research indicates that screen media is not harmful to children, and may on the other hand improve their intellectual and cognitive development. This research indicates that screen media that is integrated carefully into the learning process by the teacher as a guide may actually serve as an effective teaching aid. As such, screen media may serve as a powerful tool in the learning process. According to NAEYC and FRC (2012), the type of content in the digital tool is the most significant in determining its effectiveness, rather than the manner in which presentation occurs. In other words, children are likely to derive some educational value from various digital tools such as websites, television, computers, radio and others, as long as content is relevant to their educational level.

The amount of time that children dedicate towards technology tools is critical in determining the influence of these digital devices. Although this time must be taken into account while assessing the impact of the particular technology, the teacher plays a significant role in ensuring that learners use various tools in the right way. The teacher determines the relevance content and establishes the best teaching strategies to guide learners. According to the NAEYC and FRC (2012), media and technology can only be impactful when applied appropriately in early childhood learning. Teachers should not apply technology for activities that are inappropriate for children, for instance, in teaching content that is beyond the level of children. Moreover, technology should not replace beneficial activities for children such as playtime, interaction with peers and adults, or their time to interact with other children. Teachers must ensure that technology tools chosen suit the developmental level of learners and relate to content.

Today, children are born in a technologically advanced world. They learn to operate a number of gadgets from home at a tender age. As such, their experiences in the application of modern technology are part of what they go through on daily basis. It is thus important for the education system to integrate technology as part of their learning process. Integrating technology in the children learning process makes education more real and reflecting the current-day developmental aspects of the modern society. Digital technologies have a strong impact in the lives of people, especially with regard to the social and physical environment surrounding children. Digital technology significantly touches on the lives of caregivers, family members and educators involved in early childhood education. Digital technology is thus an important aspect in early childhood education and in enhancing content delivery in the modern world.

Vast volumes of available literature indicate that digital technologies have the impact of developing increased learning opportunities in early childhood education. For instance, digital technologies influence children’s areas of learning, communication, social interactions, and expansion of knowledge areas. Nives, Gordana, and Mirjana (2016) propound the idea that much of the negative aspects about digital technologies are mere stereotypes propagated by the mass media. The media have played a critical role in spreading negative stereotypes about digital technologies in early childhood education. Reports by the mass media claim that when children are exposed to digital technologies such as computers and tablets, they may develop a habit of playing violent computer games, leading to development of antisocial behaviors. Concerns about the use of digital technologies in early childhood education revolve around the impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive development (Nives, Gordana, & Mirjana, 2016). However, it is worth noting that children are less likely to experience such impacts since educators control the type of content available to them on the digital learning devices.

The benefits of digital technologies to young children are immense. First, digital technologies enable young children to improve their cognitive abilities. For instance, young children are able to visualize complex concepts with the help of digital technologies (Nives, Gordana, & Mirjana, 2016). This is especially when they utilize visual media such as screens. Another key benefit is that digital technologies provide children with a platform in which they can learn through practical action. These benefits point towards the need to integrate digital technologies to the early childhood curriculum. Participation of parents in the learning process is critical for achievement of all educational goals and outcomes. When integrating digital technologies in the learning process, educators must ensure that applications are relevant and devoid of negative aspects such as racial discrimination, violence, and sexually explicit content. It is important to ensure that digital technologies are seamlessly integrated with other activities in order to ensure that children experience holistic learning.

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) asserts that application of technology in early childhood education is imperative in the modern world. Today, children are born in an environment where most individuals depend on digital technologies in their daily life. Children are exposed to modern technologies at an early age, right from home environment to schools. It is important that digital technologies be integrated in early childhood education. Nonetheless, there is need for educators to control the manner in which children use these technologies, and the time they spend on various digital devices. This research indicates that children who spend a lot of time on digital devices such as computers, tablets and others may be at risk of developing obesity and other cognitive impairments.


Birch, L.L, L. Parker, & Burns, A. (eds). (2011). Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies.    Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from   

Carson, V., & Janssen, I. (2012). Associations between factors within the home setting and          screen time among children aged 0-5 years: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health,          12(3): 539-570.

Liang, C., Hsu, Y., Huang, Y., & Chen, S. (2012). How learning environments can stimulate        student imagination. The Turkish Journal of Educational Technology, 11(4): 1-10.

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), & Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media (FRC). (2012). Technology and interactive media as tools in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Retrieved        from

Nives, M. P., Gordana, L., & Mirjana, S. (2016). Investigating parents’ attitudes towards digital   technology use in early childhood: a case study from Croatia. Informatics in Education,           15(1): 127 -146.




Head start was an anti-poverty program that built on a strong base of civil rights advocacy and a long history of private and government funded childhood education program. The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was in the front line to help the country focus on the needs of underrepresented groups such as the black community which led to the declaration by the Supreme Court that racial segregation was unconstitutional. Besides, Lady Bird Johnson worked tirelessly as the national spokeswoman for the program to help unite individuals from various groups to join the program. However, there were those who felt that for the program to work, children must be removed from the influence of their parents who were not meeting their needs (Paciorek, 2014).  This perspective led to the suggestions that the poor in the society needed to be educated, to have opportunities to learn the values embraced by middle-class America and hence introduce them to work ethics. On the other hand, there was a group of people who felt that the program could work better if parents participated in both education and decision making.

Head start program was incepted for two primary purposes to provide comprehensive health, nutrition, and education services for the young generation especially the kids which would help in attaining social competence. However, the program was also to give families with low income a voice and a chance to participate and enjoy the national cake. Parents were given executive responsibilities of the program that included planning the center environment and curriculum. To ensure that the parents of the children in the program enjoyed and benefitted from the program, Section 70.2 mandated that these parents constitute a majority on the policy board and described ways in which the board could influence the running of the program. The program in a significant manner helps to serve diverse populations through emphasizing on respect for and serving the needs of, diverse population in the society. Through the program, it was impossible for them to ignore and neglect these groups that would later become larger segments of the population. However, different people have varied feelings towards the success of the programs with some felt that the program was a success while others felt that it was a total failure. Despite these mixed results, the program has benefitted from Children Development Associate (CDA) which takes advantage of recent technologies to build on competence and provide safe and healthy learning environments (Paciorek, 2014). Head start has maintained its commitment over the years, despite the fact that maximum feasible participation has limited parent involvement in the governing and decision making in the group. The program continues to build on its strong early education and social justice foundation.

Summary of the internet sources

Head start matters to every single child, especially to that child who comes from the underrepresented community as the program is committed to giving every single child, regardless of the circumstances at birth, an opportunity to succeed in school and life. The program has helped more that 32 million children and families who have gone on to become lawyers, pilots, doctors and other important individuals in the society (Leow, 2016). To make sure that the program gives the best to the kid, they usually offer five conferences and training events each and every single year thus exposing the children and the youths to the real world and what they should expect in life after the programs. Moreover, the program offers the parent and annual conferences, two leadership institutes where each event offers a unique opportunity for both the children and the parents to learn from experts and also have a chance to interact with them considering that some may be role models to the children and parents too (Mancilla-Martinez, 2014).

The program is unique from other programs, both governmental and non-governmental considering that it means success to children who might otherwise struggle throughout their lives. Although the program does not reveal the criterion they use to tell whether the children come from poor as well as underrepresented communities, it makes all the children equally (Kelley, 2014). Moreover,  the program can be said to follow biblical teachings where the Bible states that “if any of the towns in the land that the Lord your God is giving you there is a fellow-Israelite in need, then do not be selfish and refuse to help him. Instead be generous and lend him as much as he needs.” (Deut. 15:7-8). This verse shows that God appreciates cheerful givers considering that we all are equal in his eyes and created in his image.  Despite facing numerous challenges, the program is still committed to ensuring that it provides comprehensive health, nutrition, and education services to children.  The program offers a platform for the study of effective child development and learning through extensive research to reinvigorate practices and to ensure that the program meets the needs of the children by creating a deep understanding of how they learn and what supports healthy learning and development (Ansari, 2016).


Ansari, A. P. (2016). Classroom Age Composition and the School Readiness of 3-and 4-              Year-Olds in the Head Start Program. . Psychological science, 27(1), , 53-63.

Kelley, S. (2014). Teacher-Child Interaction and Child Outcomes: Puget Sound Educational                    Service District Head Start Preschool Programs 2012-2013.

Leow, C. &. (2016). Is Full Day Better Than Half Day? A Propensity Score Analysis of the                     Association Between Head Start Program Intensity and Children’s School Performance                in Kindergarten. Early Education and Development, , 1-16.

Mancilla-Martinez, J. &. (2014). Promoting Shared Cultural and Linguistic Backgrounds among              Children and Families in Early Head Start/Head Start Programs. Dialog, 17, , 3.

Paciorek, K. M. (2014). Annual editions: Early childhood education 14/15 (35th ed.). New York,            NY:: McGraw-Hill. .


Learning Environment

Learning Environment

Learning Environment


Learning environment is of critical significance to the student’s effort and motivation levels. The availability of learning resources, the physical resources and quality of teacher guidance determine student satisfaction and are fundamental in stimulating students to work hard both in class and in doing their assignments. Motivation is one of the key factors that determine the amount of effort an individual puts to a particular task. A number of developmental learning theories exist today providing crucial insights on learning and development. Traditional theories such as those espoused by Piaget, Kholberg, Vygotsky, Erickson, and others focus on the socio-emotional growth of learners as well as the development of cognitive abilities. This paper examines a personal theory of establishing the best learning environment and looks at pertinent issues surrounding the learning environment.

Learning Theory and its Importance

My learning theory stipulates that content should be meaningful and the students should be able to relate it to practical application. Students should be able to apply the knowledge they learn to practical situations. As such, education should focus on learning that is practical oriented rather than merely taking a theoretical approach. The social learning theory propounded by Bandura asserts that learning primarily occurs through observing others, thus modeling one’s behavior (Shaw, 2012). The customized learning theory advocates for learning through observation of the practical application of theories. Students should learn to apply what they learn in live environment. The learning process should focus more on gaining technical skills that can be applicable to work situation. There should be a change in teaching methods by emphasizing more on simulation, optimization and analytical techniques common in the workplace. A number of activities or programs in the high school level can enable students gain a practical approach to education. There should be planned interactions between students and practitioners to stimulate student interest.

In addition to the above, learning approaches should focus on instilling practical knowledge or skills. Teacher instruction should involve more of practical approaches such as role-play, video examples, case studies, site visits, co-operative programs, and other practical approaches. Such a learning approach can help students to easily transition from a purely academic setting to live environment setting in the workplace. Erickson’s theory of development explores how external factors influence personality development of an individual. During the adolescent stage, one must discover a personal identity. A practical-oriented education can enable students to discover their identity. The major benefits of an education that is practice-oriented relates to acquainting the students to the culture of work. Piaget’s Cognitive Theory asserts that children develop mental constructs of the world around them and later experience what he calls discrepancies between what they know and what they come to learn in their interaction with the environment (Tess & Terri, 2013). This still supports the personal theory since a practical orientation can enable students to make discoveries or build schemas of new knowledge.

            Description of an effective teacher and learning environment. An effective teacher is not only good at teaching but also in other critical aspects in the teaching process such as classroom management. An effective teacher must first understand a number of factors that may influence the student’s level of understanding (Slavin, 2013). The teacher ensures that content is suitable for the level of students. An effective teacher should ensure that students are well adept in prerequisite skills required for a particular unit or course. An effective teacher is able to analyze the level of students’ understanding and identify areas where they need additional explanations or more time. Another key aspect of an effective teacher relates to motivation. An effective teacher is able to motivate students and keep them interested in learning more about a particular topic (Van Brummelen, 2009). At the end of a lesson, an effective teacher should be able determine whether students have mastered the key concepts and skills. With regard to a practical-oriented education, direct instruction can enable students understand theory and apply knowledge learnt to practice. The teacher can provide case studies or videos to enable students relate the concepts learnt to practice. An effective teacher is able to apply modern technology in teaching. Modern technology is a critical aspect of learning and development for learners.          Application of modern technology is part of practical learning. Teachers should be able to tailor their instruction methods to suit the needs of students. Another important aspect is the ability to monitor student behavior. Within-class ability grouping can significantly help students improve their performance. According to Slavin (2013), this grouping method involves assigning students to particular subgroups within the class that are composed of students with similar ability levels. Within-class ability groups enables the teacher to vary the pace or level of instruction to suit the particular needs of the students within a group. As such, students are able to learn concepts that are relevant to their level of understanding. This can help in gaining practical skills. Motivation is another critical aspect in effective teaching and learning. Highly motivated students may overcome great obstacles to achieve their goals (Van Brummelen, 2009). Two types of motivation exist, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsically motivated students work hard not due to external rewards but due to the realization of the internal rewards for their efforts. Intrinsic motivation can enable students to relate theory to practice.

            Learning Characteristics. Multimodalities in learning environments involve having diverse communication modes between teachers and students (Leeuwen, 2015). The learner may receive information from a variety of sources. These sources are not only restricted to verbal interactions with the teacher but also extend to other aspects such as visuals, gestures, speaking, and others. The customized learning theory stipulates that content should not only be meaningful to learners but they should also be able to apply the concepts learnt to practical work situations. As such, this theory greatly enhances the application of multimodalities in the teaching and learning process. Multimodality in learning emphasizes on practice (Leeuwen, 2015). Multimodality in learning draws inspiration from various orality theories, which emphasize strong interrelations between learners and objects in the education process.

Ability groupings are best suited for reading and math. The customized learning theory advocates for ability grouping since it helps high achievers move quickly while on the other hand, low achievers can get special help and are thus able to attain their goals too. Ability grouping may take various forms, such as ability grouped classroom assignments, regrouping for reading and mathematics, and gifted programs (Slavin, 2013). The ability grouped class assignment may not be effective since it tends to sort students into different classes depending on their performance.

            Personal Reflection. My best learning style is active experimentation as described using Kolb’s learning styles model (KLS).  As Kolb notes, students who prefer active experimentation are more concerned with the practicality of the learning theory (Ocepek, Bosnic, Serbec, & Rugelj, 2013). Students with higher preference of active experimentation are more likely to prefer video lectures, animations and simulations. As such, I often prefer to work things out or experiment what is taught. Practical lessons provide a great deal of information and make it easy for one to understand the key concepts. I use self-evaluation as a study skill. This involves reading concepts and then trying to understand what the concepts mean. This enables an individual to make inferences from the readings (Freahat & Al-Faoury, 2015). The best learning methodologies are active methodologies. According to Konopka, Adaime, & Mosele, (2015), active methodologies encourage students to participate fully in the learning process instead of being passive listeners in the learning process. Understanding the way one learns provides insights into the drawbacks and the strengths of the personal learning method and hence the impacts on the learning theory. This will lead to academic success by developing a customized learning theory that can help students gain a practical understanding of the concepts.


This paper proposes a learning theory that focuses on practical application of concepts learned in the classroom. For learning to be effective, the learner should be able to associate concepts or theories learnt to practical uses in the society or workplace. An effective teacher is not only good at teaching but also in other critical aspects in the teaching process such as classroom management and evaluation. Teachers should be able to modify their instruction methods to suit the needs of students


Freahat, N. M., & Al-Faoury, O. (2015). Reading passages and skills in jordanian high school      and university EFL textbooks: A comparative analytical study. Theory and Practice in            Language Studies, 5(1), 16-27. Retrieved from      ew/1686396311?accountid=12085

Konopka, C. L., Adaime, M. B., & Mosele, P. H. (2015). Active Teaching and Learning   Methodologies: Some Considerations. Creative Education, 6, 1536-1545.

Leeuwen, T. V. (2015). Multimodality in education: some directions and some questions. TESOL             Quarterly, 49(3): 582 – 590.

Ocepek, U., Bosnic, Z., Serbec, I. N., & Rugelj, J. (2013). Exploring the relation between             learning style models and preferred multimedia types. Computers & Education, 69(3):        343 – 355.

Shaw, R. (2012). A study of the relationships among learning styles, participation types, and        performance in programming language learning supported by online forums. Computers            & Education, 58(3): 111 – 120.

Tess, L. & Terri, C. (2013). Early development for social work practice: integrating neuroscience            with Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. Journal of Human Behavior in the      Social Environment, 23(5): 230 – 250.

Titus, A. A. (2013). An understanding of the need for psychosocial support system among            children with physical disabilities: linking theory with realities. Revista de Cercetare si       Interventie Sociala, 12(4):1 – 9.

Van Brummelen, H. (2009). Walking with God in the classroom: Christian approaches to            learning and teaching (3rd ed.). Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design. ISBN:          9781583310984


The Pragmatic Curriculum-Educational Philosophy Paper


In recent years, there has been an increase in awareness on the importance of education to many individuals and countries. As a result, federal and state governments in various regions are striving to ensure that most of the citizens if not all get a chance to learn and sharpen their skills to guarantee a better future. In fact, most individuals and governments believe that education is one of the pillars of a successful and developed community (Morrison, 2015.). However, for education to be effective and be administered to all individuals, it requires a collective effort from all stakeholders. Parents and the community are the largest stakeholders that should be involved in schooling matters as well as religion. Community involvement in schools is a process of engaging in a dialogue, active participation and collaboration between parents, schools and the community (Baquedano-López, 2013). On the other hand, religion involvement in education comprises of the process of the church and other religion to actively participate in the diffusion of skills and knowledge to learners. The religion can participate in school matters through prayers and celebration of various religious holidays. This essay will attempt to show how religion and community are involved in school matters.

I believe that when educators and schools recognize the benefits that are associated with engaging parents and community as partners and stakeholders, they will open the doors for them and this will make their work easier. By incorporating the efforts of the parents and the community, the educators stand a better position to enhance transparency and enrich the opportunities and chances for the children to experience success (Morrison, 2015.). Parents are usually regarded as the first teachers of the children because they are the first individuals to teach their children various aspects art an early age and thus their input in very important to ensure that whatever the children are taught in school they are implemented both at school and at home. On the other hand, I believe education and the participation of the parents are not enough, and there is the need to involve religion and prayers to excel both academically and spiritually in life. In the book of Joel chapter, 1 and verse three the Bible says that tell your sons about it, and let you sons tell their sons and their sons to the next generation (Maliepaard, 2013).  This verse encourages parents and the church, in general, to tell their children of the gospel and other important aspects of life so that they can lead a better life and they can have a strong foundation on which to base their actions and decisions on and not lead astray.

Related: Developmental Case Study on Kayla and David

I believe engagement and involvement of parents and the community at large deepens the children’s and educators understanding of the teaching and learning process and thus making it exciting and fruitful for all parties. Through the connection of the school and the community, the school fraternity enters into a dynamic community where there are all sorts of teaching materials ranging from school to home and churches or other religious places. With a lively and collaborative community, the students can make sense and attach meaning to the teachings that they receive in classes and religious places as they can attach meaning to what they are taught in classes, in churches, and at home (Policy., 2013). Moreover, the Bible supports the collaboration between various stakeholders as long as it has positive impacts on the lives of participants. In the book of Proverbs chapter 22 and verse 6, the Bible says that train up a child in the way he should go, even when he is old; he will not depart from it. This clearly shows that parents, community and spiritual parents have a responsibility and an important part to play in educating the children to ensure that they lead a meaningful life, and sure enough, the children will not depart from these ways.

I believe the participation and involvement of parents, community and religion in education enhances the effectiveness of the teachings and improves the willingness of educators to enter into a genuine exploration of the students they serve. Creation of a good teaching environment between the parents and the children acts as a motivating factor to educators and the students to go an extra mile in the attempt to quench their quest of skills and knowledge. By seeking to understand the strengths, weakness, contexts and unique gifts, the educators have a good chance of finding ways to help the children to move to the next level in education. However, this cannot be successful without the help of both biological and spiritual parents as it involves the creation of a relationship with parents as they first teachers who have some degree of insight and understanding of the student (Stacer, 2013). Moreover, in the book of 1 Timothy chapter 5 verses eight the Bible says that a good and responsible parent must be one who manages his household well keeping children under control with all dignity. In the process of managing the house, parents can learn all the character traits, strength, and weaknesses and in turn, share with their teachers to ensure that the child is well managed and taken care of to create a responsible and hardworking father or a mother out of them. This clearly shows that education is not only learned in schools but also at home, and it requires a collective effort.

I believe that successful members of the community act as role models to most students and their involvement in learning and welfare of the children acts as a motivating factor to them. All children and students have that one member of the society that they look up to, and they want to emulate, and their involvement in school activities gives the drive for them to work hard to be just like them.  These successful and prominent individuals can be involved in school activities such as sponsoring the needy and bright children, giving motivational speeches as well as organizing contests to challenge these students to work hard and smart (Carrasquillo, 2013). In Colossians chapter 3 and verses 14, the Bible says that members of the community should live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited. As a result, the successful and prominent individuals have an opportunity to help the community through association with the unlucky who may not have the means and power to educate their kids. Moreover, religions and churches are known to contribute towards the development of the community through the building of schools and sponsoring the needy children to have an opportunity to learn. This explanation shows the importance of unity and love among the involved parties.

I believe that parent and community involvement predicts children’s academic achievement even more than family characteristics such as education and family size. A strong parent component can strengthen the impact of any education program as the parent help to maintain the discipline of the children at home while the teachers do so at school. Discipline is one of the key factors for success not only in academics but also in life, and thus, parent participation ensures that he can control and uphold good discipline of his kids thus creating a conducive and friendly learning environment (Barton, 2012). In Ephesians chapter 6 verses 4, the Bible says that fathers should not provoke their children to anger but they should bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord. In addition, he who withholds his rod hates his son, but he who loves him disciplines him diligently. This scenario clearly shows that the parents have a key part to play in maintaining the discipline of their children, and this can help them achieve both academic and life successes (Thielman, 2010). But a parent who sleeps in his job will lead his children astray.

In conclusion, we can say that educating children is a complex duty and responsibility that cannot be conducted by single individual and requires dedication from every stakeholder. Community, parents, and the religion have a significant part to play in ensuring that the children are fully equipped to lead a good life. They all have a collective duty to give all children affirm base and foundation on which they can base their decision and activities. Surely teaching good and constructive behaviors to children at a tender will ensure that they have a meaningful life.


Baquedano-López, P. A. (2013). Equity issues in parental and community involvement                 in schools what teacher educators need to know. Review of Research in Education,     37(1), , 149-182.

Barton, D. &. (2012). Local literacies: Reading and writing in one community. . Routledge.

Carrasquillo, A. L. (2013). Parents and schools: A source book. Routledge.

Maliepaard, M. &. (2013). Parental religious transmission after migration: The case of                  Dutch Muslims. . Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(3), , 425-442.

Morrison, G. (. (2015.). Early childhood education today (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River,             NJ.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780133436501.

Policy., C. V. (2013). Parents and teachers: Power and participation. Routledge.

Stacer, M. J. (2013). Parental involvement with children at school, home, and                                            community. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 34(3), , 340-354.

Thielman, F. (2010). Ephesians. Grand Rapids^ eMI MI: Baker Academic.


Elementary Individualized Education Program

Elementary Individualized Education Program

Elementary Individualized Education Program

Complete the Cover Page:

Student’s Name: Elli Smith Grade: 2 Disability:
Date of IEP meeting:

(Use todays’ date)

The IEP annual review must occur before:
Most recent evaluation date:

(Use today’s date)

Next re-evaluation must occur before:
IEP Teacher/Manager (Your Name):


School: Liberty Elementary School


The Individualized Education Plan (IEP) that accompanies this document is meant to support the positive process and team approach. The IEP is a working document that outlines the student’s vision for the future, strengths, and needs. The IEP is not written in isolation. The intent of an IEP is to bring together a team of people who understand and support the student in order to come to a consensus on a plan and appropriate and effective education for the student. No two teams are alike, and each team will arrive at different answers, ideas, supports, and services to address the student’s unique needs. The student and his/her family members are vital participants, as well as teachers, assistants, specialists, outside service providers, and the principal. When all team members are present, the valuable information shared supports the development of a rich student profile and education plan.


Participants Involved

The list below indicates that the individual participated in the development of this IEP and the placement decision; it does not authorize consent. Parent consent is indicated on the “Prior Notice” page.


Include all participants that are required by IDEA to attend an IEP meeting.

Note: You can make up the names of the participants but the position must reflect the required participant positions according to IDEA.


Name of Participant Position
Jenkins Parent
Michael Special education teacher
Laura Regular education teacher
Christopher Representative of the local education agency
Mitchell A participant capable of interpreting the instructional implications of evaluation results
Jimmie An inidvididual with special expertise concerning the child
Ellie Smith Child with disability



Elementary Individualized Education Program

Factors for IEP Team Consideration


During the IEP meeting, the following factors must be considered by the IEP team. Best practice suggests that the IEP team documents that the factors were considered and any decision made relative to each. The factors are addressed in other sections of the IEP if not documented on this page (for example see PLAAFP).


  1. Results of the initial or most recent evaluation of the student:

According to psychological evaluation, Elli demonstrates overall ability in the average range. She demonstrates substantially less well developed long-term retrieval, associative memory, and auditory processing, specifically phonemic awareness. According to an achievement assessment, Elli demonstrates average oral language skills, mathematics, and written expression in the low average range with significant deficits in reading in the borderline to deficient range. According to speech language evaluation, Elli demonstrates weaknesses in phonological awareness and auditory cohesion, as well as in pragmatic skills.


  1. The strengths of the student:

Math: is very good at adding and subtracting and has caught on well to the strategies she has been taught.


  1. The academic, developmental, and functional needs of the student:

Please refer to the Present Level of Academic and Functional Performance.


  1. The concerns of the parent(s) for enhancing the education of his/her child:

Parents indicate concerns with reading skills and difficulty with frustration, attention, and adaptive skills weaknesses.

These are the concerns reported by the parents. The listing of these concerns in the IEP does not mean that the concerns are shared by the school division. To the extent the parent concerns are shared by the school division, they have been addressed in the IEP.


  1. The communication needs of the student:

Elli’s speech and receptive/expressive language skills are considered to be within the average range.


  1. The student’s need for benchmarks or short-term objectives:

Short-term objectives and benchmarks are not required.


  1. Whether the student requires Assistive Technology devices and services:

The IEP team has determined that Elli does not require Assistive Technology supports and/or services.


  1. In the case of a student whose behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others, consider the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address that behavior:

Elli does not display behaviors that have been determined to be related to her identified disability that impact her learning or that of others.


  1. In the case of a student with limited English proficiency, consider the language needs of the student as those needs relate to the student’s IEP:

Elli is not a student with limited English proficiency.


  1. In the case of a student who is blind or is visually impaired, provide for instruction in Braille and the use of Braille, unless the IEP team determines after an evaluation of the student’s reading and writing skills, needs, and appropriate reading and writing media, including an evaluation of the student’s future needs for instruction in Braille or the use of Braille, that instruction in Braille or the use of Braille is not appropriate for the student. When considering that Braille is not appropriate for the child, the IEP team may use the Functional Vision and Learning Media Assessment for Students who are Pre-Academic or Academic and Visually Impaired in Grades K-12 (FVLMA) or similar instrument; and


Elli is not a student with a visual impairment.


  1. In the case of a student who is deaf or hard of hearing, consider the student’s language and communication needs, opportunities for direct communications with peers and professional personnel in the student’s language and communication mode, academic level, and full range of needs, including opportunities for direct instruction in the student’s language and communication mode. The IEP team may use the Virginia Communication Plan when considering the student’s language and communication needs and supports that may be needed.


Elli is not deaf and is not a student with a hearing impairment


  1. Extended School Year (ESY)

Elli’s IEP team determined that ESY services are not warranted.


Elementary Individualized Education Program

Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP)


Student Name_________________Ellie Smith_______________________________________ Date__26__/___08_/__2016__ Page _5__of___11


The Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance summarizes the results of assessments that identify the student’s interests, preferences, strengths, and areas of need. It also describes the effect of the student’s disability on his/her involvement and progress in the general education curriculum, and for preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the student’s participation in appropriate activities. This includes the student’s performance and achievement in academic areas such as writing, reading, math, science, and history/social sciences. It also includes the student’s performance in functional areas, such as self-determination, social competence, communication, behavior, and personal management. Test scores, if included, must be self-explanatory or an explanation must be included, and the Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance must be written in objective, measurable terms, to the extent possible. There must be a direct relationship among the desired goals, the Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance, and all other components of the IEP.


Student’s Strengths, Preferences, and Interests

Elli Smith is a 7.8 year old girl currently in the 2nd grade. Elli was found eligible for service for Specific Learning Disability.

According to psychological evaluation, Elli demonstrates an overall ability in the average range. She demonstrates substantially less well developed long-term retrieval associative memory and auditory processing, specifically phonemic awareness. These relative weaknesses coupled with difficulties in the aspect of auditory processing, such as phonemic awareness, which is the understanding of the smallest units of sound (phonemes), might make the acquisition of reading difficult. Also, the spelling of unfamiliar words might also prove to be a challenging task. Elli’s social functioning, as assessed through rating scales, teacher interviews, and direct observation appears to be a challenging area. According to achievement assessment, Elli demonstrates average oral language skills, mathematics, and written expression in the low average range with significant deficient range. Teacher reports indicate that Elli demonstrates an independent reading level of pre primmer 1. Her auditory comprehension is very good, but her word attack is very poor. She has received PALS remediation and Title I supports for reading for a period of 6 months and has made very minimal progress despite supplemental instruction interventions targeting her identified areas of deficit.


Student’s Areas of Need (Deficits that Require Supports)

Elli’s areas of need resulting from her disability-related deficits include:




Written language


Effect of Disability on Student

Elli demonstrates substantially less well developed long-term retrieval, associative memory, and auditory processing, specifically phonemic awareness. These relative weaknesses coupled with difficulties in aspects of auditory processing, such as phonemic awareness, which is the understanding of the smallest units of sound (phonemes), makes the acquisition of reading difficult as well as the spelling of unfamiliar words.


Academic Performance

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test- Third Edition (WIAT-III)

Subtests with age-based scores:

Listening Comprehension 90, Early Reading Skills 92, Reading Comprehension 79,

Math Problem Solving 80, Alphabet Writing Fluency 96, Sentence Composition 90,

Word Reading 72, Pseudoword Decoding 77, Numerical Operations 93,

Oral Expression 95, Oral Reading Fluency 63, Spelling 80, Math Fluency-Addition 83, Math Fluency-Subtraction 89, Oral Reading Accuracy 61

Oral Reading Rate 78,

Listening Comprehension

Receptive Vocabulary 81 Below Average,

Oral Discourse Comprehension 103 Average,

Sentence Composition

Sentence Combing 98 Average, Sentence Building 84 Below Average,

Oral Expression

Expressive Vocabulary 85 Average, Oral Word Fluency 107 Average,

Sentence Repetition 97 Average, Oral Language 91 Average,

Total Reading 69 Low, Basic Reading 75 Below Average,

Written Expression 85 Average,

Mathematics 85 Average, Math Fluency 86 Average,

Total Achievement 82 Below Average


Teacher Educational Information

Reading instructional level (1st); independent level (Readiness); Elli’s comprehension is good as long as it is tested orally. She can recall story elements and information when the story is read to her. Her word attack skills are extremely limited. She knows sounds when they are isolated but has difficulty putting the sounds together. Her retention of words (sight words) is very weak. She is currently receiving Title 1 and Pals Remediation, but she has made very little growth. Language instructional level (below grade level); she has memorized certain sentence structures and adapts it to the current topic. Elli is an excellent speller, but she cannot read the words she is spelling. She memorizes the spelling features. Math: She is very good at adding and subtracting and has caught on well to the strategies she has been taught. She does a great job deciding which operation should be used and then working out a word problem. Social Studies and Science: Elli does very well in both classes. Movement Ed.: she follows directions and does all activities; seems to get along with everyone during class and seems to enjoy PE; appears to love Art and Library and works well with other students.


Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Measurable Annual Goals, Progress Report

Use the Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) example of Elli to write 3 standard based goals. They must be different than the goals you wrote for your IEP Goals and Objectives that you submitted during Module/Week 3. You must include all goal components.


GOAL: Elli should be able to improve the perception of individual sounds in words, by up to 80% by the end of the year. Speech therapy will enable her perceive sounds better and in a clear manner. This will also improve his reading skills.
Write the SOL number related to this goal: Reading 2.4, 2.5


How will progress toward these annual goals be measured? (Check all that apply)
____Classroom Participation

____ Checklist

____ Class work

____ Homework

____ Observation

____ Special Projects

____ Tests and Quizzes

____ Written Reports

____ Criterion-referenced test:_____________________

____ Norm-referenced test: _______________________



GOAL: By the end of the year, ellie should be able to distinguish simple and complex letter-sound relationships and to apply patterns in words, with a 70% accuracy level.
Write the SOL number related to this goal: Reading 2.8, 2.9


How will progress toward these annual goals be measured? (Check all that apply)
____Classroom Participation

____ Checklist

____ Class work

____ Homework

____ Observation

____ Special Projects

____ Tests and Quizzes

____ Written Reports

____ Criterion-referenced test:_____________________

____ Norm-referenced test: _______________________



GOAL: By the end of the year, Ellie should be able to spell correctly simple and complex words with a 90% accuracy. This will be effected through reading and spelling lessons dedicated to improving her spelling skills.
Write the SOL number related to this goal: Reading 2.8, 2.9


How will progress toward these annual goals be measured? (Check all that apply)
____Classroom Participation

____ Checklist

____ Class work

____ Homework

____ Observation

____ Special Projects

____ Tests and Quizzes

____ Written Reports

____ Criterion-referenced test:_____________________

____ Norm-referenced test: _______________________



Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)



Accommodations/modifications provided as part of the instructional and testing/assessment process will allow the student equal opportunity to access the curriculum and demonstrate achievement. Accommodations/modifications also provide access to nonacademic and extracurricular activities and educationally-related settings. Accommodations/modifications based solely on the potential to enhance performance beyond providing equal access are inappropriate. Accommodations may be in, but are not limited to, the areas of time, scheduling, setting, presentation, and response. The impact of any modifications listed must be discussed.




List a minimum of 5 accommodations/modifications that are appropriate for Elli based on her PLAAFP.

Accommodation(s)/Modification(s) Frequency Location

(name of school )

Instructional Setting Duration

m/d/y to m/d/y

Presentation accommodations Throughout Commonwealth Academy Classroom 9/1/2016 to 9/1/2017
Timing accommodations Six months continuous Commonwealth Academy Classroom and field 9/1/2016 to 2/1/2017
Scheduling accommmodations Weekly basis Commonwealth Academy Classroom 2/1/2017 to 8/30/2017
Curruculum modifications Throughout Commonwealth Academy Field 9/1/2016 to 9/1/2017
Assignment modifications Monthly Commonwealth Academy Field 9/1/2016 to 9/30/2016


Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Participation in the State and Division-wide Accountability/Assessment System


Check the assessment(s) chosen for the student’s participation in Virginia’s accountability system.  (Check if Elli will participate in Virginia’s SOL State Assessments or if she will need an alternative assessment of VAAP when she takes the state assessment in 3rd grade. You should be able to determine this through your textbook readings and course presentations.)


Identify the Correct State Assessment:

  • Standards of Learning (SOL) Assessments o Reading   o Math   o Science   o   History/Social Science    o Writing


  • Alternative State Approved Substitute: Virginia Alternative Assessment Program (VAAP)

Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Services – Least Restrictive Environment – Placement


Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)


When discussing the least restrictive environment and placement options, the following must be considered:

  • To the maximum extent appropriate, the student is educated with children without disabilities.
  • Special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of the student from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
  • The student’s placement should be as close as possible to the child’s home and unless the IEP of the student with a disability requires some other arrangement, the student is educated in the school that he/she would attend if he or she did not have a disability.
  • In selecting the LRE, consideration is given to any potential harmful effect on the student or on the quality of services that he/she needs.
  • The student with a disability shall be served in a program with age-appropriate peers unless it can be shown that for a particular student with a disability, the alternative placement is appropriate as documented by the IEP.

Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)


When discussing FAPE for this student, it is important for the IEP team to remember that FAPE may include, as appropriate:


  • Educational Programs and Services
  • Proper Functioning of Hearing Aids
  • Assistive Technology
  • Transportation
·      Nonacademic and Extracurricular Services and Activities

·      Physical Education

·      Extended School Year Services

·      Length of School Day


Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Special Education Services

Identify the service(s), including frequency, duration, and location that will be provided to or on behalf of the student in order for the student to receive free appropriate public education. These services are the special education services and as necessary, the related services, supplementary aids and services based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable, assistive technology, supports for personnel*, accommodations and/or modifications* and extended school year services.* The student will receive that will address area(s) of need as identified by the IEP team. Address any needed transportation and physical education services including accommodations and/or modifications.

Complete the Service Page Table:

Special Education Service(s) Frequency Location

(name of school)




m/d/y to m/d/y

Family engagement Weekly Cumberland Academy Field 7/1/2017 to 8/30/2017
Assistive technology Weekly Cumberland Academy Laboratory 3/1/2016 to 3/15/2017
Speech therapy Weekly Cumberland Academy Classroom 10/1/2016 to 1/1/2017

Effect of Disability on the Student

Elli demonstrates substantially less well developed long-term retrieval, associative memory, and auditory processing, specifically phonemic awareness. These relative weaknesses coupled with difficulties in aspects of auditory processing, such as phonemic awareness, which is the understanding of the smallest units of sound (phonemes), makes the acquisition of reading difficult as well as the spelling of unfamiliar words.

Placement Decision

Based upon identified services and the consideration of Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and placement continuum options, describe in the space below the placement decision. This explanation of the placement decision should reflect the services outlined in the Service Page. Additionally, summarize the discussions and decision around LRE and placement. This must include an explanation of why the student will not be participating with students without disabilities in the general education class(es), programs, and activities.

Explanation of Placement Decision: This section must narratively explain the services outlined in the Service Page Table.

            Assistive technology tools are vital in helping learners with various disabilities such as cognitive problems and physical impairment. The application of technology in helping learners with disabilities is considered an effective approach in their development. Assistive technology basically compensates for the deficiencies that the learner is experiencing.

Although all children benefit when their parents or guardians get engaged in their education, children with learning disabilities require a greater degree of parental involvement. There is a greater need to develop positive home-school relationships in order to ensure that the learners receive full support in all environments. The family acts as advocates and is also involved in providing interventions and assessments.

Speech therapy can be defined as a clinical program whose main objective is to improve the oral motor abilities, speech and landguage skills. Ellie can be able to build on her language skills through speech therapy which will improve her speech, enable her to learn new words, and learn to read longer sentences.


Elementary Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Services – Least Restrictive Environment – Placement Continued


No single model for the delivery of services to any population or category of children with disabilities is acceptable for meeting the requirement for a continuum of alternative placements.


All placement decisions shall be based on the individual needs of each student. The team may consider placement options in conjunction with discussing any needed supplementary aids and services, accommodations/modifications, assistive technology, and supports for school personnel. In considering the placement continuum options, check those the team discussed.


Placement Continuum Options Considered (check all that have been considered):


Check the services considered in the LRE placement. Review LRE as these services should be reasonable considerations based on Elli’s PLAAFP.


___ general education class(es) (general education classroom, inclusion, co-teaching)

___ special class(es) (resource, self-contained)

___ special education day school

___ state special education program / school

___ residential facility

___ home-based

___ hospital

___ other (describe):


Developmental Case Study on Kayla and David

Developmental Case Study on Kayla and David

Developmental Case Study on Kayla and David

This developmental case study is based on the observations of Kayla and David. Kayla is a 4-year old preschooler while David is a 1st grader. The observations took place at Calloway HeadStart program and Hudson Elementary School, both situated in Collegeville community. Characteristics of each student were carefully noted. The students did not have prior knowledge that they were being observed in order to avert a change in behavior. The characteristics were observed in the physical, cognitive, and social/emotional domains.

Developmental Characteristics of Kayla

Kayla is a jovial child who likes to play a lot. Kayla was able to climb stairs but with a lot of caution. In fact, she placed one of her hands on the stair rails as she climbed up or down. This was her way of getting assistance to prevent her from tumbling down. During free time, she engaged in a number of activities with other children. She could be able to jump or hop on her legs. This indicated that her leg muscles were now stronger to support the weight of her body. She showed improved upper body mobility. We set out for an activity where she would hit a stationery ball hanging from a tree using a bat. On the second try, she was able to hit the ball. She could also be able to throw the ball. The behaviors in the physical domain are typical of those expected at this developmental level. According to McDevitt & Ormrod (2013), children at this developmental level show “increasing abilities in such motor skills as running and skipping, throwing a ball, building block towers, and using scissors” (p. 26).

In the cognitive domain, Kayla exhibited a number of developmental characteristics. First, she was quite inquisitive, asking questions such as “why do you have to leave?” She gave close attention to the answers I gave. I ensured the answers were simple for her to understand. To test logical thinking, equal cups of water were poured in two different containers – one obviously larger than the other one. On asking which held more water, her answer was that the bigger container had more water than the smaller one. In class, Kayla could understand that a day is divided into three: morning, afternoon, and night. Kayla was able to make inanimate objects representing various items. For instance, she was able to draw a picture representing a horse, although it was not properly drawn. The behaviors observed are typical for the development level of Kayla. According to Anthony (2016), children at this period show certain characteristics such as the ability to use symbolic thought, centration of thought, and exhibit more advanced play tendencies.

Related: Behavioral Disorders

In the social/emotional domain, Kayla exhibited a number of social developmental characteristics. First, she could able to tell her gender. In the same line, she was keen on socializing with children of her gender. She preferred spending time with her friend who I understood they are neighbors. She could tell her name as well as those of her parents. When another child cried, she was curious to know what had upset the child. This indicates she is becoming aware of other people’s feelings or moods. While taking meal, she got to the queue behind the other children who arrived earlier. The behaviors observed in the social domain are typical for the development level of Kayla. According to McDevitt & Ormrod (2013), children in early childhood show social/emotional development which entails “modest appreciation that other people have their own desires, beliefs, and knowledge” (p. 26).

Developmental Characteristics of David

David is a 1st grader who is cheerful and likes playing with friends. David seems to have perfected his physical skills. He can comfortably go up and down the stairs by taking the steps sequentially. David shows improved coordination especially while playing with a soccer ball. He could also be able to dribble the ball although for a short period. He can be able to kick a ball and aim towards a particular direction. David’s handwriting was legible. He could be able to write accurately and in a neat manner. All these activities show improved motor coordination. David seemed to be proud of his physical abilities even though he was not good at something. David enjoyed other forms of play especially rough play activities. For instance, he would quite often push and wrestle with his friend. David could also tie his own shoelaces. The behaviors observed are typical of this developmental level. According to McDevitt & Ormrod (2013), children in middle childhood show “successful imitation of complex physical movements” (p. 27). This means that children at this level are more in control of their body, and have refined their skills.

David expressed several characteristics in the cognitive domain. The area he showed improvement include: problem solving, language, memory, and in other areas. David was eager to learn a lot of new things, including what the teacher was giving them. He had a longer concentration span and could focus on what the teacher was saying for longer period of time. David used objects to count in mathematics. For instance he used his fingers to sum 2 + 2. I also noted that David had developed the ability to compare and contrast items. For instance, he could be able to compare simple mathematical objects such as a circle and an oval shape. I noticed that most children at this age learn mathematics by relating symbols. The behaviors observed are typical for the developmental level of David. According to Morin (2016), children at this age are able to make connections between various objects. For instance, children at this level develop the ability to make comparisons between objects, people, and ideas. David was able to make comparisons among various mathematical objects.

Related: The Pragmatic Curriculum

David also expressed characteristics in the social/emotional domain. David has two close friends whom he spends time with. Both of his friends are in the same class as David. David can only share his toys with his close friends, while refusing to share with others. David has developed the awareness that people may have different thoughts and feelings. For instance, he was aware that one of his friends would not like it if he gave out an item he had borrowed from him. David also had the ability to resolve simple conflicts that arose especially when they were playing. The behaviors observed are typical for the developmental level of David. McDevitt & Ormrod (2013) describe middle childhood at a level where children develop the “desire for time with age-mates, especially friends of the same gender” (p.27). During this stage, there is a strong desire to establish close ties with those of the same gender. Nonetheless, simple arguments may break these friendships.


Anthony, M. (2016, June 5). Cognitive development in 3-5 year olds. Retrieved from                 development-3-5-year-olds

McDevitt, T., & Ormrod, J. (2013). Child development and education. Upper Saddle River, NJ:   Pearson Education, Inc.

Morin, A. (2016, April 15). Cognitive skills that are important for first grade: Cognitive   development milestones are important for first graders. Retrieved from


Educational Philosophy and Practices of Pestalozzi and Froebel

Behavioral Disorders   

Behavioral Disorders

All children misbehave at times which is perfectly normal, but these misbehaviors should be in line with the age of the kids. However, there are times when the child’s behavior goes beyond the limits of normal behavior. If a child misbehaves beyond the limits of his or her age, that is not a normal misbehavior. Children are expected to misbehave as they grow up, but their misbehaviors should not exceed the expectations the stages of normal childhood development. If they exceed the expected limit, they are no longer referred to as misbehavior but rather they are seen as mischief and rebellion. This rebellion may be as a result of behavior disorders also known as disruptive behavioral disorders (Gillam, 2013). Usually, parents are encouraged to take their kids for health assessment and treatment to determine the mental health of their kids. If the disorders are not handled at a tender age, they may affect a person in his later stages in life.

The author pinpoints the types of behavioral disorders that can be exhibited by individual, causes of these disorders, their characteristics and possible treatment. Just like any other type of health issue, behavioral disorders can affect both children and adults, but the disease is so common among children than in adults. Some of the most common types of behavioral disorders include anxiety disorders, disruptive behavioral disorder, dissociative disorders, emotional disorders and pervasive disorders. However, the types as mentioned above of behavioral disorders are caused by different mental and health conditions. In adults, the behavioral disorder can affect an individual’s job performance and work relationship while the disorders can affect a child’s school performance.

Moreover, the author attempts to explain the possible and common causes of behavioral disorders, and it is quite common that it has different causes to both adults and children. In children, the uncommon behavior can be caused by biological and family-related factors while in adults, it can be attributed to biological and work-related factors. Some of the biological causes include malnutrition, brain damage, and hereditary factors. On the other hand, some of the causes that are associated with an individual’s life include emotional upset at home, school or at work, unhealthy discipline style and coercion from parents and other family members (Gillam, 2013).

The author goes a step further to explain some of the common characteristics, signs and symptoms of the behavioral disorder in both adults and children. Most of the victims and patients may exhibit short attention span, aggression, and self-injurious behaviors, withdrawal because of excessive fear, immaturity at handling things and learning difficulties. Also, both kids and adults with extreme emotional disturbances may show signs such as mood swings, distorted thinking, and excessive anxiety.

In addition, the article touches on the possible medication and treatment for these disorders. However, the author is quick to point out that there is no one single treatment that can suit all cases and therefore medical experts should examine each case independently to determine the suitable treatment process. Most of the patients are given a prescription to assist in controlling the behavior but not to cure the disorders.

In conclusion, after a detailed and in-depth research, we can say that behavioral disorders may be common among many people, but we do not realize. It can affect both adults and children bringing with it adverse effects that can affect an individual’s life negatively (Gillam, 2013). Parents should be keen to notice rebellion and mischief in their children and seek medical assistance. Constant health assessment can be very helpful.


Gillam, R. B.-P. (2013). Identification of specific language impairment in bilingual children: I. Assessment in English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(6), , 1813-1823.


The Pragmatic Curriculum-Educational Philosophy Paper

The Pragmatic Curriculum-Educational Philosophy Paper

The Pragmatic Curriculum


My personal philosophy of education is hedged on the premises of pragmatic ideologies. This philosophy holds the view that the world is constantly changing, and new knowledge is emerging on daily basis. As such, there is need to continually evaluate the curriculum and align it to learner needs. Learner-centered approaches should be used in delivering content to learners. The curriculum itself should reflect the current needs of the learners, and should help address any pressing questions or concerns of the learners. The school experience should not serve to prepare learners for life, but rather should be considered as part of life itself.


Since the early days of education, much thought has been given regarding the main purpose of education. Throughout history, philosophers have outlined different reasons to justify the need for education in society. Early philosophers such as Rousseau, Aristotle, John Locke, Confucius, Plato, and others wrote extensively about the role played by education in society. Although majority of the early education thinkers shared similar ideas about what the schools should essentially do, each of them had divergent thoughts on the purposes of education to individuals and the society at large. Perhaps the divergent opinions about the purposes of education are reflective of the structural changes that have been witnessed in societies throughout history. As the societies progressed over time, the role played by education underwent changes to match the evolving culture. In the modern period, education serves three main purposes which include: intellectual development, economic purposes, and social purposes.

Worldview & Philosophy of Life

The most prudent view of life relates to pragmatism. This is the belief that it is only those things that human beings experience or observe that are true and meaningful in life. The pragmatic view of life is that reality is not static, but rather evolving with time (Jewell, 2012). As such, the only way that human beings can become masters in understanding of reality is by learning through experiences and solving problems as they arise. Proponents of the pragmatic school of thought such as Charles Peirce assert that it is only when thoughts produce action that benefits (from the thoughts) can be derived (Jewell, 2012). Thoughts that linger much in the mind are of little value and furthermore can lead to indecisiveness and confusion. The pragmatic school of thought recognizes the fact that the environment is constantly evolving. Learners must be able to adapt to new changes in the environment of face stagnation.

With reference to my general view of life, schools should adopt a more practical and realistic approach in teaching students, rather than focusing on passing down knowledge from one generation to the other. Learning should be hedged on the context of time, place, and the prevailing circumstances. Realists take a metaphysical view of the world, arguing that the truth lies in what can be observed (Jewell, 2012). Pragmatism can enable learners to know reality and realize their meaning in life. It encourages learners to apply knowledge to practical situations through experimentation. This can help learners realize their true potentials and hence succeed in their careers. Pragmatism influences educators by emphasizing on use of projects as opposed to lectures during content delivery. Additionally, learning through experimentation is encouraged meaning that the educator must give learners time to test ideas.

The Bible makes a number of references to pragmatic view of the world. In Revelations 1:1-20, the Bible talks about the revelation of Jesus Christ, and the meaning to the world. According to the verse, God sent an angel to John, bearing a message about the messiah. The angel created the experience of divinity to John, which led him to believe about Mary’s pregnancy.

Philosophy of Schools & Learning

In the modern world, schools are significant in facilitating various kinds of teachings. Learners acquire diverse knowledge and skills from schools, ranging from technical knowledge to moral lessons. The method in which learning takes place greatly determines the learning outcomes. In line with this, the learner-centered instruction method would be the most appropriate in passing knowledge and skills to students and especially those in higher education. Learner-centered instruction employs a variety of teaching methods. In this approach, the instructor is not merely an information giver, but a facilitator in the learning process (Cornelius, 2007). The constructivism theory and social cognitive theory can best be applied in facilitating learning in the modern day classroom.

The constructivist school of thought arose to counter behavioral theories that saw learning as a function of behavioral responses to external stimuli. Constructivism asserts that learning is an active process that involves knowledge construction rather than knowledge acquisition (Henson, 2015). Knowledge construction is hedged upon the personal experiences of the learner as well as the environment. The learners continually evaluate and test hypotheses in the learning process. Constructivism acknowledges individual differences in the learning process. The learner is supposed to construct knowledge from previous lessons or lectures and projects. The social cognitive theory holds the view that learning is a social process that mainly occurs through observation. This theory asserts that various factors such as behavioral factors, personal factors, and environmental factors greatly influence the learning process (Kincheloe & Horn, 2006).

The primary role of education is to enhance intellectual development. Education aims at instilling various basic skills such as reading, computations, comprehension skills, and among learners. Countries emphasize on educating their citizens for economic purposes. Various researches provide evidence on the correlation between education and improved standards of living. The higher the level of education among individuals the more productive they are compared to those with lower standards. Education is also important for social purposes. Through formal education, learners are able to develop moral and social responsibility. A number of trends have impacted education in the recent times. The evolution of modern technology has greatly impacted the education sector in terms of communication. Today, educators are able to choose from different instruction methods including online learning. ICT has greatly influenced communication by bridging the physical gap between teachers and learners who may be physically separated.

Educational Practice

Educational outcomes are mainly determined by the manner in which content delivery takes place. The constructivist theory is based on the idea that learners gain knowledge through experiencing things and later reflecting on the experiences gained. In order to put the constructivism theory in practice, the educator must facilitate learning through experimentation and solving problems in the real world (Henson, 2015). In this case, the most effective pedagogical techniques to use are case-based learning techniques, inquiry-based learning, and project-based learning. These methods will mainly be used because they are learner-centered and promote learning through discovery. The social cognitive theory can be put into practice by modeling the expected behaviors or skills for students to learn (Kincheloe & Horn, 2006). The appropriate instructional strategies that can support the aforementioned theories are lectures, discussions, case studies, and use of labs or studios. Use of these strategies can help learners develop practical skills concerning a particular area of interest.

My educational experiences have taught me that learning through observation and discovery is the best way to help learners retain knowledge and gain practical skills. The educator facilitates the acquisition of knowledge rather than being a mere transmitter of information. This type of learning encourages learners to be actively involved in the learning process and to realize their interest and potentials early in life. Thus as a teacher who believes in constructivism and social cognitive theory, my main role will be to create the optimal conditions for learning and concentrating on specific learner needs.

Teacher-Learner Relationships

The teacher-learner relationships are critical in determining the learning outcomes. Ove the years, the role of the teacher has changed from being a transmitter of information to a facilitator of learning. In constructivist learning environments, the teacher has several key roles. The first role is modeling. Modeling may take the form of cognitive modeling or behavioral modeling (Naidu, 2003). Behavioral modeling involves the teacher demonstrating to learners the specific concepts or activities. Cognitive modeling involves helping learners develop high critical reflection skills. The second important role is coaching. A teacher should coach students with regard to their performance, provide feedback to the learners, provide motivation, explains ways of improving performance, and evokes in learners reflection of what have been taught. The third role of the teacher is scaffolding or providing support to learners. The teacher acts as a scaffold by providing a framework that enables students to realize their potentials (Naidu, 2003).

The student plays a number of crucial roles in the learning process. The student is supposed to actively participate in the learning process. The student is expected to be intrinsically motivated and ready to learn. Learners are supposed to assimilate new knowledge or information with regard to their present knowledge. The learner should reflect on their own learning experiences in order to gain a better understanding of what was taught. Learners should also develop ways of testing their skills or ideas through engaging in relevant activities. The teacher and learners should maintain close interpersonal relationships that lead to positive outcomes. The teacher should closely monitor the students and learn their specific weaknesses and strengths. In this way, the teacher can be able to develop instruction methods that are learner-centered to cater for individual weaknesses or strengths (Naidu, 2003). The Bible teaches that students are not above their teachers, and hence should respect their teachers. This can be found in Matthew 10:24.


The world is becoming increasingly diverse due to such factors as globalization. The teacher should be able handle learners from different cultural backgrounds and with different levels of understanding. As such, a teacher should be able to express emotional intelligence in the teaching-learning process. The teacher needs to consider a number of factors involving diversity. First, learner differences significantly affect how a teacher delivers instruction to students (Suzanne & Penelope, 2006). In normal classroom situation, there are gifted students who can easily master what was taught, while others may take some time to understand what is taught. The teacher should understand that learners understand concepts and different pace and thus adjust his or her teaching methods to suit all learners. The other major source of diversity relates cultural differences. Students come from different cultures which impact the way they perceive things. Teachers are also expected to handle learners with disabilities, either physical or mental disabilities.

The Bible teachings that one should love others irrespective of their cultural differences or their physical appearances. The Bible teaches that the kingdom of heaven belongs to all, which shows inclusivity. Through the Bible, the teacher can learn a few things regarding diversity. The most important teaching is that human beings should love one another irrespective of the differences that they may harbor.

To conclude, education serves important function in the modern society. Education enables individuals to develop intellectual skills such as reading and mathematics. These are fundamental skills that are needed in the modern world. Education is also identified as a major driver of economic growth and development. Education also plays a major role in social role in the society. Education has undergone radical transformation since the early period. The radical changes reflect the changing societal trends and emergence of new knowledge. The pragmatic curriculum enables learners to manage these changes and to adapt successfully.


Cornelius, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-            analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77(1): 113-143.

Henson, K. T. (2015). Curriculum planning: Integrating multiculturalism, constructivism, and     education reform. (5th Ed.). Illinois, NY: Waveland Press.

Jewell, R. (2012). Experiencing the Humanities. Retrieved from   

Kincheloe, J. L., & Horn, R. A. (2006). The Praeger handbook of education and psychology.       Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Naidu, S. (2003). Learning and teaching with technology: principles and practices. New York,    NY: Routledge.

Suzanne, M. W., & Penelope, L. P. (2006). Theories of learning and teaching: What do they        mean for educators? Retrieved from National Education Association   


Educational Philosophy and Practices of Pestalozzi and Froebel