Category Archives: English

The Revival of Education in Bougainville Island

Novel Media Assignment

The Revival of Education in Bougainville Island

Villagers continue to experience the negative impacts of war in Bougainville, with despair and disillusionment running high. Over the past two years, Bougainville Island has experienced perpetual warfare between rival factions, with the native islanders experiencing the negative repercussions of war. Although there is an abundance of food in the island, education deteriorated in the wake of the war. Currently, the island suffers from a lack of teachers, doctors, and even medicine. The problem stems from a blockade placed by the Papua New Guinea government on the island, barring anyone or anything from entering or leaving the island. As the war raged on, teachers and students left school to join the war. All hope seemed lost until Mr. Watts, the only white inhabitant left in the island, decided to revive the local school. Matilda, a fourteen-year-old native, tells a harrowing story of a blossoming and bright island suddenly thrust into darkness, and all hope for the future thrown to the dogs. This is the story of a man’s effort to revive Bougainville’s education sector, assisted only by his wife.

It was in 1990, Matilda says, that the government of Papua New Guinea made a life-changing decision to blockade the entire island to the detriment of the local people. The centre of the conflict is the richest copper mine in the whole world. Matilda says that following the blockade, young men from the village volunteered to join the war in a bid to liberate the island. The Rambo rebels, as they call themselves, have vowed to protect this village at all cost; including sacrificing their own lives. The enemy lurks in the bushes she says, waiting to strike at any opportune moment. They are heavily armed, dangerous, and willing to kill anyone or anything that crosses their path – they are call them the ‘redskins’, who are actually members of the PNG soldiers financed by the Australian government. The Rambos are engaged in an unending guerrilla warfare, a struggle for their rights and liberation of the island.

A ray of hope emerged when Mr. Watts, the only white inhabitant left in the island, decided to give the islanders an education, and an opportunity to change the future. Mr. Watts managed to open the schoolhouse and attract the villagers to the dilapidated school. However, this was no ordinary education. The only teacher, Mr. Watts lacked the necessary teaching qualifications, and furthermore, the school lacked vital learning aids such as books. The only book left in the island was a literature book known as ‘Great Expectations’ by Charles Dickens, which Mr. Watts would read to the villagers daily. Popularly known as ‘pop eye’, Mr. Watts managed to give the village a new meaning, and a new lease of life. As the villagers slowly became engrossed in literature, the terror reigned by “redskins gunboats” slowly faded into the oblivion (Jones 17). This is because the villagers associated with the characters in the novel like they were real people.

Soon after the school started, the villagers gained a new dimension by associating themselves with the characters in the novel. Everyone including Matilda’s mother as well as other women soon discovered a new imaginary world, a world they could only know of through their ears. Even in their new school, the threat of an attack remained real. As Matilda says, the villagers’ “only consolation was that by reading it (Great Expectations) a second and third time we would still have another country to flee to”, indicating the constant interruptions by the ongoing conflict between the redskins and the Rambos (Jones 81). Once when the rediskins descended on the land, they sought to know the rebel leader known as Mister Pip. Unknowing to them, this was only a fictional character who existed in the novel. After reigning destruction on the island, Mr. Watts declared himself as Mister Pip, and was put to death.

Part B: Viewpoints




The Revival of Education in Bougainville Island
The Revival of Education in Bougainville Island



(Sturm 1)

PHOTO: Rebels fighting for control of the copper mines





Part C: Reflection

Some aspects of the assignment were more/less interesting. One of the most interesting aspects of the assignment was viewing the documentary “The Coconut Revolution” which was very informative as well as interesting. The documentary analyses an uncharted conflict in the heart of Bougainville, a conflict shunned by the international media. The detailed documentary explores the lives of ordinary islanders involved in the conflict as they go about their normal routine. Preparing a feature article was also interesting. It was interesting to intertwine the characters and events as they occur in Mister Pip in the feature article to give a human perspective to the novel with regard to the real events in Bougainville. As the novel narrates the story using fictional characters, the documentary on the other hand gives the true nature of events and life in the island. Combined, the documentary and the feature article provide a clear perspective of the conflict in the island, and the plight of the islanders, making it quite interesting.

The parts of the assignment I am most proud of are the feature article and the audio clip. I am proud of the feature article because it is much detailed and contains the power of the written language. The feature article contains powerful words and opinion meant to influence readers about their side of the conflict. On the other hand, the audio clip can help readers gauge the tone of the narrator, which is that of a concerned narrator. The audio clip is captivating and can help command the attention of the audience. The audio clip appeals to the imaginations of the audience with regard to the story about the conflict. I feel I could improve on the poster. First, I felt the poster was not as visually appealing as I meant it to be. The poster lacked contrast, which could have made it more visually appealing I gained insight on how the media functions. It is worth noting that the media is critical in shaping the perspective of the audience in relation to a particular story.

Works Cited

Jones, Lloyd. Mister Pip. Melbourne: Text Publishing Company, 2006. Print.

fPcN intercultural. “The Coconut Revolution.” Online video clip. Youtube. Posted 11 May 2011.             Accessed 9 August 2016.

Sturm, Axel. U.S. Department of State heading for peace in Bouganville, n.d., Accessed 9 August            2016.

Effect of Weight Lifting

Effect of Weight Lifting

Effect of Weight Lifting

Weight lifting is a common pastime that most people engage in for various reasons. In the modern world, most people engage in weight lifting as a form of exercise. Weight lifting has significant positive impacts on muscular growth, bone density, body composition, rate of calorie burning, and other effects. Weight lifting has positive effects not only on the body but also on the mind. Nonetheless, there are a number of drawbacks associated with weight lifting, such as the risk of injury. This paper examines the weight lifting and its impacts on the health of individuals.

One of the positive impacts of weight lifting is increased strength of bones. People who engage in weight lifting have a higher bone mass compared to those who do not engage in weight lifting (“Lera Blog,” n.d). Studies indicate that people who exercises are stronger compared to others in the same age group. Another benefit of weight lifting is in building of muscle strength. Weight lifting helps people develop strong muscles. Strong muscles are important since they help protect internal organs and prevent joints from wearing out. Muscles and ligaments connect the bones that make up joints. During exercise, the muscles produce a pull effect on the bones, leading to more strength.

Weight lifting can help in burning excess calories since it is a form of physical exercise and requires strength (“Lera Blog,” n.d). This helps in keeping the body lean. This prevents the accumulation of fat in the body. Conversely, this is important in preventing heart diseases and obesity. Some studies suggest that exercise can boost the immune system. This occurs through various mechanisms, for instance, by increasing the circulation rate of white blood cells in the body. This helps in detecting diseases earlier. Weight lifting promotes a long healthy life and thus reducing the burden of dependence during old age. This is because weight lifting slows down the natural process of muscle decline associated with aging. As such, a person can lead a more active life without depending on others.

Weight lifting reduces stress among individuals. This is because it lowers the rate of stress hormones release (“MedlinePlus,” 2016). This also reduces the chances of developing illnesses. High stress levels are associated with increased risk of disease. Weight lifting improves self-esteem. People who work out regularly are able to maintain a lean body, which makes them feel good about themselves. Weight lifting improves flexibility. Studies indicate that weight lifting has a positive impact on static stretching and body flexibility. Weight lifting also makes people feel energetic. People who work out regularly often feel energetic and healthier.

There are a number of drawbacks associated with weight lifting. Weight lifting exposes an individual to a considerable risk of injury. Weight lifting may lead to harm especially if a person over trains. Training too much may result to fatigue, joint pain, muscle strain, and diminished muscle mass (“Lera Blog,” n.d). Lifting heavy weights may lead to back problems such as disc slips and dislocation. Using a wrong posture during power training increases the risk of joint and back injury, which could affect one’s health in the end. An individual can avoid this by lifting lighter weights and using the correct posture. Weight lifting can aggravate a preexisting condition. This can also be avoided by having a medical check to examine the risk of an injury.

Weight lifting leads to an increase in blood pressure (Domonell, 2014). This can be dangerous to people with heart conditions and including those with high blood pressure. While training, individuals hold their breath from time to time, causing an increase in blood pressure. This is because the heart is required to pump against more resistance. Proper breathing techniques can help in moderating the risk of high blood pressure. Weight lifting is not appropriate to persons planning to undergo liver function tests because it can alter results. According to Pettersson et al. (2008), men who are not used to working out on regular basis have increased risk of experiencing exercise-related effects on the liver function tests. The findings indicate that exercise increases clinical chemistry parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), myoglobin, creatine kinase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The impacts can last for 7 days, leading to an elevation of liver function tests.

Weight lifting can also be expensive. Weight lifting requires individuals to commit resources in a gym. In addition, weight lifting is time consuming. One has to spend many hours in the gym, which may take up time for family or work. There are also concerns among women that weight lifting may make them look bulk or muscular. However, it is worth noting that moderate weight training cannot lead to bulking up, but can only promote healthy muscular development (Domonell, 2014).

In conclusion, weight lifting is a good form of exercise that can help in keeping fit. Weight lifting improves bone mass, leading to stronger bones. Weight lifting increases muscle strength, which is critical for a long healthy life. Weight lifting also helps in burning excess calories in the body. In general, weight lifting improves health and helps in toning the body. However, it is important to consult a physician before engaging in weight lifting. This can help in determining whether one is suitable for weight lifting.


Domonell, K. (2014). The 8 biggest myths about Weightlifting – debunked. Retrieved from   

Lera Blog. (n.d). Pros and cons of weight training. Retrieved from

MedlinePlus. (2016). Exercise and immunity. Retrieved from   

Pettersson, J., Hindorf, U., Persson, P., Bengtsson, T., Malmqvist, U., Werkström, V., &   Ekelund, M. (2008). Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests            in healthy men. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology65(2), 253–259.

English Reading Assignment (Short Answer Essay Questions)

Methods of Mitigating Climate Change-Expository Essay

Methods of Mitigating Climate Change

            Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges affecting the world. Climate change is the significant change in weather patterns that may last for a protracted period of time (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2014). Climate change is the result of global warming, which refers to the gradual increase in surface temperatures leading to various side effects. Although episodes of global warming occurred over the past, the current rates of global warming are overwhelming and are incomparable with past global warming rates. Historical records indicate that the earth’s climate has fluctuated over millions of years, moving between warm episodes to extremely cold episodes. In the past, climate change was attributed to natural factors. However, the current changes in climate are attributed to human activities. There is the need for concrete action from governments and environmental bodies in order to stem climate change. Climate change can be mitigated by cutting emission of greenhouse gases, afforestation strategies, and improving farming practices.

Reduction of Greenhouse Gases

            The release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is one of the major causes of climate change. Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Large volumes of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through burning fossil fuels lead to ozone depletion and consequently global warming. Other pollutants resulting from burning of fossil fuels include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and other volatile organic compounds (OECD, 2014). Airborne particles may also contribute to climate change. For instance, too much volcanic ash affects the temperature of the areas nearby. Greenhouse gas emissions may occur due to human as well as natural activities. However, human-driven releases of greenhouse gas emissions disrupt the normal balances in the atmosphere leading to global warming. According to OECD (2014), about 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to human activities – this includes burning of fossil fuels and from industrial processes.

            In order to reduce the impacts of global warming, governments, and environmental agencies must implement effective strategies that will see a reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. Addressing climate change is a global effort that requires action by governments, environmental agencies, businesses, and individuals. In the U.S., the transport sector contributes about 30 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions, with cars alone contributing to about one-fifth of the total greenhouse gas emissions (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2016). Statistics indicate that for every gallon of fuel used by vehicles, 24 pounds of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. The annual total impact of the greenhouse gases is thus significant, and a major contributor to climate change.

            Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the way forward. Governments across the world have started encouraging individuals, businesses, and industries to employ energy efficient measures that reduce the carbon footprint. Individuals can reduce carbon emissions by adapting energy efficient measures such as switching off the lights. Use of energy efficient bulbs can also help reduce energy consumption at homes. The concept of green buildings has also emerged. This refers to the construction of sustainable buildings that are less harmful to the environment. Sustainable buildings are designed to optimize energy usage, water usage, reduce waste, and to protect the health of the occupants. They are also built using environmentally friendly materials that have little impact on the environment. Green buildings are built using locally available materials hence there is minimal impact in the transportation of materials from the source to the construction site.

            Adoption of clean sources of energy will greatly aid in cutting down carbon emissions. The move by governments to encourage the use of clean and renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal will reduce dependence on fossil fuel that is a major contributor of greenhouse gases. Advancements in the transport industry have seen the introduction of biofuels as the alternative to fossil fuels. Biofuels are clean sources of energy that have little carbon footprint compared to fossil fuels (Malhi et al., 2008). Another new technology in the transport sector is the introduction of electric cars. Electric cars eliminate the need for the use of fossil fuels thus reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Governments have turned attention to the use of clean sources of energy such as wind, solar, and geothermal energy instead of relying on fossil fuels. The U.S. for instance, has installed large power plants in California’s Mojave Desert and in other areas to boost clean energy production.

Afforestation and Reforestation Strategies

            Afforestation and reforestation can also be effective in mitigating the impacts of climate change. Forests are important in the carbon cycle since they act as natural carbon sinks by absorbing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The excessive cutting down of trees experienced over the last century has greatly reduced forest cover in the world. The reduced forest cover means a reduction in natural carbon sinks. This causes excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus leading to climate change (Malhi et al., 2008). Forests also play a significant role in the hydrological cycle. Forests enhance the rate of water percolation into the ground, ensuring that the water does not run off as floods. The water, which percolates into the ground, forms streams which become a source of drinking water for people and animals. Forests also modify the microclimates of the surrounding areas. Forests affect precipitation in local areas as well as modification of various weather elements such as winds, air density, and removal of various air pollutants such as dust particles.

            Governments have stepped up efforts to control illegal logging which has seen forest cover reduce over the last century. Clearing of forests release stored carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere thus causing more damage. Deforestation accounts for about 20 percent of the total carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere (Malhi et al., 2008). Afforestation and reforestation efforts aims at improving forest cover and thus natural carbon sinks. Afforestation involves the planting of trees in areas where none existed before. On the other hand, reforestation involves the planting of trees in areas where forests were cleared either by fire or through logging. Afforestation and reforestation efforts can enable the world achieve the zero net carbon emissions. This is a situation whereby all carbon emissions are absorbed by forests and hence the little effect of carbon emissions on the environment. To achieve this, there must be concerted efforts from governments worldwide to ensure the restoration of adequate forest cover.

            Improving farming practices. The agricultural sector contributes about 14 percent of the total greenhouse emissions (International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements [IFOAM], 2009). Greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector are related to land-use changes. The majority of agricultural-based emissions emanate from developing countries. In developing countries, much of the agricultural activities that contribute to climate change involve the clearing of forests to pave the way for land for cultivation and settlement. Grazing in forest areas also contribute to the destruction of forests. Since emissions from the agricultural sector are concentrated in developing countries, mitigation efforts can revolve around poverty reduction, improving the food security situation of communities living around forests, and adopting agro-systems for sustainable development. In most developing countries, majority of the poor live in rural areas and depend on subsistence farming. This drives them to the exploitation of natural resources such as forests for their livelihood.

            Greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector also come from enteric fermentation process, rice production, emissions from soil, burning of biomass, and rice production activities (IFOAM, 2009). Indirect sources also contribute to the greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. These indirect sources include mechanized farming, production of fertilizers, application of agro-chemicals, and transport of agricultural products (IFOAM, 2009). These have minimal impacts on the environment. It can be difficult for governments to control the contribution made by the agricultural sector in climate change. This is due to the large area of land that in use for agriculture. Adoption of safe farming practices can help reduce emissions resulting from agricultural practices. According to IFOAM (2009), adoption of organic agriculture can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the sector by up to 32 percent. Organic practices that farmers can adopt include composting, agroforestry, crop ration, use of organic fertilizers, and pure grazing.


            To conclude, climate change continues to be a major threat affecting human beings and disrupting habitats. Increased greenhouse gas emissions from human activities have significantly accelerated the rate of global warming currently being experienced. There is the need for concrete action by governments to help curtail the looming crisis. Three strategies can be effectively used in mitigating global warming and its likely consequences. These strategies include reduction of greenhouse gases, afforestation and reforestation, and improving farming practices.


International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements. (2009). The contribution of             organic             agriculture to climate change mitigation. Retrieved from   

Malhi, Y., Roberts, T., Betts, R. A., Killeen, T. J., Li, W., & Nobre, C. A. (2008). Climate            change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science, 319(8): 1 – 5.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2014). Agriculture and climate        change. Retrieved from          climate-change-september-2015.pdf

Union of Concerned Scientists. (2016). Car emissions and global warming. Retrieved from   

1984 manifesto


Adopting the role and perspective of Smith (in the book 1984 by george orwell) , write a Manifesto intended to persuade your compatriots to become insurgents in a revolution that will destroy the Party. Your manifesto can take the form of an underground, secret publication that would circulate among the population. Make sure your manifesto has a powerful name, write your own aphorisms to support your cause, and use your best creatively persuasive skills to incite major change!

Sample paper

1984 manifesto

The book 1984 by George Orwell revolves around political power and struggles. Winston smith is one of the lower administrators of the ruling party in London. Despite being a member of the ruling party, the Party does not trust him and he is watched wherever he goes through telescreens. The Party controls everything in the nation of Oceania and of date, it is attempting to implement a law that will prevent political rebellion since even the thought of rebellion is illegal. Winston becomes frustrated by the rigid control of the party where he meets a friend by the name of O’Brien who he believes is a free thinker and a friend but later on he turns to be a betrayer and a mole. Winston works at ministry of truth where he is forced to alter history to fit the needs, desires and ambitions of the Party (Rodden). Unfortunately, he is arrested by the Party and O’Brien takes the pleasure of torturing him for months in an attempt to break his spirit and change his heart and thinking. Finally after a long resistance, Winston breaks and he accepted the Party entirely and learned to love the Big Brother the leader of the Party.

A new beginning, this is our time

Adopting the role and perspective of smith, below is a manifesto that is intended to persuade my fellow citizens and workers to become insurgents and join brotherhood in an attempt to destroy the Party.

Related: Feminism in Jane Eyre

My fellow citizens and freethinkers, it has come to my attention that in the recent days our freedom of expression and thinking is being jeopardized by the party every single day. The problems that are associated with the party are rising day in day out. I had a dream and in the dream I had a vision a vision that we can achieve much more if we unite as free thinkers.  A vision that we all want to live in a free world where we can enjoy our privacy, a world where we can express our dissatisfaction in the method of rule, a world where our women are not oppressed and at risk, a world where there is fair and justice to all.

I believe in the power of unity, love, truth and freedom of expression. My brothers and sisters imagine yourselves living your own lives without the fear of being watched through the telescreens. Imagine yourselves having the opportunity and chance to love and express your feelings to whomever you want at your own convenient time.  Imagine how much you would achieve if you lived independently and free from any king of oppression from the party. Here is what I know for sure: when you fall asleep you dream of a better future and brighter coming days for our kinds. We cannot live to see these days unless we come together and take actions now action the party.

For so long we have been patient with the party. The big brother has deprived us the right and freedom of free thought, sex and expression individuality. For so long we have endured their rigid control of our precious country. For a very long time, they have changed the history, rules and regulations to suits their gluttonous desires and needs to oppress us (Stone). Their time is gone and our time is now. It id the high time we stand in our rightful place and demand our freedom. It is the high time we take power from them. With power reverting back to the people we can do great things. My fellow citizens am appealing to you to unite because united we stand but apart we fall. We have the power and will to take the authority. Thank you very much.

Works Cited

Rodden, J. The cambridge companion to george orwell. . Cambridge University Press., 2007.

Stone, B. “Amazon erases Orwell books from Kindle.” New York Times, 17, (2009): 78-160.

Related: The Existence of God and Life after Death


The Existence of God and Life after Death


Illustration Essay

Write a 750-1000 word essay about a topic in which you argue for the existence of a particular phenomenon by stating a

generalization about the topic. Then you will support that generalization (in the form of a thesis statement) by choosing to

write a single-example illustration essay or a multiple-example illustration essay (see Unit V, Lesson 2). The essay should

be written in the style and form described within Unit V.

Purpose: Throughout Unit V, we have discussed the conventions of the illustration essay. The purpose of this assignment

is to measure your mastery of those conventions by putting your knowledge to practice. In a larger context, the purpose of

EH 1010, English Composition I 4

writing an illustration essay is to convey an idea to the reader by providing illustrations (examples) that will solidify the

existence of a topic.

Process: For the illustration essay, you will complete the following steps:

  1. Choose a topic: See the methods for developing a topic and the suggested list of topics in Unit V, Lesson 3.
  2. Decide if you want to write a single-example or multiple-example essay: See Unit V, Lesson 2, for more

instruction on the differences between single-example and multiple-example essays.

  1. Collect illustrations: See Unit V, Lesson 1, for more information about different kinds of illustrations. See Unit V,

Lesson 4, for more information about how to gather illustrations.

  1. Craft your thesis statement: See Unit V, Lesson 5, for more information on how to write a thesis. Note that you

want to craft your thesis according to whether you choose to write a single-example or a multiple-example essay.

  1. Draft the essay: For each section of the essay, see the following: Unit V, Lesson 6, for the introduction; Unit V,

Lesson 7, for the body paragraphs; and Unit V, Lesson 8, for the conclusion.

Sample paper

The Existence of God and Life after Death

In the recent period, the debate about the existence of God and thus life after death has gained momentum. There exists opposing viewpoints about the existence of God. One faction strongly holds the view that a Supreme Being exists, while the other faction holds the view that there is probably no God. Yet, some are caught up in the middle and would rather not believe in any belief. In every second that passes, every human being on this planet moves move closer to death, and perhaps the revelation about the existence of God – for it is only in death that some of the greatest mysteries will come to light. There are various arguments supporting the existence of a Supreme Being. These arguments can be classified into ontological, cosmological, and teleological standpoints. This paper will examine the available proofs on the existence of God with regard to the three arguments.

The universe is indeed elegant, but the question that bothers most people’s minds are three: first, how did it come into being? Second, what, if at all there is, created it? Third, what is man’s ultimate destiny? The Bible answers majority of these questions by basing its argument on the existence of a Supreme Being, or God, who is the creator of all that is in the universe. The ontological arguments on the existence of God focus on the metaphysical studies of being and existence. The ontological argument posits that the existence of God can be proved through reason (Nagasawa, 2011). Through reason, all the supernatural elements come to light and there are no controversies. This argument was put forward by Anselm who disregarded the biblical revelation on existence of God and instead chose reason. The other feature of the ontological argument on the existence of God is its emphasis on a priori argument. A priori argument is that which can be proven true through reason without the need for empirical evidence or experience.

Fig. 1.1. Ontological arguments on existence of God

The ontological view on existence of God is more of a priori argument. Anselm asserts that the very notion that a Supreme Being exists means actually that God does exist. Anselm’s conception of God is that of a perfect God. In his view, God is greater than anything else in the entire universe, and for that reason must be in existence (Nagasawa, 2011). He goes further to say that if God was only an idea in people’s minds, the conception would be less perfect than in actuality. Descartes also supported

the notion of a perfect being, and therefore the existence of a Supreme Being. According to Descartes, imagining a lack of Supreme Being is akin to the conception of a triangle whose inner angles do not add up to 180 degrees.

Related : Hamlet

The cosmological argument was also put forward to proof the existence of God. The cosmological argument on existence of God is based on the factual aspects of change, motion, contingency, and causation with respect to the universe and the processes that surround the universe (Rowe, 1998). Renowned philosophers who argued along this line of thought include St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and Plato. The cosmological argument is based on the premise that all events in the universe can be attributed to a particular cause, and the cause must also have been the result of another cause, leading to what may be termed as a causation of events. Clearly, there must be an end to the series of causes as it cannot be infinite.

Fig. 1.1. Rotation of the earth

The cosmological argument proposes that there is an end of the causal chain – a cause that is in itself not caused or uncaused by anything (Rowe, 1998). This point to the presence of a Supreme Being who is the first cause of everything in the universe. With regard to the cosmological argument, philosophers give out a number of examples such as the rotation of the earth. They argue that such motions must have had an initial cause that can only be attributed to the existence of a Supreme Being.

The last kind of argument on the existence of God is based on teleological evidence. Proponents of the teleological argument assert that the universe must have had to be designed. The universe exhibits a level of orderliness that is so elaborate to have occurred by chance as some scholars suggest. Everything in the universe is orderly, and exists for a purpose. The teleological argument attributes this amazing order of the cosmos to a divine ordering power. Proponents of this theory such as Hartshorne question that if the universe was the result of an unknown spontaneity such as the Big Bang Theory suggests, then could all things “freely conspire together to make an orderly world?” (Viney, 1985, p. 82).

Fig. 1.2. The orderliness of the solar system

It is highly unlikely that the spontaneity would result in an orderly world. Further, proponents of this theory questions why there are no further conflicts and confusion in the universe, but only orderliness prevails. These arguments points to the existence of God responsible for the universe’s orderliness.

In conclusion, the debate on the existence of a Supreme Being is hard to fathom. However, there is reason to believe in existence of Supreme Being. The world as it is must have been crafted by a supernatural being. The ontological, cosmological, and teleological arguments provide much evidence on the existence of God, and therefore life after death. Perhaps the most convincing argument relates to the orderliness of the world, as it is difficult to believe that the great orderliness was brought about by spontaneity.


Nagasawa, Y. (2011). The Existence of God: A Philosophical Introduction. United Kingdom,             UK: Taylor & Francis.

Rowe, W. L. (1998). The cosmological argument. New York: Fordham Univ. Press.

Viney, D. W. (1985). Charles Hartshorne and the existence of God. Albany: State University of       New York Press.

Related: Feminism in Jane Eyre


Hamlet’s sanity or insanity paper


One of the inevitable and time-honoured questions asked about Hamlet focuses on the question of his insanity, whether he has put on an “antic disposition” or whether he is truly insane. Discuss whether you believe Hamlet is putting on an “antic disposition” or whether you believe he is truly insane. Consider the following questions in preparing your response, but do not answer them specifically.

What is sanity or insanity?

How people know whether they are sane or insane?

If an individual lives entirely on his or her own, how can that person determine whether she or he is insane or sane?

Does one have to be insane to take another person’s life? To commit murder?

Is Hamlet sane or insane during this act of the play?

Sample paper


                Hamlet’s sanity or insanity remains debatable, with differing views from among readers. Some readers believe that Hamlet was only pretending to be insane, while others contend that Hamlet was actually insane. Others suggest that Hamlet was engulfed by moments of insanity. It may be difficult to categorize one as either sane or insane even in the real world. Some individuals may show characteristics of an insane person yet they have perfect knowledge of what they are doing. Some may also pretend to be insane for a variety of reasons, while they are perfectly sane. This paper postulates that Hamlet was perfectly sane, but only used “antic disposition” to make others believe that he was truly insane and hence achieve what he wanted.

                Hamlet’s sanity or insanity can be discussed in different ways. At some parts of the play he is depicted as insane while in other parts he is perfectly sane, capable of even plotting against his enemies. The parts of the play where Hamlet seems to lose control of his actions depict insanity, while other portions where he seems in control of his actions depict sanity, of a man in his right senses. Throughout the play, Hamlet is engulfed by moments of mood swings and lack of control. During such episodes, he can be described as insane. In Act 1 of the play, Hamlet uses “whirling words” which give the impression of an insane person. He says, “Why, right, you are in the right” (Shakespeare 6). Such sentences and word use points to insanity. Horatio seems not to clearly understand what Hamlet is talking of, a point illustrated by the statement he makes concerning Hamlet’s words; “You’re talking in such a crazy way, sir” (6). Hamlet seems to talk in an unusual way as Horatio contends, a point that may be taken as part of the definition of insanity.

Related papers: Feminism in Jane Eyre

                Prior to his father’s death, Hamlet is portrayed as perfectly sane. Hamlet is friends with Horatio, Guildenstern, and Rosencrantz. Such friendship depicts sanity, as only sane people can make friends. Hamlet has an affection towards Ophelia. This also defines sanity. It means that Hamlet is normal and has feelings just like any other person. Sanity involves being able to make right decisions. Throughout the play, Hamlet is able to make rational decisions, just like a sane man would do. When his father’s ghost appears, he resolves to speak rather than running away. Hamlet also displays rational thinking when during the court scene he is able to cleverly prove that Claudius killed his father. In Act 2, Scene 2, Hamlet displays rational thinking and the know-how that his father was murdered, contrary to the belief that he died of other causes. Hamlet says, “That I, the son of a dear father murdered” (23). This indicates that just like a sane person is aware of the reality on the ground, Hamlet was also much aware of what had transpired to cause his father’s death.

                There are certain indicators that people may use to gauge whether they are sane or insane. In Hamlet’s case, it could also be possible to establish whether he was sane or not using these defining indicators. Hamlet could establish whether he was sane by looking at how well his behavior conforms to society’s accepted ways and customs. Hamlet was deeply aggrieved by his father’s death. This is common and expected in society when one loses a loved one. Hamlet is distraught about his mother’s quick remarriage. This could happen to any man in the society. Hamlet’s behavior in this case seems to be driven by Oedipus complex. In Scene 3, he says; “Mother, you have my father much offended.” A person can know whether he is sane or not looking at whether he or she causes trouble to oneself and others. Hamlet does not cause any trouble to himself. However, Hamlet is a danger to others as evidenced in scene 4. Hamlet stabs and kills Polonius, indicating that he could be insane. Even after realizing he has killed Polonius, he does not show mercy. Instead he says, “You low-life, nosy, busybody fool, goodbye.”

Related paper: Is the Message of Macbeth one of Despair or Hope?

                Individuals who live entirely on their own can still determine whether they are sane or insane. In living alone, there would be no social norms or customs to abide. Doing harm on oneself can therefore be the only indicator as to whether one is sane or insane. Throughout the play, Hamlet does not in any way intend to harm himself. He is only determined to reveal those who killed his father. Thus, there is a possibility that Hamlet is not insane since he does not wish to harm himself and neither the ones he truly loves. Another way to determine whether he or she is sane or insane is through awareness of the reality on the ground. A sane person is able to know and clearly understand the current situation and the future impacts. Hamlet well aware of the current situation. He knows that his father was murdered and in addition, his mother is planning to remarry, something that makes him feel distraught.

                One does not have to be insane to kill another person. People can commit murder for a various reasons. Hamlet kills Polonius but is not remorseful about the death. From the play, there could be a possibility that Hamlet accidentally stabs Polonius. This is because he thought that it was the king who had hidden behind the tapestry. His character is somewhat questionable after he realizes that he killed Polonius and instead of showing remorse he celebrates over his death. Hamlet is not insane when he commits murder, and is well aware of what he has done.

                Hamlet is not insane during the act of the play but rather feigns insanity. His main goal is to fool the king and the attendants. In scene 5, Hamlet talks about putting “an antic disposition on” (74). The antic disposition mentioned simply means that Hamlet is feigning insanity. He later claims that he is just “mad north-north-west” (170). This also points out that he is sane. In act 3, Guildenstern laments about Hamlet’s ‘crafty madness” meaning he finds his insanity questionable. As the king and his entourage enters the court, Hamlet says to Horatio that “I must be idle” (85), ushering the audience to episodes of antic disposition. From the play, it is only the king and his subjects that consider Hamlet as mad. However, the king doubts his insanity. Interestingly, Hamlet’s madness seems to be directed to those he dislikes who include the king, Claudius, Guildenstern, Polonius, and others.

                In conclusion, insanity involves losing control over one’s actions. Hamlet is clearly in control of what he does, although he is bent on making everyone especially those he dislikes believe that he is insane. Hamlet takes Polonius life by stabbing him with a sword, and is glad that it was one of his enemies he has killed. From the play, it is clear that Hamlet was well aware of his actions, and knew the reality on the ground. He was thus a sane person.

Work Cited

Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Hauppauge, N.Y: Barron’s, 2002. Print.

Whitman, Dickinson, Longfellow and the Early Writers


Feminism in Jane Eyre


A compare and Contrast essay on female characters(s)’ portrayals in the chosen novel with your own opinion of what it means to be female in the 21st century. You will need to be specific in character traits for both the novel and your own opinion.

Must use two additional references of support for your opinion. Must not be Wikipedia nor a social media site. Use legitimate, valid support.

Use Feminist Lens: 1. How the reader views females’ roles in society. 2. How readers view the whole text through a feminist framework, such as, “our society is essentially patriarchal” or the literary canon is composed of literary works by “dead, white men,” or gender is a cultural “construct” or false pattern, but most people feel it is real. (I agree that gender is real).


Feminism in Jane Eyre

Charlotte Bronte’s novel ‘Jane Eyre’ is one of the most influential pieces of classical literature that provides a glimpse into feminism during the Victorian age, although not in the ordinary portrayal of feminism that one would expect. During the Victorian period, the society categorized women as the weaker sex, dependent, and their social role defined by gender norms. However, Bronte introduces a character in the novel that contradicts the societal norms and is not defined by gender expectations. Her character is clearly contradictory to that of other women who have accepted a second place in the society that led by men.

Bronte uses the female character named Jane to highlight issues on gender and feminism. Jane is portrayed as a strong, independent, and passionate woman. She could fight for what she believed to be right and believed in expressing her thoughts. This does not reflect the character of women during this period when women were marginalized. When she is young, Jane cuts the image of a strong woman capable defending her rights and expressing her own opinion. As the story unfolds in the beginning, Jane engages in a fight and the maid scolds her that she will be punished. The maid informs her that the young gentleman she struck is her benefactress’s son, and thus a young master to her. Surprisingly, Jane is agitated on hearing this to which she says, “Master! How is he my master? Am I a servant?” (Bronte, 1982, p. 32). This shows that she is straightforward and willing to fight for her rights. In the modern times, women should learn to fight for their rights, and not accept things as they are defined by traditions.

Jane comes to fall in love with a man called Rochester. Although she doubts that the feeling is mutual, she finally realizes that they are both in love with each other. During this period, women acted as men’s companion without necessarily being mutual love between them (Wang, 2011). Women would be used to advance a man’s status in society. Marriage was extremely important for them. After some time, Jane realized that Rochester was married and would thus be his mistress. She is loathsome of the fact and opts to quit the relationship. Later, she meets St. John, a man who saved her life and who later falls in love with her. Jane realizes that she does not love this man and rejects his proposal. This shows that she is an independent woman and can make her own decisions. She is the one to decide who to marry, something uncommon during the Victorian period. Likewise, women in the 21st century should be free to make their own decisions when it comes to marriage.

Jane character also cuts the image of a self-assured woman who knows what she wants (Wang, 2011). In the end of the novel, she says that she married Rochester. It is worth noting that marriage during this period elevated the status of a woman (Calder, 1977). However, marriage placed invisible chains upon women who were forever expected to serve their husbands not matter what. Married women were taken as the ‘property’ of their husband. Jane marries Rochester as an equal partner in the union, rather than as inferior to the man. In the 21st century, women are supposed to be equal partners in marriage as opposed to being subordinates.


Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Signet Classic, Penguin Books USA Inc. New York: 1982

Calder, J. (1977). The Victorian Home. London: Batsford Ltd.

Wang, Y. (2011). Women, Marriage and Economy in Jane Eyre. Journal of Literature,     Language and Linguistics, 3(1): 1-34.

Whitman, Dickinson, Longfellow and the Early Writers



Is the message of Macbeth one of despair or hope?


Is the message of Macbeth one of despair, or of hope? You decide.

After you decide which side of the issue you are on, write an argumentative essay that proves Macbeth is either a study of the meaninglessness of life, or that Macbeth is a study in the meaningfulness of life.


Is the Message of Macbeth one of Despair or Hope?

The message of Macbeth is one full of despair. As such, Macbeth can best be classified as the study of the meaninglessness of life. Act 5 reveals Macbeth’s view on the meaningless of life. Macbeth is overwhelmed by the need to become a leader that he is forced to plot the death of the King. In scene 5, Macbeth pours out his thoughts about life. This is after learning about Macbeth’s death. Even though he appears calm on receiving the message, it is clear through the speech he gives which is full of despair and pessimism. Macbeth feels that life is short and unpredictable, one that is meaningless and fragile. It is at this juncture that he compares life to a number of items all of which allude on life’s meaninglessness.

As earlier mentioned, Macbeth compares life with a number of things. To him, life is like a “brief candle” (Shakespeare, 82). This shows the brevity of life. This stems from the fact that he has witnessed the deaths of many men that he associates life with vulnerability – one that can easily disappear just like brief candle does. Macbeth goes further to say that “life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage” (83). This also gives a sense of the brevity of life. From these allusions, it is clear that Macbeth is detailing the emptiness of life. His speech, which is motivated by grief and the apparent danger ahead, indicates that there is no purpose in life. It is important to note that Macbeth is also incensed by the advancing armies, another reason why his speech is full of despair. Following Lady Macbeth’s death, he is left with no hope of ever finding happiness.

Lady Macbeth also depicts despair in the scene where she sleepwalks in the castle. This occurs before the night of the battle against Malcolm and Macduff. Earlier on, she played a critical role in convincing Macbeth to kill Duncan. Earlier on during the play, Macbeth believed that his hand was covered in bloodstains that could not be washed off. Lady Macbeth offered that water could clear the deed. In the sleepwalking scene, she too is covered with blood and does not know how to wash it off. The sleepwalking scene reveals her emotional state which had worsened over time. Lady Macbeth’s inability to sleep represents despair she was undergoing. She asserts that the murders they commit cannot come back to haunt them as long as Macbeth is in power. Her death is foreshadowed when she says in her sleep that hell is murky (Shakespeare, 33). Lady Macbeth is tormented by guilt which makes her life meaningless.

The battle in scene 7 also highlights the meaningless of life. Many soldiers lose their lives as the battle rages on, including Lord Siward’s son who is slain by Macbeth himself. In the battle, Macbeth is fearless because he believes in the three prophecies. However, he begins to fear for his life after an encounter with Macduff. The play depicts hopelessness and despair. Macbeth had already come up with a great vision of the things he planned to accomplish, but all of this came crushing down following the defeat in the battle.

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Irvine: Saddleback Educational Pub, 2010. Internet resource.

Whitman, Dickinson, Longfellow and the Early Writers