Category Archives: Environmental Issues

Hazard identification and control


Locate an article related to hazard identification and control. Try using a variety of search terms (e.g., hazard identification, hazard control, hazard prevention, industrial hazards, occupational hazards, controlling hazards).  The selected article must be from a professional or academic journal, at least two pages in length, and published within the last five years. Be sure that the article is specific to occupational safety and health as some search terms may result in articles related to the finance and insurance industries. Write a review that includes the following components:

  •  a brief introduction to the article,
  • a summary and analysis of the key points in the article,
  •  a discussion on how the article supports or contradicts the concepts as presented in the textbook, and
  • a summary of the article’s conclusions and your own opinions.

Sample paper

Hazard identification and control

The article Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control in Foundry attempts to show various ways workers in a foundry industry can identify the hazards and the risk by conducting an analysis of each steps encompassing various activities in the industry. Moreover, the author goes ahead to provide suggestions that can help workers to reduce if not totally eliminate all the risks through the utilization of the tool hazard identification and risk assessment. For an industry to succeed, it has to satisfy their employees need by providing a safe working environment (Irawan, 2015).

The article goes ahead to define what is hazard and risk as well as describing the necessary steps that industry has to follow to identify the hazards likely to face the workforce. Some of the risk identification techniques presented includes:

  1. Identification of major incidents and accidents which could occur in the workplace
  2. Creating awareness among all employees about the causes of major accidents at the workplace
  • Giving a systematic record of all hazards identified and major incidents in the organization together with any assumptions made.

The article goes on to outline the necessary steps that an individual has to follow to manage hazards and risks in the workplace.  Hazard and risk management encompasses:

  1. Identification of the hazards
  2. Determining its significance to the industry
  • Controlling the identified hazards through elimination, substitution, isolation or minimization
  1. Educating all the workers on hazards and risks by training them how to conduct themselves in the case of an accident as well as all the activities carried to court in the industry.

The article goes on to provide the reader with the knowledge on how he or she can identify occupational hazards and risk to health. According to the author, hazard and risk analysis should be conducted for all activities for all tasks, activities, and processes in an organization as well as studying the reactions of the employees to provide a way forward (Irawan, 2015). In addition, in the case of changes in the organization processes and activities, all employees should be trained accordingly as well as review the existing hazard identification and risk assessment to conduct the necessary changes.

The article fully supports the concepts presented in the textbook as the author is quick to mention the responsibility of each in the industry in the attempt of ensuring that there is a collection bargain in a company. The article established that collective efforts are necessary from the employees, managers and all stakeholders in a company in their attempt of making the workplace safe. Additionally, the article clearly outlines its objectives at the start of the discussion to ensure that every leader is well aware of what to expect and what to gain from reading it. Finally, each idea is written in an independent paragraph to ensure that the reader is not confused at any point of his or her study.

In the conclusion part of the article, the author provides a summary of the key points presented in the article and repeatedly states the importance of hazard identification and risk assessment tools in an organization. The article does a great job in enlightening employees and readers on how to avoid hazards and risks (Irawan, 2015). However, the article fails to provide basic guidelines on how the workers should conduct themselves in the case of an accident to minimize the damage of the incident.


Irawan, S. P. (2015). Penyusunan Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC) Di PT. X. Jurnal Titra, 3(1),, 15-18.

Rausand, M. (2013). Hazard Identification. Risk Assessment, 213-263. doi:10.1002/9781118281116.ch9


NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports


NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports


Describe the issues of the case, and state the purpose for the paper.Methods – State the evaluation criteria used in the NIOSH HHE Report. Results – Present the findings from the Health hazard evaluation.Recommendations – Describe the recommendations for improvements. Discussion – Review relevant literature on the subject. Does research support the recommendations of the case? In addition, are there any other issues of concern?. Conclusion – Present your comments on the case. What did you learn in this review? What more would you like to have seen discussed in the report? In general, your own opinions should only be included in this section

Sample paper

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports


The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a case analysis to examine workplace safety and health issues. The case analysis specifically focuses on health hazards confronting workers in three eyeglass-manufacturing firms in Minnesota region. The evaluation focused on facility workers completing surfacing and finishing tasks. These workers are exposed to a number of health hazards during their work. The health hazards may trigger life-threatening conditions such as musculoskeletal disorders and other form of injuries. The issues raised in the case relate to awkward postures that workers have to endure while performing various tasks at the facility. The analysis finds that employees are at increased risk of limb and back work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). This paper examines the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report in an eyeglass manufacturing facility located in Minnesota, and provides recommendations for eliminating the health risks associated with poor posture.


The NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (NIOSH HHE) report uses formative evaluation criteria. In formative evaluations, the program is assessed during the entire development stages. In other times, the project can be assessed right from implementation stages and continue to the end. The aim of formative evaluation is to provide crucial details to the project managers concerning how the program can be modified or revised for improvement purposes. Although formative evaluation is often conducted during in pilot and new projects, the evaluation criteria can also be used in assessing the progress of ongoing programs. Formative evaluation enables the project managers to obtain valuable feedback that they can use to make improvements. In order to obtain information, NIOSH observed employees while they engaged in their routine procedures. The NIOSH also conducted measures to establish whether there were appropriate heights and distances for employees doing various tasks.


The findings indicate that workers at the facility use poor postures and engage in monotonous routines during work. This results to high risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder, forearm, elbow, wrist, finger and hand. The employees also face increased risk of developing lower back musculoskeletal issues due to poor posture and monotonous tasks. Employees are exposed to back problems due to tasks involving bending and twisting. The findings indicate that employees involved in finishing and surfacing experienced musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist, shoulder, hand and lower back. The evaluation found a significantly higher level of musculoskeletal disorders and illnesses at the facility compared to other eyeglass manufacturing facilities in the United States.

A number of tasks that employees conduct on frequent basis were identified as the major reason contributing to musculoskeletal disorders. During taping, the team observed that the trays lacked handles, which caused stress during lifting. In blocking, poor posture also contributed to musculoskeletal problems. Employees were seated using the wrong posture since they did not use the backrest of their chairs. In addition, they did not have enough leg clearance. The study also finds that employees working with blocking machines did not rotate, increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. The workstation tables were fixed, meaning that employees could not be able to adjust their height. Other areas of work such as grinding, tool/pad, finishing, and others had similar challenges.


The report recommends two broad strategies for improvement: engineering controls and administrative controls. Engineering controls work by eliminating exposure of the employee to the hazard. One way of achieving this is by putting a barrier such that the impacts of the hazard on the employee are minimized. This report recommends a number of engineering controls that may improve the situation as follows. First, the report recommends that work surfaces must be of appropriate height rage (27” – 62”). The blocking and assembly areas should have adjustable tables. The visual display monitors should also be placed within appropriate height range with regard to whether the workstation is designed for seating or standing employees. The report also recommends that appropriate height and weight of the trays should apply. For instance, a stack of trays should not extend beyond a worker’s shoulder.

The administrative controls are those initiated by the management with an aim of improving work practices. One of these controls is ensuring employee rotation to avoid repetition of tasks. In order to enhance employee rotation, there is also need to cross-train employees on different tasks. Another important factor is checking the weight of loads that a worker can carry, and the manner of lifting any loads. The report recommends the use of carts for moving loads. A worker should hold a load close to the body to avoid any form of strain. The report also recommends short breaks of about 3-5 minutes for every hour of work. Another key issue is for the company to train employees on the proper use of machines and work posture. For instance, there is need to train employees on how to adjust equipment. It is also important for employees to report any feelings of discomfort to managers for interventional measures to be taken early.


The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) explore the risks associated with manual handling in working environments. The report indicates that manual handling of weights in the workplace can lead to musculoskeletal disorders in the long term. The report singles out low back pain as the most common musculoskeletal disorder in the workplace today. This report supports the NIOSH HHE report, which finds low back pain as a significant problem in the workplace. Spector, Lieblich, Bao, McQuade, and Hughes (2014) examine the possible ways that managers may employ to eliminate the issues of musculoskeletal disorders. The authors examine the efficacy of various scientific methods such as machine learning (ML) in correcting musculoskeletal disorders. The authors also examine the use of computer vision as key to eliminating work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Computer vision deals with the application of 3D image data. Alvarez-Casado, Zhang, Sandoval and Pedro analyze various ways in which fishermen may reduce musculoskeletal disorders. The study supports the recommendations of the case in that it identifies the risk factors as posture, handling, activity and tools. These are the same risk factors identified in the case. There are no other issues of concern raised.


The case evaluates ergonomic hazards in workplace environments. The report notes that employees are exposed to a number of risk factors that contribute to development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Common risk factors include poor posture, repetitive tasks, and forceful exertions. The case is important since it provides one with important information about the risk factors and the measures that one can take to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorder. For instance, there is need to design the workplace in a way that ensures employees experience comfort while conducting their duties. The report, however, does not give clear details about the musculoskeletal disorders that employees face. The report should provide details about the severity of the various work-related musculoskeletal disorders.


Álvarez‐Casado, E., Zhang, B., Sandoval, S. T., & Pedro, M. (2016). Using ergonomic digital      human modeling in evaluation of workplace design and prevention of work‐related           musculoskeletal disorders aboard small fishing vessels. Human Factors and Ergonomics         in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 26(4), 463-472. doi:10.1002/hfm.20321

Spector, J. T., Lieblich, M., Bao, S., McQuade, K., & Hughes, M. (2014). Automation of workplace lifting hazard assessment for musculoskeletal injury prevention. Annals of            Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 26(1), 15. doi:10.1186/2052-4374-26-15

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Hazards and risks associated with manual handling in the workplace. Retrieved from      publications/publications/e-facts/efact14


Global Warming




The environment in which human beings and animals that we live are far much detailed and complex than most individuals think.  The natural environment comprises of all living things and non-living things occurring naturally on earth’s surface or in a specific area. Both human and plants have to find a natural living balance to ensure that there is a balanced ecology in the environment we live in. On the same note, human population in a specific region may have both positive and negative effects on the surrounding environment. Moreover, the human population can be defined as the total number of human living in a region. Depending on the population number in the region, under population and overpopulation may have both constructive and adverse effects.  However, human activities on the surface of the earth are known to bring about environmental issues. Environmental issues are defined as the harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.  Environmental protection should be paramount to all humans to ensure that more emphasis is put on protecting the natural environment on individual, organization and governmental levels (Sobotka, 2008). Environmental protection will definitely lead to ecological balance thus producing high-quality breathing air and living environment.

Describe the demographic transition model and how it was developed by demographers.

For a country to witness population growth, there is the need to increase the birth rate while at the same time reducing the mortality rate. As a result, most demographers emphasizes on demographic transition to put the population growth in the check to ensure a country is neither under populated nor overpopulated. Demographic transition comprises of the transition from high birth, and mortality rate to lower birth and death rates as a region transforms and moves from pre-industrial to and industrialized and developed the economic system.  With the development of new in agriculture and production and advancement in health and sanitation, demographers were able to control and predict the birth rate and mortality rate.

Describe the 4 phases of demographic transition.

There are four main stages that are followed by demographers that include pre-transition that is characterized by high birth rates and high fluctuating death rates and as a result population size remains fairly constantly.   The second stage is widely known as an early transition that is characterized by the decline of death rates while the birth rate remains high due to the introduction of modern medicine. The third stage known as the late transition is characterized by a decline in birth rate as a result of improved economic conditions and increase in women status in the society. Finally, the last stage is post-transition that is characterized by low birth rate and low death rate due to stronger economies, higher levels of education and better healthcare.

For each phase, compare crude birth rates (CBR) to crude death rates (CDR), and state whether the population is stable, growing, or declining in each. ·

The crude birth rate is the number of live births occurring among the population while the crude death rate is the number of deaths occurring in a given geographical area. In the first phase, there is an increase I n birth rate and an increase in death rate meaning there is minimal or no change in the population size. In the second phase, there is a decline in death rate but an increase in birth rate thus resulting in a growing population (Cervellati, 2011). On the third stage, there is a slight decline in birth rate but the population is growing but slowly. Finally, in the final phase, both the birth rate and death rate are low thus the population is stable.

According to demographers, what factors lead to a decline of the CDR in phase two and the CBR in phase three of the demographic transition? ·

According to demographers, improvement and advancement in medicine and improvement in agricultural technology have resulted in a decrease in crude death rates in the second phase. On the other hand, in stage three improved economic conditions, an increase in women’s status and access contraception are some of the factors that have lead to an increase in crude birth rate.

Briefly describe 3 living conditions in developed countries that have reached phase four, and contrast them with these same conditions in developing countries that remain in earlier phases.

There is a wide difference between developed and developing countries especially when it comes to living conditions. Some of the living conditions in developed countries include differences in wealth, health care and quality of the goods and services produced and distributed. Most of the individuals in developed country are wealthy thus experiencing improved living standard compared to developing country that lives and earn below a dollar each day. On the other hand, developed countries haven better health care facilities to high investment in medical technology while developing countries have no investment funds to invest in medicine field. Finally, the developed countries always produce high-quality products and services since they produce industrialized products as compared to agricultural products produced by developing countries (Mason, 2007).

Research and describe a program for developing countries that would help improve 1 of the 3 conditions that you compared.

For developing countries to improve the level and quality of the products and services they offer, they have to transform from selling raw agricultural products to the developed countries and later buying them as finished products. They should rather process them and sell them as finished products as they move from agricultural products to industrial products.

Food security means that everyone has an adequate amount of nutritious food to lead healthy lives. Research and describe 1 specific program that helps developing countries reach food security goals.

To reach food security goals, developing countries should strive to reduce by half the proportion of the size of the population living on less than a dollar a day through the creation of employment and increase in investment opportunities. By reducing the proportion of the number people who suffer from extreme poverty and hunger, a country can improve its food security programs and goals in general.


Cervellati, M. &. (2011). Life expectancy and economic growth: the role of the demographic transition. . Journal of economic growth, 16(2), , 99-133.

Mason, A. &. (2007). Transfers, capital, and consumption over the demographic transition. Population aging, intergenerational transfers and the macroeconomy, , 128-162.

Sobotka, T. (2008). Overview chapter 6: The diverse faces of the second demographic transition in Europe. Demographic research, 19(8),, 171-224.


Global Warming

A description of an environmental issue including the cause of the issue and its effects on the environment and people.


  • A description of an environmental issue including the cause of the issue and its effects on the environment and people.

  • An explanation of how economics and personal lifestyle choice are involved in this issue.

  • An explanation of how individuals, communities, and/or governments are working to address the environmental issue.

  • Your opinion as to whether the issue is being adequately addressed and suggestions of ways it could be better addressed.


Natural resource depletion which occurs due to unsustainability of resource use is a serious crisis facing most parts of the world. Resource depletion is caused by use of natural resources at a rate higher that they can be replenished (Leigh & Olters, 2006). Resource depletion is closely tied to environmental sustainability. A number of factors are attributed to resource depletion. First, overpopulation has greatly contributed to resource depletion. High population growth puts more pressure on the available resources. Second, overconsumption and unnecessary use of natural resources have contributed to resource depletion. Third, habitat degradation is also attributed to resource depletion.

Habitat degradation leads to loss of biodiversity. Resource depletion also contributes to pollution and contamination. For instance where forests are cleared to pave way for agriculture, soil erosion takes place causing siltation in rivers and lakes. Shortage of natural resources is a major source of conflict. Overuse of natural resources such as forests causes loss of biodiversity. It also contributes to global warming since forests act as natural carbon sinks.

The current patterns witnessed in the recent past on natural resource consumption, energy use, urbanization and agricultural practices are unsustainable in the long term (Leigh & Olters, 2006). Over the last century, the world population has sharply increased. This was accompanied by a corresponding increase in global economic production and subsequently the overexploitation of natural resources. For instance, the demand for construction materials has greatly increased as the world economies continue to develop. Personal lifestyle choices also contribute to resource depletion. Resource use patterns greatly affect natural resource depletion. The U.S. records the highest rate of natural resource use per person. This leaves a greater ecological impact. Personal habits such as driving impact the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. According to Shah (2013), over 93% of Americans prefer driving to work than using public transportation. This increases the rate of fossil fuel use and other natural resources used in manufacture of vehicles.

Individuals are working to address natural resource depletion by practicing sustainable agricultural practices, changing their resource use patterns, adapting the use of renewable energy at homes, and among other measures.

Communities are also keen on ensuring sustainability of natural resources. One of the measures taken by the community is the construction of energy-efficient buildings which cut on energy consumption. Communities are also important in the management and protection of natural resources such as forests. Participation of communities in resource management is effective in ensuring sustainable use of the resources (McKinney, Schoch, & Yonavjak, 2012). Communities have also embarked on conducting various environmental initiatives such as use of energy-efficient bulbs, adoption of new farming methods, and use of green sources of energy. The local governments are involved in management and conservation of natural resources. In addition, they provide grants and funding for various environmental programs.

The issue of natural resource depletion is not being handled in a satisfactory manner. There has been little change especially in the adoption of green energy sources. Most of the energy is still obtained from non-renewable sources such as fossil fuels. There is need for more funding in research on the application of green technologies such as biofuels. Governments should develop policies that encourage those developing buildings to include all necessary energy efficiency measures. Lastly, governments should provide funds that can be used to retrofit old buildings and make them more energy efficient.


Global Warming

Community Sustainability Proposal-Green initiatives for Raleigh, North Carolina-Ppt


Perform an initial search to learn about green initiatives for Raleigh, North Carolina. Create a 5- to 8-slide PowerPoint® presentation or Write a 350- to 525-word proposal to your local government.

Include the following:

  • A summary of green initiatives for Raleigh, NC.

  • Recommendations to your local government for creating a greener, more sustainable and livable community.

  • The proposal should include recommendations both for actions by the local government and by individual homeowners.

  • Explain how implementing these recommendations would promote sustainability and improve like for residents.


The next initiative involves the use of green sources of energy such as solar energy to supplement the existing sources (Miller, 2013). Raleigh City has introduced a number of green initiatives aimed at promoting environmental sustainability and conservation. The first initiative involves the use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the city. LEDs are lighting devices that gives higher energy efficiency than the ordinary bulbs currently in use. Such devices will greatly help reduce energy consumption per household and thus lead to a decline on fossil fuel dependency. The next initiative involves use of drought resistant plants in landscaping, also known as xeriscaping. This reduces the need for irrigation of the landscape during the dry season and hence saving on water for other uses (“City of Raleigh,” 2016).

Use of solar energy is being applied in some projects such as water treatment plants. Raleigh has also embarked on rainwater harvesting initiative. This is mainly being used by the city’s Fire Station to reduce dependence on drinking water. The city is also encouraging the development and use of hybrid vehicles which save on fuel consumption. Lastly, Raleigh has embarked on environment conservation measures for a variety of wildlife species such as frogs, butterflies, dragonflies, and others (“City of Raleigh,” 2016).


The first recommendation is overhaul of the transportation system. Just like other American cities, residents of Raleigh mainly depend of personal means of commuting instead of using public transport. This can be done by encouraging the development of a fixed transit system rather than a dispersed system. In a fixed transit system, large number of people live close to a transportation line such as a railway and hence it is easier to provide public transportation. The next recommendation is to include green development in construction industry. Green building designs enhance resource conservation, energy efficiency, water efficiency and economy in use. The next recommendation involves reducing wastage through such measures as recycling and reducing use. Lastly, the local government should promote the use of clean sources of energy such as solar energy, biofuels, wind energy, and geothermal (“NC Project Green,” (n.d)). This can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.


Individual homeowners have a critical role to play in creating a greener community. First individuals should adapt better driving methods. Research has shown that poor driving habits contribute to high fuel consumption and consequently more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Cars should be well maintained and run efficiently. Individuals can also reduce the amount of energy they use by changing their habits. For instance, turning off electronic devices can greatly help reduce energy consumption. Use of energy efficient fluorescent bulbs is also effective in lowering energy consumption. Lastly, individuals should recycle and reuse items if possible.

SCI256-Why is it difficult to establish standards for acceptable levels of pollution? 

SCI256-Why is it difficult to establish standards for acceptable levels of pollution? 


1)Why is it difficult to establish standards for acceptable levels of pollution?

2)Explain, considering physical, climatological, biological, social, and/or ethical reasons.

3)What is one way natural ecosystems can perform wastewater treatment? Explain

4)Compare and contrast point and nonpoint sources of water pollution.  Which is easier to treat?  Why?


Question 1

Pollution comprises all the activities and actions that contaminate the environment. It is very difficult to difficult to establish these standards considering that pollution induces toxicity which is harmful. As a result, the toxic level will increase as the pollution agent continues to operate (Dunlap, 2014). Additionally, it is time-consuming to determine tolerable levels of toxic agent. Moreover, most organizations are not willing to spend most of their resources to neutralize their waste products unless legally compelled.

Question 2

Usually, accepted levels of pollution are achieved when the benefits of reducing levels of pollution equal the cost incurred to reduce those effects. As a result, to achieve these optimal levels organizations should ensure that their waste productions are affecting the physical environment in any way such as litter, gas from their firms to do lead to global warming, their products do not have biological effects on living organisms. Moreover, these levels should ethically provide safe working and living environment.

Question 3

Wastewater purification is becoming popular worldwide due to the increase in wastewater collection systems. One of the best natural ways to clean such water is through deep filtration. This method involves separation of solid from the water where the liquid in this case wastewater is passed through a porous medium to remove fine suspended solids. The water may be required to go through several porous medium to ensure that it is clean and safe for human consumption.

Question 4

A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of pollution that can be easily established and identified (Ray, 2012). On the other hand, nonpoint sources of pollution are diffuse sources of pollution and they occur over a wide a large area and cannot be attributed to a single source. However, it is easier to treat a point source of pollution since it is easily identified and attributed to a single source.



Dunlap, R. E. (2014). American environmentalism: The US environmental movement, 1970-1990. Taylor & Francis.

Ray, J. P. (2012). Produced water: Technological/environmental issues and solutions (Vol. 46). Springer Science & Business Media.


Environmental Pollution PowerPoint presentation



Environmental Pollution PowerPoint presentation

Environmental pollution refers to the contamination of the natural environment by naturally occurring or man-induced substances that leads to an interruption of the normal environmental processes. Pollution involves the introduction contaminants that are harmful to living organisms and including human beings. Environmental pollution can broadly be classified into three categories namely: soil pollution, air pollution, and water pollution. Pollutants are sometimes naturally occurring substances. These become contaminants when they occur in excess in the environment (Hill, 2010).

Pollutants can be divided into two main categories depending on their decomposition properties. The two include biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants. Degradable pollutants are those that can undergo decomposition or be processed by organisms. Examples of these include organic waste products, inorganic salts, and phosphates. Biodegradable pollutants are considered harmless to a certain extent. However, their accumulation in large amounts can pose a serious threat to the environment especially if they exceed the environment’s capacity to assimilate them. Non-biodegradable pollutants are those which are not decomposable by living organisms. They can therefore persist in the environment for longer duration. Examples of these include metal, plastics, radioactive isotopes, glass, and others (Farmer, 2013).

Air pollution occurs when harmful gases are released into the atmosphere. The most common source of air pollution is through burning of fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This may either be from industries, motor vehicle exhaust fumes, or from homes. The large volume of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere is linked to climate change. Other air pollutants include nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, airborne particles, volatile organic compounds, and radioactive pollutants. Air pollution may lead to lung infections and other form of diseases in human beings (Farmer, 2013).

Water pollution occurs when effluents or contaminants find their way into water bodies, impacting the marine ecosystem. Discharge of effluents in rivers and other water basins cause water pollution. Groundwater pollution may also occur when chemical contaminants seeps into the ground. This is also a form of water pollution. Industrial waste and raw sewage are the most common sources of water pollution. Heat is another form of water pollution that leads to what is commonly referred to as thermal pollution. Water pollution greatly impacts the marine ecosystem, causing deaths of various species. Water pollution can contribute to water-borne diseases, allergies, skin rashes, and other types of ailments (Hill, 2010).

Soil pollution occurs when contaminants or land use practices alter the natural soil environment. Soil pollution may result from agricultural chemicals, improper waste disposal practices, poor farming practices, destructive land use practices such as mining, and among others. Soil pollution can impact the acidity and alkalinity of soils impacting the diversity of the natural vegetation. Heavily polluted soils have little vegetation cover which consequently impacts the diversity of vegetation and wildlife in a particular area (Hill, 2010).


Global Warming

Global Warming


Some people you know say they don’t believe that the climate is changing.  After this week’s readings, how would you respond?

Write a 525- to 700-word response including:

  • How scientists learn about past global temperatures and climates.

  • The greenhouse effect.

  • Greenhouse gases and their role in current climate change.

  • One piece of data scientists offer to show that the climate is changing globally (see this NASA website: ).

  • Expected impacts of climate change in North Carolina (this EPA website is very helpful:

Sample paper

Global Warming

Over the last few decades, the global climate has been changing in what is widely referred to as global warming. Global warming refers to the recent and ongoing rise in global temperatures near the earth’s surface (Houghton, 2009). This increase in temperature is attributed to the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the universe atmosphere and thus increasing the amount of solar heat that reaches the earth. From the time of last ice age, global warming has been causing a change in climatic patterns.

Question 1

Through the study of past published data about climate, scientists can learn about the changes that are taking place as far as weather is concerned. They take their time to analyze possible changes that have happened in earth’s temperature over time thus gaining a better understanding of increase or decrease in world temperatures and make a determination to establish causes of these changes. Paleoclimatologists a branch of scientists have the responsibility to study the patterns of past climate which can even take a shaper of thousands or millions of years back. These scientists usually use elements of the environment to find proxy climate data related to the past and uses various methods to get accurate results. Such methods include tree rings, clues beneath the water, cities beneath the water and unlocking secrets in ancient ice.

Question 2

Greenhouse effect constitutes of processes and procedures through which radiations from the earth’s atmosphere warms the earth’s surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere (Houghton, 2009). The planet’s atmosphere contains radioactively active gasses which when hit by sunlight will radiate energy in all directions. As a result, some of this radiation energy is directed towards the earth’s surface thus warming it. The greenhouse effect usually depends on the atmosphere’s temperature and the amount of greenhouse gasses present in the atmosphere. Usually, the atmosphere is heated by absorption of thermal infrared radiation from the underlying surface, absorption of shorter wavelength radiant energy from the sun and convective heat fluxes from the surface. Planets natural greenhouse effect is essential in supporting human life since it helps to balance the sunlight reaching earth’s surface.


Question 3

Greenhouse gasses that are naturally in the earth’s atmosphere contribute to support life for both animals and plants. Examples of such gasses include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. These gasses often absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range (Wentz, 2007). The greenhouse gasses cause the atmosphere to retain heat. Naturally, these gasses are supposed to reflect sunlight back into space but instead these gasses are currently absorbing this heat, slowing or preventing the loss of heat to space. As a result, these gasses are acting like a blanket of heat making the universe warmer than it is supposed to be.

Question 5

The current warming has a significant effect since it is human induced. Through Earth-orbiting satellites and other technological advances have enabled scientists to see in pictures, collect data about the earth and climate on a global scale. Some of the indicators of changes in temperatures of the earth include sea level rise where it is estimated it rose by 17 centimeters in the last decade.  Moreover, all the three global surface temperature reconstructions show an increase in temperature, presence of warming oceans and shrinking ice sheet.


Question 6

Climate change can affect society in a broad way ranging from increase or decrease in rainfall to human health (Wentz, 2007). The current global warming in the world has led to more warming, floods, and drought in some parts of North America. Moreover, there is the presence of warmer and more acidic oceans down at the coast due to change in the marine ecosystem.



Houghton, J. (2009). Global warming: the complete briefing. Cambridge university press.

Wentz, F. J. (2007). How much more rain will global warming bring?. Science, 317(5835), , 233-235.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Paper




Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Paper


1) In what ways is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) more sustainable than traditional methods of eliminating agricultural pests?

2) What role do you think fossil fuels should play in supplying energy to consumers in the United States?  What are some ethical issues associated with fossil fuels?

3) Which has greater future potential for energy production, wind or water power?  Which causes more environmental problems?  Explain.


SCI/256-Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


Question 1

Integrated pest management (IPM) is a process that used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to the environment and populace. It is useful in the control of pests in agricultural, natural areas, and wild land. They are categorized into chemical, mechanical, cultural, and biological controls (Jacobson, M. Z. et al. 2013). Unlike the traditional methods, the IPM focuses on the long-term inhibition of pests or their harm by supervising the ecosystem. The traditional methods do not use the conservative methods such as pesticides and insecticides. Thus, there is a likelihood of occurrence of the diseases.

Question 2

The fossil energy includes natural gas, coal, and oil. The people of the U.S can burn the coal to yield electricity for home and industrial consumption, enhance them for use as fuel, or use it for transportation purposes (Reuter, W. H. et al. 2012). Ethical issues associated with coal include polluting the environment as they discharge nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other injurious gasses in the air. The result of this is that it contributes to global warming injuring our ecosystems.

Question 3

Wind has greater potential in the future to produce energy compared to water. Water causes more environmental hazards compared to wind power. According to Kumaravel, S. et al. (2015), it changes the environment by affecting the use of land, natural habitats in dam areas, and homes. However, the wind power turbines occupy land that should have been used for other purposes such as agriculture. The turbines alter the air pressure thus reducing the bats and birds deaths.

Human Impact on Biogeochemical Cycles Worksheet SCI/256


Jacobson, M. Z., Howarth, R. W., Delucchi, M. A., Scobie, S. R., Barth, J. M., Dvorak, M. J., … & Jones, R. (2013). Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energy infrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight. Energy Policy, 57, 585-601.

Kumaravel, S., & Ashok, S. (2015). Optimal power management controller for a stand-alone solar PV/wind/battery hybrid energy system. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 37(4), 407-415.

Reuter, W. H., Fuss, S., Szolgayová, J., & Obersteiner, M. (2012). Investment in wind power and pumped storage in a real options model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(4), 2242-2248.

SCI/256-Environmental Issues


)Perform an internet search for the following video:

“TEDxOslo – Angela Morelli – The Global Water Footprint of Humanity”

Consider and discuss the following questions:

What should be included when calculating your water footprint?

Did some of the categories that contribute to your water footprint surprise you?

What are some ways that people can reduce their water footprint?


2)Perform an internet search for the following video:

“David MacKay: A reality check on renewables”

Consider and discuss the following questions:

Can an increase in renewable energy production alone provide for all of our energy needs?  Why or why not?

What are some things we as individuals can do to help balance energy supply and energy needs?


3)Perform an internet search for the following video:

“Dan Barber: How I fell in love with a fish”

Consider and discuss the following questions:

Identify some unsustainable and sustainable aquacultural practices highlighted in this talk.

What surprised you?



In almost everything that a human person consumes or uses, water is a major component and every important to them. Water footprint refers to the production or supply of the goods and services utilized by a particular person or rather a group of individuals. To the surprise of many people, they require far much less water to survive than they think. The ultimate goal of this calculation is to reduce human water footprint by 20% or more and sticking to the commitment of consuming as a small portion of water as possible. The measures of a nation’s water footprint are the measures of all water that is used in a country ranging from industrial applications to domestic uses in that one particular country (Yearley, 2014). Thus, a country’s water footprint can be divided into three broad categories that include national water used for domestic consumption, national water used for food and goods and foreign water used to produce goods for export.

Question 1

In every action and component that man uses, he needs to use water. To be able to calculate how much human consume water in their daily lives the calculator has to put into account all the ways and methods that person uses water there is the need to calculate the amount of water that he uses for domestic chores that include cleaning, cooking and bathing. Additionally, the amount of water utilized in the production of industrial products that are later consumed by all people around the world (Dunlap, 2014). Finally, there is the need to calculate the amount of water that is used in processing food in the human body. Most of the water that a person uses is used in the food processing.

Some of the categories that constitute to human water footprint were a surprise to me considering that I did not expect them to be so important. Examples of that class include water that is used to produce industrial goods. The best way to reduce the amount of water that we consume is by changing our eating habits especially to those who love eating meat. Consumption of green food reduces the need for more water in the human body.

Question 2

Renewable resources are naturally replaced and can be used again. An increase in renewable resources alone in our specific countries and the world, in general, cannot provide for all our energy needs. Considering the unevenly and scarce renewable energy resources, it was difficult to satisfy the ever-growing energy needs. Moreover, to improve and increase these energy sources will incur a significant cost and cover more land than necessary (Yearley, 2014). Thus, the human needs for power are far much more than what the renewable resources can offer.

However, there are various things that individuals can do to help balance the supply of energy and energy uses. Some of these things may be seen as little and can be neglected, but they contribute to a reduction of power consumed. They include efficient transportation by use of cars that do not consume lots of energy, efficient heating, reducing leakages and efficiency offing.


Question 3

Sustainability and unsustainability of fish farming solely depend on the nature of the firm fish and the ecological environment around the company. Sustainability of fish depends on the feeding practice and lifecycle habits and the operation of the firm. Examples of sustainability in this talk include fish meal, chicken feathers that are given to the fish, the flamingoes feeding on the fish and bone meal. On the other hand unsustainability in this talk includes contamination of the fish from other fishes that may be carried from the river and the ocean. Moreover, human activities are another factor, and that includes complete reverse of the ecological system near the fish farm (Pradier, 2014).

What surprises me most is how a firm, can measure the success regarding success of their predators. In the normal world, this would be considered as a loss. The flying of birds to and from the fish firm is another surprising factor about this particular business.



Dunlap, R. E. (2014). American environmentalism: The US environmental movement, 1970-1990. . Taylor & Francis.

Pradier, J. P. (2014). Carbon dioxide chemistry: environmental issues. . Elsevier.

Yearley, S. (2014). The Green Case (Routledge Revivals): A Sociology of Environmental Issues, Arguments and Politics. Routledge.

Natural Resources Worksheet SCI/256