Category Archives: Essay

Discussion, your ethical principles will be tested with a short case study where Duke’s Fuqua School of Business

In preparation for this week’s Discussion, your ethical principles will be tested with a short case study where Duke’s Fuqua School of Business was under scrutiny in the manner it addressed the ten percent of MBA Program learners of cheating on a take home test. Another college from New Jersey had a similar incident with its Chinese-based MBA Program learners for plagiarism. Read the Test Your Principles, Exhibit 12.3, page 361, article in your text and respond to the following questions:

  1. If you were asked to serve as an Ethics Review Arbitrator, what decision would you have rendered in support of the Duke University MBA Program learners’ issue? The Centenary College Chinese MBA Program?

  2. In support of your ruling as Ethics Review Arbitrator, explain your key reasons for your decision.

 

Discussion, your ethical principles will be tested with a short case study where Duke’s Fuqua School of Business

Most of the human actions are guided by ethics which helps them differentiate between what is right and what is wrong. Ethics has to do with individual feelings of what is right to do and what is wrong to do (Shapiro, 2016). However, one cannot be taken to court because of breaking ethical principles, but he pays a moral price for his actions. In our case, the MBA class in Duke’s Fuqua School of Business cheated in their take away exams and thus broke one of the ethical principles that require all individuals, to tell the truth. On the same note, the Chinese Students in the Centenary College Chinese MBA Program were found guilty of breaking one of the academic ethics and thus, both groups of students should be prepared to suffer the consequences of their actions.

Moral and ethical principles require individuals to ensure that they are fair to others as well as strive to ensure that they administer justice at all levels of operations (Shapiro, 2016). Dismissing the MBA class in Duke’s Fuqua School of Business was a bit harsh on the administration side given that they students were only caught cheating in a single exam. Thus, based on fairness principle, these students should be given another chance to retake their exams to give them a chance to do the right thing. On the same note, the Chinese students should also be given another shot on the exam to be fair to every individual. However, to ensure that justice is administered to all, all the students caught cheating should not be awarded full marks but rather should be awarded half of the total marks. This would act as a lesson top other students not to engage in cheating activities at any time in their school life.

 

References

Shapiro, J. P. (2016). Ethical leadership and decision making in education: Applying theoretical              perspectives to complex dilemmas. . Routledge.

 

 

Critical Social Theories

Critical Social Theories

Critical Social Theories

Critical social theories focus on addressing the social injustices on a wider scale, rather than focusing on people’s personal problems. Critical social theories assert that social problems emanate from various forms of injustices and oppression mostly seen in capitalist societies. Critical social theories address major themes such as poverty, social exclusion, crime, abuse, racism, and other themes. Critical theories explore the larger impact of influential groups in the society. For instance, they explore how powerful social groups that yield political power propagate social injustices and inequality through their influence or control of media, language, education, terms of debate, and political agenda. This paper examines the dimension of critical social work related to poverty and drawing on three readings.

Critical social work emerged in the 19th century following the development of the professional social work field. The pioneers of critical social work theories were mainly influenced by liberal ideologies and values prevailing during the period. Notable pioneers include Octavia Hill and Charity Organisation Society (Rogowski, 2013). These societies emphasized on values of independence and self-help. Negative characteristics such as laziness led to increase in poverty and other social problems. The pioneers attributed poverty as the result of mean factory owners who only looked after their own interests and the slum property owners who charged high rents. In other words, class inequalities and exploitation were the main causes of poverty (Rogowski, 2013). In fact, some scholars argued that the cause of poverty lies not in the poor, but on the rich who express moral failings and exploit the poor through employment and other means.

Some psychologists attribute poverty to the individual, contrary to the pioneers of critical social work theories who saw poverty as resulting from class inequalities and exploitation of the poor by the rich. These psychologists advocated for intervention models that dwelled on changing the aspects of human behavior in contrast to changing the social environment. According to the psychologist model, individuals languishing in poverty were suffering from lack of needs achievement Carr & Sloan, 2003). This contributed to low motivation for achieving success, thrusting an individual into a perpetual poverty cycle. The psychologists understanding of the causes of poverty disregard the role of social environment in determining poverty levels. This is inaccurate since the social environment plays a critical role in determining the success of individuals. Carr & Sloan (2003) emphasize that in the recent period, the perspectives concentrating on the negative characteristics of the individual were gaining less support due to emergence of other perspectives such as stress management capabilities of the individuals.

Rank (2005) provided a well-developed view of the causes of poverty, basing his views on a sociological perspective. He posits that structural failings inherent within the American society and other societies as well are the major causes of poverty. The assertion underpins the critical social work theory, which assumes that poverty is not the result of personal factors but problems in the larger society. The American society is hedged on capitalistic doctrines. As such, the society emphasizes on individualism, self-sufficiency, and personal success. Those who amass great wealth or control the means of production are sees as hard working. On the other hand, the poor are seen as suffering from personal inadequacies that drag them down into poverty. Contrary to these beliefs, Rank (2004) asserts that poverty results from poor political and economic structures that fail to provide all individuals with equal opportunities. Due to the poor political and economic structures, a segment of the population is hence unemployed at any one time, or forced to accept low wages.

Low-wage earners lack the means or opportunities to escape from the poverty trap. There is lack of social support for the poor to help them escape the vagaries of poverty. Safety nets designed to help the poor are also inadequate. Welfare programs implemented to help the poor out of their situation have failed to deliver any positive results. According to Rank (2004), social institutions should provide explanations and the possible solutions to the poverty situation in the society. Rank contradicts Carr & Sloan (2003) assertions that behavior change among individuals may change their poverty situation. This is because the social environment plays a significant role in the success of individuals within the society. Rank’s assertions support the critical social work theories, which assume that poverty is the result of social oppression and injustices common in capitalistic societies. Additionally, Rank notes that high levels of poverty may lead to an increase in incidences of crime, and hence contribute towards a breakdown of societal values of justice, liberty and equality.

Blank (2003) examines the factors that contribute to high poverty levels among individuals. She identifies sex factors, which include structural causes, human capital issues, economic underdevelopment, capitalism issues, inadequacy of welfare programs, and characteristics of poor individuals. All of the six factors explain an aspect related to poverty, some encompassing factors outlined by other scholars such as Rank and Carr & Sloan. Blank (2003) asserts that poverty can be reduced by expanding markets to poor regions, giving the poor incentives to increase production. This includes areas in the U.S. that are currently under the effects of economic stagnation. Some of Banks assertions echo those of other aforementioned scholars. For instance, structural causes are identified as one of the major causes of poverty. Blank (2003) also attributes poverty to the characteristics of the poor, a factor established by Carr & Sloan.

References

Blank, R. M. (2003). Selecting among anti-poverty policies: Can an economist be both critical     and caring? Review of Social Economy, 61(4), 447-469.

Carr, S., & Sloan, T. (Eds.) (2003). Poverty and Psychology: From Global Perspective to Local   Practice. New York: Kluwer Academic.

Rank, M. R. (2004). One nation, underprivaleged. Why American poverty affects us all. New      York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Rogowski, S. (2013). Critical social work with children and families: Theory, context and            practice. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

strategic communication

Strategic Communication

Strategic Communication

Student’s Name

Institution’s Name

Date

 

Strategic Communication

MEMO

To: The ABZ Human Resource Department

From: The ABZ Business Manager

Date: February 1st, 2019

Re: Developing Workers Training and Talent Development Program

The ABZ is committed in providing the best cosmetic products that display high value and care for its customers. However, the company has constantly failed in the past three years to command the market, following recall of three of our products due to quality issues. The last recall that happened in the mind of 2018 prompted for an investigation, to determine the main cause of this problem. The intensive two months investigation cited a loophole in the workers knowledge and skills, in the production processes. Although the company has successfully managed to recruit the best workforce in terms of professional and academic skills and knowledge, it has failed in fine-tuning its workers skills fit its work environment. The company training program is poorly structured, with little or no attention given to new workers orientation, which is the primary stage of workers development in the company. Consequently, our workers have been operating based on experiential technique, with little or no certainty on the best mechanism to apply to enhance quality. Lack of proper training has also resulted to unmotivated workforce that works with little commitment towards accomplishing of the organizational goals. The investigation results demonstrate a great need for change of the company’s training and talent development program, with intention of developing a workforce that plays a positive role in enhancing the company competitive advantage.

Related Content:Leader Competencies

We all know that the success of any organization is highly rooted on human resource, which is the prime stakeholder in any business. Building a strong workforce is thus highly important in enhancing the organization success (Gambo, 2015). The role of workers management is purely done by the human resource department. It is quite disappointing to see that the department has not been doing enough to align its objectives with the strategic goals of the company. The department has failed in creating a workforce that promotes the company’s interest in normal operation. In this regard, the company executive demands a review in the company workforce training and talents development programs. The human resource department has been offered a period of 31 days to come up with a more reliable ways of workers training and talent development. The new framework must focus on ensuring that workers have all the required knowledge, to play their respective roles in the development of high quality and safe products for our customers.

The proposed program is expected to assist in motivating workers by boosting their knowledge and skills in their area of operation (Elnaga & Imran, 2013). The program is also expected to promote personal career development goals, by creating mechanisms to boost personal knowledge development, either through taking short relevant courses to better performance, or through any other form of academic advancement. This is anticipated to create a competitive workforce, with individual success goals that can nurture creativity in products development.

Related Content:Communication Strategies

 

The human resource department is also required to define regular workshops and seminars for workers in different departments, especially those highly affected by constant change of their operational technology. This will ensure that workers in these departments are conversant with new technologies use in their areas as a way of enhancing their operational efficiency. The department also needs to devise the best way to encourage workers to take part in these workshops and seminars, especially because most of them happen during non-working days or hours. This will ensure full participation and collective growth in our workforce knowledge and skills.

The company executives highly believe in the human resource department ability to develop a reliable workers training and talent development program that is beneficial to the company. The executives will be expecting to receive the first draft of the program from the senior manager in the human resource department, 31 days from now. This program will be reviewed and adjustment made where necessary. It is my hope that the department will do a great job as a team in this assignment and complete it on time. In case of any inquiry, clarification or view, feel free to contact the company business manager.

References

Elnaga, A., & Imran, A. (2013). The effect of training on employee performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(4), 137-147.

Gambo, H. S. (2015). The impact of training and development on workers’ productivity in some selected Nigeria Universities. International Journal of Public Administration and Management Research, 3(1), 10-16.

 

Part 2

Channel & Style

The selected channel of communication is internal memo from the business manager to human resource department. This channel was selected since it enhances internal communication within an organization. With a memo, it is easy to pass important business related message and to keep record of the communication. A single memo can be used to communicate to a group of people with similar characteristics, making communication easier. For instance in this case, the memo will be pinned in the human resource department notice board and every member will get the message from that one single memo. It is also easy to relay a lengthy but precise message to the intended audience.

The style employed in my written communication if join/consult. In this particular case, the problem of constant recall was identified. The company member of executive had a meeting to discuss the matter, and recommended an investigation. The investigation results release also called for another meeting to define the way forward. This is a case of join. The meeting resolved that the human resource department should come up with the best training and talent development program that aligns with the company’s need. This is an act of consulting. Thus the communication style is join/consult.

Use of Feedback to Refine Communication

The written communication week 6 discussion board feedback demonstrated appreciation for my positive view on feedback despite of whether it is positive or negative. The feedback reminded me of the importance of feedback in allowing learners to identify areas they may need to improve on, especially areas that a learner had not realized that they needed any kind of improvement. I used the feedback to edit my work after writing. Reading through my written communication and editing various parts to improve quality of my work.

 

communication Strategies

Communication Strategies

Communication Strategies

Name

Institutional Affiliation

Date

Communication Strategies

Communication entails the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages between persons and for making meaning. Communication helps in passing of messages between the sender and the receiver. Communication occurs as a dynamic process between persons, which means that people are continuously drawing meaning from the verbal and nonverbal cues that others give (Kasper & Kellerman, 2014). Both verbal and nonverbal forms of communication play a critical role in passing messages between a sender and a receiver. The verbal messages help in conveying the content to the receiver, while nonverbal messages help in portraying a relationship aspect of the communication. Content is the literal meaning of the words spoken. The relationship aspect helps the recipient to understand the message in a better way. It helps the receiver of the message to tell more about the fine aspects of the message. For instance, the receiver can infer whether the sender of the message is being sarcastic or genuine. It is thus critical in clarifying the message. Communication strategies define how the messages are exchanged between the sender and the receiver. This paper is an evaluation of the key communication strategies.

Verbal Communication Strategies

Verbal communication is the use of spoken or written words to convey messages to the receiver. Oral communication denotes the use of spoken words while written communication denotes the use of the written word to convey messages to the recipient (Smith, 2004). Examples of written communication are use of text messaging, letters, chat, e-mail, and among others. Examples of oral communication are phone calls, face-to-face conversations, video communication, and among others. Several factors are critical in determining the effectiveness of verbal communication. These are the nature of the language used, clarity of the message, and message structure. Message structure concerns the order of presentation and the kind of arguments used. The language used should be easy for the receiver of the message to understand. It is important to consider the knowledge level of the receiver of the message when using verbal communication. The use of technical jargons could make it difficult for the receiver to understand the message (Smith, 2004). The message should be as clear as possible to avoid confusion. This should entail ensuring there is no ambiguity in the message, which might lead into confusion. Lastly, it is important to use an ethical or legal language when communicating.

Related Content: Leader Competencies

Nonverbal Communication Strategies

Nonverbal communication involves the use of actions or cues to convey meaning to the receiver (Smith, 2004). Nonverbal communication strategies include facial expressions, gestures, body language, physical distance, logos and symbols, tone of the voice, and among others. While the nonverbal communication cues may not be intended, they are important in helping the recipients understand the message being passed along. Nonverbal communication and verbal communication often go hand-in-hand. Facial expressions help in communicating emotions, which is key in passing messages (Smith, 2004). For instance, smiling or frowning can communicate a lot about the emotional status of the speaker as well as the true meaning of the message. A speaker might say that he/she is happy, yet the audience may deduce otherwise by looking at the facial expression. Gestures are important in passing messages. For instance, a speaker may wave or point in order to draw the attention of the recipients to a particular point. Body language is critical in communication. Certain postures such as crossing the arms may indicate defensiveness. Various paralinguistic aspects such as tone of the voice, inflection, pitch, and loudness have a significant effect on the message being passed along. For instance, using a loud tone may be indicative of anger in the speaker.

Visual Communication Strategies

Visual communication strategies are those that rely on seeing or the visual aspect of obtaining a message. In visual communication, the receiver of the message relies on his/her eyesight either wholly or partly to receive the message. Visual communication includes illustration, graphics, signs, images, video, and among others (Buether, Augsburg, McKenna, & Munroe, 2014). Businesses often rely on visual communication to pass messages to their clients. Visual communication often accompanies oral communication. This helps in emphasizing the oral messages being passed to the recipients. For instance, when using demonstrations, it is important to combine both oral and visual aspects to communicate the message in a better way. The use of visual communication helps in passing messages that cannot be effectively passed to recipients using verbal communication. For instance, the use of graphs can help communicate trends in business that would be hard to communicate using other communication strategies. Visual communication may be costly and time consuming comparing with the other communication strategies. For instance, it is both costly and time consuming to prepare graphs, charts, maps, and other forms of illustrations.

To conclude, three types of communication strategies were identified. These are verbal communication, nonverbal communication, and visual communication. Verbal communication entails the use of spoken and/or written words to pass messages to the recipients. Nonverbal communication involves the use of cues to pass messages. These include gestures, facial expression, body language, tone of the voice, and among others. Visual communication is the use of illustrations, images, videos, or graphics to mass messages. Visual communication involves seeing the messages and deriving meaning from the visuals. The three communication strategies are critical in business. Visual communication is often used to complement verbal messages.

References

Buether, A., Augsburg, A., McKenna, C., & Munroe, L. (2014). Colour: Design principles,          planning strategies, visual communication. Munich.

Kasper, G., & Kellerman, E. (2014). Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and       sociolinguistic perspectives. London;New York;: Routledge.           doi:10.4324/9781315844350

Smith, R. D. (2004). Strategic planning for public relations. Routledge.

leader competencies

Leader Competencies

Leader Competencies

Name

Institutional Affiliation

Date

 

Leader Competencies

Leader competencies refer to the core characteristics that make leaders more effective in what they do. Certain leader characteristics are essential in improving a leader’s effectiveness in modern organizations. Possessing the essential leadership competencies enables a leader to motivate and influence employees into fulfilling the set organizational goals. While possessing all the core competencies is essential, some competencies may be distinctive in certain organizations. In such situations, it would be necessary to define the kind of leader competencies that are desirable for leaders who can best fit in such organizations. HR professionals may opt to train organizational leaders in the core competencies they are lacking. Training can enable employees develop the core competencies required in the organization. This paper is an evaluation of core leader competencies.

One of the key leader competencies is problem-solving skills. Problem-solving skills are essential in the proper running of the organization. These skills enable leaders to define and solve complex problems that arise in organizations (Rowe & Guerrero, 2010). In solving complex problems, leaders must first analyze and understand the issue at hand. This involves gathering the relevant information about a problem. The leader must then devise new ways of dealing with the issue at hand. The leader should then compare the different alternatives and pick the most promising in solving the issue (Bohm & Mosavi, 2010). The best alternative or solution is the one that guarantees the best outcome. Leaders should be aware of their own potentials or capabilities in dealing with a problem. When they have less knowledge about the issue at hand, they may consider delegating to a person who has more knowledge or experience about the issue at hand. In developing solutions to problems, leaders must take into account of the fact that there is often a short window of time necessary to identify and implement the solutions. Taking too long to solve a problem could lead to serious losses.

The other core leader competency is social judgment skills. Social judgement skills allow leaders to understand people and their behaviors (Rowe & Guerrero, 2010). Possession of these skills enables leaders to develop a conducive work environment by improving the social relations at the workplace. There are three important elements in social judgment skills. One of this is empathy. This entails being able to understand other people’s perspective. In being empathetic, a leader is able to put himself in the shoes of others and thus understand their situation in a better way. Another element is behavioral flexibility. This entails the ability to adapt behavior depending on other people’s attitude or dispositions. The other element is social performance. This involves having competencies in several skills such as good communication ability, mentorship abilities, coaching abilities, and mediation capabilities (Rowe & Guerrero, 2010). Communication ability is importance since it enables a leader to convey his/her thoughts and feelings to others. Mentorship and coaching enables a leader to support employees in their career advancement goals. It can also enable employees to become better or more effective at what they do. Mediation among employees involves resolving conflicts or misunderstandings among employees.

Related Content:Leader Competencies

Another important leader competency is knowledge. This refers to the ability to gather and organize information in a meaningful manner (Rowe & Guerrero, 2010). It involves the development of skills or a deeper understanding of a particular subject. Individuals are able to organize information through the formation of mental schema, which refers to mental depiction of ideas. Leaders must be able to organize data properly in their minds in order to draw meaning from such data. Knowledge is closely linked to a person’s problem-solving abilities. The more knowledgeable a leader is, the more he/she is able to solve even complex problems. When faced with serious challenges, such leaders are able to develop alternative solutions and lead the organization towards change. Leaders with deep knowledge are able to prop the organization for future challenges (Rowe & Guerrero, 2010). They are capable of identifying opportunities in the operating environment and seize these opportunities to create a strong competitive advantage. Knowledge is important in ensuring effective management practices. A leader must fulfill several important management practices. These include organizing, planning, controlling, ability to enhance cooperation, delegation, motivating workers, and among others.

To conclude, leader competencies are the important characteristics that a leader should possess in executing his/her mandate at an organization. Leader competencies can be classified into three broad groups: social judgment skills, knowledge, and problem-solving capabilities. Social judgement skills involve developing proper social relations with people as well as a good understanding of people behavior. It helps leaders in establishing sound social relations with employees and among employees themselves. Knowledge involves the ability to gather and organize information in a meaningful manner. Knowledge is important in problem solving. Problem solving skills enable leaders to solve complex challenges that arise in the course of routine operations in the organization.

Reference

Bohm, A., & Mosavi, M. (2010). The core leadership competencies. GRIN Verlag.

Rowe, W. G., & Guerrero, L. (2010). Cases in leadership. London [etc.: Sage.