Category Archives: Ethics

Theories and techniques


. After reading Chapters 1-3 in McCarthy & Archer’s (2013) Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy, write a 2-4 page description of your psychosocial development. Use the chart below as the basis of your description. Write one paragraph for each psychosocial stage in Erikson’s model. In each paragraph provide the following: Give a brief description of how you experienced this stage of development. Personal application is preferred, but if you do not remember your own experiences, you may use specific examples of an individual going through the stage. Describe the high points, low points, traumas, major life-changing events, etc., along with the resulting outcomes of virtue and strength or maladaption/malignancy. Erikson’s psychosocial crisis stages Life stage / Relationships / Developmental Process Virtue and strength (Positive outcome from each crisis) Maladaptation / Malignancy (Negative outcome – one or the other) 1. Trust vs. Mistrust infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping Hope and Drive Sensory Distortion / Withdrawal 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking Willpower and Self-Control Impulsivity / Compulsion 3. Initiative vs. Guilt preschool / family / exploration and discovery, adventure and play Purpose and Direction Ruthlessness / Inhibition 4. Industry vs. Inferiority schoolchild / school, teachers, friends, neighborhood / achievement and accomplishment Competence and Method Narrow Virtuosity / Inertia 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion adolescent / peers, groups, influences / resolving identity, direction, and becoming a grown-up Fidelity and Devotion Fanaticism / Repudiation 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life Love and Affiliation Promiscuity / Exclusivity 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation mid-adult / children, community / giving back to others, helping, contributing, mentoring Care and Production Overextension / Rejectivity 8. Integrity vs. Despair late adult / society, the world, life / meaning and purpose, life achievements (at peace with oneself and the world). Wisdom and Renunciation Presumption / Disdain Point Value of this Written Assignment: 9 This Assignment aligns with the following weekly outcomes: 5 This Assignment aligns with the following course outcomes: 1

sample paper

Theories and techniques

Therapists and counselors are one of the most respected people in the society because they dedicate most of their time in ensuring that psychological life of the most people in the society is healthy.  Psychotherapy theories provide a framework and guidelines for therapists and counselors to interpret a client’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings. In most cases, these therapists and counselors play a great part in helping a client navigate the client’s journey from diagnosis to post-treatment (Marcia, 2012). The theoretical approach is an integral part of the therapeutic process. Erickson’s model of psychosocial development is very important and highly regarded and meaningful concept. Erickson defines life as a series of lessons and challenges which help us to grow and explains why. The theory is crucial to child development.

Trust vs. mistrust

According to Erickson, this stage occurs in the first year of life. At this stage I was not certain in the world I lived in, and I was dependent on my mother stabilize and provide a consistent care.  Consistent, predictable and reliable care leads to trust which I carried on to their next relationships thus developing an internal hope. Failure to develop the attribute of hope leads to develop a virtue of fear which further leads to mistrust and withdrawal.

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

This stage started after 18 months when I decided to move around, choosing what I wanted and choosing which toy to play with. My parents gave me the opportunity to try new things, but they were always closely watching me in case I needed any assistance. This helped develop courage and will which leads to self-esteem and autonomy.


Initiative vs. guilt

This stage was full of ply and interaction with other children as I started school at baby class. The play helped in developing interpersonal skills through initiating activities, games, and children discussion. With the help of my parents through answering my questions to quench the thirst of knowledge, I was able to develop purpose (Newman, 2014).

Industry vs. Inferiority

At this stage, there was a promotion from baby class to lower primary and my teachers took a central role in developing my self-esteem. They encouraged my initiatives and accomplishment and coached me on how to become more efficient and innovative and this turned and industrious person through being competent in all that I did.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

This stage usually occurs during adolescence. I become more independent and saw future with another perspective regarding relationship and career. It is during this time I realized the role I had to play in the society as a man and through the guidance of my elder brother, I developed a sense of fidelity (Newman, 2014).

Intimacy and Isolation

During this stage, there was the development of desires to love and intimacy with others. I explored various relationships with people of the opposite sex that could lead to long-term commitments and to start might own family. Eventually, I developed the sense of love which led to marriage.


Generativity vs. stagnation

After the marriage, I had to settle down to raise my family and develop my career. I was proud to give back to the society through raising my children, being involved in communal work and being production and this lead to the development of virtue of care in me (Marcia, 2012).

Ego integrity vs. despair

As I was getting older and older, I retired from my work to enjoy the fruits of my work and look after my lovely family. It is during this time that I contemplated my accomplishments, and I was able to develop integrity as I say myself leading a successful life. This contemplation helped develop a sense of wisdom in me.

In conclusion, we can say that Erickson’s theory has good face validity, and most individuals can relate to this theory about various stages of their live


Marcia, J. E. (2012). Ego identity: A handbook for psychosocial research. Springer Science & Business Media.

Newman, B. M. (2014). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.

Ethics in American Red Cross

Discuss how In Vitro Fertilization issue has impacted the health care industry. HCS/335


discussing  how In Vitro Fertilization issue has impacted the health care industry.


Discuss how In Vitro Fertilization issue has impacted the health care industry. HCS/335

  • In vitro fertilization widely known as (IVF) occurs when the female egg cells are fertilized outside the womb.
  • One of the advantages of this kind of fertilization is that it helps ladies who have health issues such as blocked tubes, male infertility, and older couples to have a chance to have a healthy kid.
  • In the world today, there are changing trends where people of the same sex are getting married and thus, it becomes difficult for them to get children but with this process, they can be parents.
  • At times, it is difficult to determine infertility problems, and the diagnoses take place in the laboratory using the in vitro fertilization, and the problem can be pinpointed easily.
  • Considering not all people treasure having children on their own, the in vitro fertilization presents a golden opportunity for them to donate embryos for research in the laboratories or to other couples to have kids.
  • In vitro fertilization widely known as (IVF) occurs when the female egg cells are fertilized outside the womb.
  • One of the advantages of this kind of fertilization is that it helps ladies who have health issues such as blocked tubes, male infertility, and older couples to have a chance to have a healthy kid.
  • In the world today, there are changing trends where people of the same sex are getting married and thus, it becomes difficult for them to get children but with this process, they can be parents.
  • At times, it is difficult to determine infertility problems, and the diagnoses take place in the laboratory using the in vitro fertilization, and the problem can be pinpointed easily.
  • Considering not all people treasure having children on their own, the in vitro fertilization presents a golden opportunity for them to donate embryos for research in the laboratories or to other couples to have kids.
  • Just like any other medical treatment and experiment, the process may have adverse effects on the patients. The widely known side effect of this fertilization is ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome.
  • There is no guarantee that the fertilization will be successful and in most cases the chances of success and failure is 50-50 and at times, the patients have to undergo more than one cycle treatment.
  • Multiple pregnancies are the other disadvantage considering that there is often more than one embryo put back in the uterus.
  • The IVF process can be emotionally and physiologically demanding Considering all the treatment cycles, which stresses the patients to higher levels.
  • Moreover, the process is not cheap and can hardly be afforded by people in the lower income bracket. After paying for medication and blood tests, there is a high likelihood that the cost will rise.

Biomedical Ethics-Analyze the Mickey Mantle case using the Seven-Step Decision Model.


Biomedical Ethics-Analyze the Mickey Mantle case using the Seven-Step Decision Model.


Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you analyze the Mickey Mantle case using the Seven-Step Decision Model.

Resource: Ch. 1 of Health Care Ethics (6th ed.).

Biomedical Example

Resource: Ch. 1 of Health Care Ethics (6th ed.)

Mickey Mantle received a liver transplant in 1995. He was a Baseball Hall of Fame center fielder for the New York Yankees whose liver was failing because of cirrhosis and hepatitis. Although the waiting period for a liver transplant in the United States is about 130 days, it took only two days for the Baylor Medical Center’s transplant team to find an organ donor for the 63-year-old former baseball hero.According to the director of the Southwest Organ Bank, Mantle was moved ahead of others on the list because of his deteriorating medical condition; however, there were mixed feelings about speeding up the process for a celebrity. Mantle was known for overcoming immense obstacles, and many argued that the medical system should provide exceptions for heroes. He was also a recovering alcoholic, which further complicated the ethical implications of the case. Because of Mantle’s medical problems, doctors estimated that he had only a 60 percent chance for a three-year survival; whereas, liver transplant patients typically have about a 78 percent chance for a three-year survival rate.

As in the case of the liver transplant for Mickey Mantle, should the system make exceptions for real heroes? Why or why not?


Biomedical Ethics-Analyze the Mickey Mantle case using the Seven-Step Decision Model.

Medical services are paramount to any country .and the government of each and every country strives to ensure that all its citizens have access to quality medical services. However, despite all the government efforts to provide these services, the healthcare practitioners have a significant role to play. To help aid justice and fairness in the health care sector, medical institutions have put in place rules of behavior based on the ideas and concepts about what is morally good or bad to guide their activities and operations (Sachedina, 2009). Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. Medical ethics encompasses its practical application in a workplace setting.

Mantles transplant raised a delicate question about organ allocation and the general ethics of the health care sector.  Mickey, a baseball Hall of Fame center fielder for the new York Yankees, received a liver transplant after only waiting for 48 hours while other patients take as long as 180 days to receive an organ. Mickey’s liver was failing because if cirrhosis and hepatitis and his health were deteriorating at a very high rate and something had to be done very fast. Unfortunately, he died after two months because of cancer and his transplant raised a lot of ethical question from various sectors. Some of the people supported this action while others were against this idea. One of the primary questions the common citizens were asking is whether the celebrity system prevails in the field of organ transplantation. Moreover, there was also the debate of whether medical systems and organ transplant should make exceptions for real heroes when it comes to receiving medical attention.

Making ethical decision and choices requires the capability and ability to differentiate between competing options. Below is a seven step decision model that will attempt to analyze whether the medical system should make an exception for real heroes.

  1. Stop and think

This stage helps to prevent rash decisions and prepares medical practitioners for more discernment and can allow them to mobilize their discipline. At this stage, doctors and nurses have to sit down and think of whom to be on the first on the receiving list.  The decision arrived at this stage will affect the public relations of the organ transplant considering that if the general public can refuse to donate organs or refuse to contribute funds to help in the transplant. As a result, the celebrity system should not be implemented, and real heroes should not be given exceptions regardless of their status and financial ability (Humber, 2013).

Related: ethics code of conduct, mission, vision, and values of the organization for the Veterans Administration Medical Center

  1. Clarification of goals

Before choosing, it prudent to clarify both the short-term and long-term aims of the actions that are about to be undertaken. Determining the positive and adverse effects of the decision about to be made are very crucial since it can help to protect the long-term goals and activities of the facility and system at large. All the decisions made should be aligning with the objectives and goals of the system. In our case, despite being a celebrity and a hero had to follow protocol to receive the organs. UNOS criteria are to offer priority to those centers closest to the patient, and he was he was a patient at the transplant center in Dallas.

  1. Determining facts

Before performing the transplant or the surgery, the involved doctors should ensure they have adequate information to support an intelligent choice. To determine these facts, the panel needs to resolve what they know and then what they need to know. Having adequate information about the condition of the patient ensures that the panel offering the organs will have a priority list based on the health and survival chances of the patients. Mickey was first on the donor list not because he was a celebrity but because he was very ill and waiting for the 130 days before receiving the liver would have jeopardized his survival chances.

  1. Developing options

Once the medical system knows what it wants to achieve and has made the best reasonable opinion based on the facts and information provided it is necessary to take important steps to accomplish the identified goals. The panel that offered an organ to Mickey had one sole goal of saving his life and had to develop opinions on whether to treat cancer or to fully change the organ. To determine whether the liver will suit his condition the doctors conducted several tests to establish the extent of his cancer. After considerations, the doctors felt that transplant was the only way to save his life (Beauchamp, 2007).

  1. Consider consequences

Before arriving at any decision, the system has to filter all the options to determine whether they violate any core ethical values. The operating panel on Mickey had to filter the option of operating on him and identify the possible consequences, especially from the general public. Some felt it was fair and others unfair. However, just like the practice of sorting casualty in a battlefield by the severity of their wounds, allocation of organs should be based on the severity of the disease and not social status of a person.

Related: Ethics in American Red Cross


  1. Make a choice

At this stage, those in charge of the systems have to choose what is in the best interest of the organization and not their personal interests. Some of the choices made might be immediately and should be carried out as fast as possible like in our case to save the life of Mickey while at times these decisions might not be immediate. At times before making a choice, an individual is forced to seek an opinion from people whose judgment they respect in this case the public opinion. If the public is against the celebrity system, then the organization in charge of the donation of the organs should listen to them.

  1. Monitor and modify

Ethical decision-makers should monitor the effects of their choices. If the decisions by any chance the decisions results in unwanted and unintended outcomes, they have to re-assess the situation and make new and better decisions.  Allocating the organ to a celebrity in the very short period ahead of another patient may cause public out roar and negative publicity. However, they cannot undo whatever has been done and in our case, they have to justify their actions and ensure an occurrence of a similar case they make a better decision.

In conclusion after a detailed and deep research, we can say that the celebrity system does not go well with the common citizens and should not be practiced in any state. To exercise the rule of law, morality, justice and fairness, all people should be treated equally (Beauchamp, 2007). There should be no exception because the health of every citizen is critical. Equality and fairness should bring accountability, transparency and trust in medical systems. Before making any ethical decision, the sent step decision model should be exploited.


Beauchamp, T. L. (2007). The ‘four principles’ approach to health care ethics. Principles of health care ethics,, 3-10.

Humber, J. M. (2013). Biomedical ethics and the law. . Springer Science & Business Media.

Sachedina, A. (2009). Islamic biomedical ethics: principles and application. . Oxford University Press.

HCS/335-Ethics Scenarios

HCS/335-Ethics Scenarios


Review the following  3 scenarios and answer each one in at least 150 words.

Scenario 1: Medical coding in a physician practice.  Imagine you work in a high-pressure cardiology physician office and you are one of two medical coders. Your supervisor is very focused on the greatest reimbursement to satisfy revenue projections for the physician practice. As a result, you are asked to “up-code” billing. How can the pressure of acquiring the maximum repayment for services lead to manipulating or falsifying documentation?

Scenario 2: Administration of patient medications in the hospital setting.  Imagine you are a new graduate nurse working nights on a busy medical unit. You just received a new patient who needs to be admitted to your unit, and you just finished medicating a patient with a narcotic injection with a dose greater than ordered. Clearly understanding medication errors may lead to patient injury and even death, explain why a clinician may choose to NOT report the incident.

Scenario 3: Not hiring a qualified individual because of discrimination.  Imagine you are a new human resources director in a nonprofit organization and pressured to not hire Middle Eastern candidates by the organization’s CEO. In the United States, discrimination against people based on their ethnicity, race, or cultural orientation is strictly forbidden under federal and state laws. Ethical discrimination may result in the breeding of ill feelings at work, as well as reduced productivity. To eliminate these ramifications, organizations need to put forth increased effort in curbing ethical discrimination in the employment sector. What are some interventions organizations can put in place to prevent discrimination?


Ethics Scenarios

Scenario 1: Medical coding in a physician practice

The pressure for acquiring maximum repayment for services in healthcare settings can lead to fraudulent acts such as “up-code” billing. In order to gain maximum benefits, healthcare practitioners may fall in the trap of using fraudulent acts to inflate bills. The management may set unrealistic financial goals and put pressure on workers to attain the goals. This may lead to an increase in malpractices involving medical bills as the workers may see this as the easy way to achieve the unrealistic targets. The pressure for acquiring maximum repayments can also force health workers to disregard the ethical code of conduct. The pressure may be so great that health workers opt to do anything even if ethically wrong just to fulfill the supervisor’s expectations. Continued “up-code” billing may lead to “normalization” of the practice. This normalization process involves an unacceptable practice that slowly transcends to being an acceptable practice with time. Health workers may no longer feel uneasy while “up-code” billing after some time.

Scenario 2: Administration of patient medications in the hospital setting

Even with the apparent health risks associated administration of wrong dose to patients, some nurses may decide not to report such incidents. There are a number of reasons why clinicians may fail to report the incident. The major reason is fear of the hospital management’s reaction towards the reported error. Clinicians fear that once the error is reported, tough action will be taken against them such as discrediting their qualifications. The other reason why the incident may not be reported relates to the bureaucracy of error reporting procedures in most hospitals (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). In most cases, it may take long for a clinician to fully document the error. This discourages reporting of the incidences. The third reason is that the hospital’s organizational structure may not have developed appropriate error reporting mechanisms at the hospital. For instance, there may be lack of a clear definition of what a medical administration error constitutes and the necessary steps that a clinician can take to document the error. Fourth, there could be a culture of ignoring the hospital’s ethical code of conduct. If there exists such a culture, the employee may not feel obliged to report such incidences.

Related: Veterans Administration Medical Center Ethical Analysis

Scenario 3: Not hiring a qualified individual because of discrimination.

Organizations can put in place a number of interventions that can help curb incidences of discrimination. The first intervention is to develop an antidiscrimination policy (Schneid, 2016). This policy is only meant for internal uses since there are state and federal laws which prohibit discrimination. The policy should outline expected behaviors and establish sound hiring practices to prevent discrimination during the recruitment process. For example, the recruitment process can be outsourced to private HR companies. The second intervention is training of staff. Training can significantly reduce discrimination in the workplace. Training sessions should be mandatory and should cover issues ranging from diversity of human beings and equality. The third step is to ensure there is quick follow up of any discrimination complaints raised by employees and other stakeholders. Discriminatory complaints should be given priority to ensure that the behavior is curtailed. Fourth, it is important for the organization to develop a concrete action plan that can be used to tackle discrimination. An action plan may be a long-term measure of ensuring that the organization eliminates any forms of discrimination.


Hughes, R. G., & Blegen, M. A. (2008). Medication Administration Safety. In: Hughes RG,         editor. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville   (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Retrieved from:

Schneid, T. D. (2016). Discrimination law issues for the safety professional. Boca Raton: CRC    Press.


Ethics in American Red Cross

Ethics in American Red Cross


Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss ethics in a health care organization (American Red Cross). Include the following:

Describe the organization selected.

What are the organization’s goals? How are they tied to its ethical principles? Describe the role and importance of the organization’s ethical values.

Is there a social responsibility for the organization in the community? Explain and provide examples.

Is it important that the organization’s ethical values support your ethical values? Explain.

Include at least 3 sources in your paper.


Ethics in American Red Cross

The American Red Cross was established in 1881 to provide care to individuals in need. The organization is mainly involved in providing disaster relief efforts. Another critical function of the organization is to facilitate communication between the military forces and their respective families especially in times of international disasters.  For instance following periods of war, the organization focuses on providing crucial services to war veterans. These services range from nutrition education, safety training, providing guidance & counseling services, and home care services for the sick. The Red Cross coordinates a number of programs meant to public care. These programs cover the areas of public health nursing, first aid, and water safety (“American Red Cross,” 2016a). This paper focuses on analysis of ethics in relation to the American Red Cross.

The first goal of the American Red Cross is to create more awareness about role in disaster management. This is closely linked to the second goal which aims at increasing the knowledge about disaster preparedness and the need for health and safety initiatives. The first and second goal aim at capacity building. This is closely linked to its ethical principle of humanity which states that the organization’s core mandate is to help those who are suffering without any form of discrimination. The third goal involves popularizing the need for biomedical services in order to raise blood donor participation rates across the states. This is closely tied to the ethical principle of voluntary service where the organization stands to make no gains. This is why it creates awareness for the need to donate blood (“American Red Cross,” 2016b).

The fourth goal relates to the organization’s dedication to serve those in the armed forces. This goal is in line with the ethical principal of humanity which as earlier mentioned aims at providing assistance to the suffering without any form of discrimination.  The fifth goal aims at increasing awareness regarding international programs and its involvement in these type of programs.  This goal ties with the ethical principle of universality, which is about global service provision. The last organizational goal relates to the need to establish strong relations with key community partners. This may either be non-profit partners, blood regions, agency officials, and other partners (“American Red Cross,” 2016b). From the above, it is clear that the organizational goals of the American Red Cross underpin its ethical principles through a variety of ways. The organizational goals and ethical principles thus helps the organization in fulfilling its purpose in the society.

The American Red Cross’ ethical values are of great significance in guiding the conduct of employees. The ethical values prohibit personal use of the organization’s property without proper authorization. This policy ensures that employees do not put to personal use the properties they are entitled to use in their work. The organization’s ethical values guide employee conduct with regard to acceptance of gifts. The importance of this is that it ensures employees provide impartial services to the citizenry. The ethical value also defines what can be termed as acceptable gifts which employees may receive. A key ethical value used by the organization during international developments is the neutrality principle. This principle is importance since it prevents employees from taking sides in any form of racial, religious, or political antagonism. The organization’s ethical value of confidentiality prohibit employees from sharing any confidential information that they may have obtained during the course of their work (“American Red Cross,” 2010).

The retaliatory policy outlined by American Red Cross is also fundamental to the proper functioning of the organization (“American Red Cross,” 2010). This policy prohibits against retaliatory behavior to whistleblowers who may volunteer important information relating to the conduct of the organization or employees. The ethical value about record keeping ensures that employees keep accurate and true records which reflects the facts on the ground. Without this ethical value, the employees would most often be influenced by outside political forces to give inaccurate figures. The ethical values also prohibit employees from engaging in any form of activities that may lead to a conflict of interest with the policies of the organization or what it does. The organization’s ethical values are also key in guiding its relationship and the media. The ethical values mandates all employees to provide accurate information to the media. Lastly, the ethical values prohibits the employees from engaging in acts that may conflict with the organization’s best interest.

The American Red Cross has social corporate responsibility towards the community.  The core mandate of the organization is to promote social welfare among disaster-stricken community members. The organization focuses its operations in three core area: health promotion, disaster management, and provision of humanitarian values. The organization operates as a not-for-profit organization, meaning it mainly depends on donor funds to fulfill its core mandate. With regard to corporate social responsibility, the organization has developed a number of community programs that alleviate the suffering of the members of the entire community (“American Red Cross,” 2010).

The American Red Cross provides shelter, food, and caters to emotional needs of disaster victims without discrimination (“American Red Cross,” (n.d)). For instance, during the devastating Hurricane Katrina, the organization provided food and shelter to victims, and among other type of support. The organization currently supplies over 40% of the national blood requirements. The organization manages this through coordinating efforts for donor awareness and actual donations throughout the states. During disasters, the organization serves as a major source of blood and also coordinates efforts which enables people to come forward and donate blood. The American Red Cross is involved in inculcating life-saving skills among people (“American Red Cross,” (n.d)). These often entail basic health and safety courses provide people with life-saving skills. The organization provides international humanitarian aid. For instance during the Haiti earthquake, the organization provided aid to victims. Social responsibility is also exhibited by the organization’s care to veterans and their families. For example during the Iraq War, the American Red Cross offered support to soldiers and their families.

The organization’s ethical values should reflect my personal values. Values are of great significance to individuals. The organization’s ethical values generally reflect the wider societal values. This means that the organization’s values should reflect the values of individual community members. By adhering to societal values, the organization is able to avoid unethical practices. Thus if my personal values are those which can be judged as right, then the organization should also adhere to these values.


American Red Cross. (2016a). History. Retrieved from:   we-are/history

American Red Cross. (2016b). Public Policy Priorities. Retrieved from:

American Red Cross. (2010). American Red Cross code of business ethics and conduct.    Retrieved from:               _Code_of_Business_Ethics_and_Contact.pdf

American Red Cross. (n.d). Taking, Teaching or Hosting a Class. Retrieved from:   



Review the code of ethics or ethics code of conduct, mission, vision, and values of the organization for the Veterans Administration Medical Center


Review the code of ethics or ethics code of conduct, mission, vision, and values of the organization for the Veterans Administration Medical Center (website is  Interview Ms. Smith, RN, MSN, Associate Nurse Chief of Primary Care Clinics.  Write a 350- to 700-word summary that discusses the following:Identify the person you interviewed and their position within the VAMC.

Discuss how the organizational expectations (i.e., code of ethics or ethics code of conduct, mission, vision, and values) impact their decision making.

Discuss how their decision impacts their colleagues and work environment.



Ethics refer to a set of principles that organizations use to guide the decision making process, policies and programs. Ethics provide guidelines on key aspects in the organization and can be used to solve simple problems to complex dilemmas impacting the organization. The employees’ conformance to the code of ethics can affect the productivity as well as image of the organization. This can lead to improved public confidence on the organization. This paper will look at how organizational expectations which includes the ethics code of conduct, mission, vision, and values impact the decision making of an employee at VAMC.

I interviewed Ms. Smith, RN, MSN, Associate Nurse Chief of Primary Care Clinics at VA Medical Center. The organization expectations impact Ms. Smith’s decision making in a number of ways. VAMC’s code of conduct guides decision making and the general conduct expected of staff. The code of conduct describes the expected behaviors and give solutions to complex problems that the employees may encounter during their work. VAMC’s code of conduct binds employees to their duties and obligations by emphasizing on strict conformance to outlined rules and procedures. Every employee is expected to observe the code of conduct in administering his or her duties. The code of conduct thus defines what is wrong or right. Employees must strictly adhere to the code of conducts.

The mission statement calls upon all VAMC members to accord great care to those who has served as veterans and including their loved ones. Health workers thus concentrate on providing care to veterans and their family members. VA is guided by five core values that outline the obligations that every member working at the organization must fulfill. The first value is integrity. This requires that all employees must express high moral and professional standards. The second value is commitment which requires employees to show diligence in their work. The third value involves advocacy. This requires employees to truly champion the rights and interests of veterans and their families. Employees are also required to show dignity and respect to members. Lastly, employees must show excellence in their work, by striving to achieve the highest quality (“U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs,” (n.d)).

How their decision impacts their colleagues and work environment

Ms. Smith’s decision have a great impact to her colleagues and work environment. She is responsible for developing training programs that are meant to improve primary care skills among those involved. Her decisions are thus critical in determining the quality of care provided to patients. She is also charged with empowering other RNs to use standardized procedures in formulating clinical decisions. This ensures adherence to the ethical code of conduct. Her decisions also determine the colleagues to take on specialized functions, usually the ones who have successfully completed a short training course. Lastly, scheduling of employees is also part of her core duties. She decides the employees who will perform various roles and on which days.


U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs. (n.d). National Center for Ethics in Health Care. Retrieved from:





Ethical Decision Making


Write a 350- to 700-word summary. Include the following in your summary:

Discuss an event in which you had to make an ethical decision.

Identify at least two ethical theories that support your decision.

Discuss the problem-solving methodologies you used to resolve the issue.

Identify how ethical theories impact professional or personal decision making.

Use APA formatting with two references.


Ethical Decision Making

People encounter ethical dilemmas often for which it is difficult to make a decision. Some of the ethical dilemmas encountered are common while others are unique. While working part-time as a bank teller, I came upon a shocking revelation for which I did not seem to have an immediate solution – I realized that my best friend at the local bank would take money from dormant accounts or other accounts of unsuspecting customers and then later return the money. When I confronted him about the situation, he said he always returns the money and that is why no customer has ever filed a complaint with the bank. At the time of the realization, he had taken $5000 for which he was gradually repaying. As per the banking policy, such acts were punishable through termination of employment or even a jail term. After much deliberation and thought, I had to raise the issue to the management for appropriate action. Luckily, my friend was put on compulsory leave and then transferred to another branch.

The decision I made was based on utilitarianism ethical model of decision making. The utilitarian ethical theories are hedged on the ability of the individual involved to predict the future consequences of a particular action (Graham, 2004). The utilitarian ethical model holds that an action is right only if it has the greatest benefits to the majority of people. In consider the actions of my friend, I reckoned that his behavior would impact a majority of the customers purely for self-interest. The deontological theory also played a part in my decision making. The deontological school asserts that the correctness of a particular action or decision can be judged based on the legal obligations or duties that one ought to follow (Graham, 2004). In this case, upholding the specified duty of care is what can be termed as ethically correct. In withdrawing money from customer’s account without their notice, my friend was clearly not following the law or acting as per his duty of care.

One of the problem-solving methodologies I used is the Deming Cycle. The Deming Cycle is a four-step process that can be used in organizations to improve particular processes. The four steps are Plan, Do, Check, and lastly Act (Roughton & Mercurio, 2002). . The acronym given to the cycle is PDCA. The first step involves identifying the nature of the problem and the possible remedies as well as the consequences. The second step involves implementing the possible solutions to the problem. In my case, the solution was to report the case to the management. The third step is to check. This involves an analysis of whether the identified solution is working. If there is no effective change, a different plan is devised. In case the management did not take appropriate action, I would have come up with a different plan such as reporting the matter to the board. The 5-step model is another useful methodology of problem-solving. The five steps are: identifying the problem, devising a plan, considering the consequences, devising a strategy, and measuring the effectiveness (Roughton & Mercurio, 2002).

Ethical theories impact the decision making process by providing guidelines on how the decisions should be made. By using the ethical theories, individuals are able to weight the consequences of their actions. For instance, utilitarian theories assert that decisions are correct only if they are of benefit to the greater majority. Ethical theories enables individuals make tough decisions without bias. For instance, they encourage individuals to look at the consequences of actions and to disregard other things such as the relationship between the persons involved. Lastly, ethical theories help individuals make the right decisions.


Graham, G. (2004). Eight Theories of Ethics. Psychology Press.

Roughton, J. E., & Mercurio, J. J. (2002). Developing an effective safety culture: A leadership     approach. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Veterans Administration Medical Center Ethical Analysis

Veterans Administration Medical Center Ethical Analysis

Veterans Administration Medical Center concentrates in provision of integrated health care to U.S. veterans. It consists of more than 1,400 outpatient clinics, domiciliary, and Vet Centers with over 53,000 licensed practitioners providing comprehensive care to veterans. VA Medical Centers provide a variety of medical services such as critical care management, surgery, pharmaceutical services, mental health services, physical therapy, and among others. The Veterans Health Administration is involved in providing graduate education and has also made enormous contributions in the field of medical research. The mission of VA Medical center reflects President Lincoln’s promise deliver quality care to veterans who have faced war and challenging situations. The mission reads: “To care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan” (“U. S. Department of Veteran Affairs,” 2015).

The type of ethical system used by VA Medical Center is duty-driven (legal). It is also referred to as deontological ethics.  Duty-driven ethics seek to guide people’s action but not necessarily concerned with the consequences of their actions (McDonnell, 2013). It places emphasis on doing what is right because it the right thing to do, and avoiding wrong acts because they are wrong. In duty-driven ethics, the morality of an action is judged based on adherence to outlined rules and procedures. It aims at binding people to their duties or obligations. This system of ethics asserts that for actions to be morally right, an individual must act in accordance with his/her duty. Observance of laws and standards is important in this ethical system. In a duty-driven system, employees justify their actions based on outlined company policy or the need to fulfill expectations.

The ethical system used by VA Medical Center is ends driven because it places emphasis on strict adherence to outlined organizational policies and procedures. Medical personnel who fail to adhere to these policies and procedures face disciplinary committee and in the worst case scenario dismissal or even prosecution. For example, all employees must obey the stat’s ethics laws, failure to which leads to disciplinary action taken against them. VA Medical Center has established numerous work policies that guide the entire medical fraternity from nurses to the directors. In addition to the medical center’s work policies are departmental policies which the employees are also expected to adhere. Employees can only justify their actions if they acted in accordance with the work policies.

At VA Medical Center, code of ethics is used to guide the behavior of not only the employees but also the management, board of directors, contractors, and others. The code of ethics guides employee behavior and expectations. It outlines the required ethical and professional standards expected in practice such as integrity, fairness, dignity, and respect. This concerns the employee’s relationship to each other, customers, and residents. In terms of respect, employees are supposed to avoid discriminatory behavior of any kind. Discriminatory practices prohibited include discrimination based on gender, color, religion, sexual orientation, age, disability, or any other forms. The code of ethics guides the employee-client relationship. Employees are not supposed to receive any form of rewards or favors from patients. The code of ethics is used to outline the procedures or actions the employees should take while reporting incidents. It outlines the appropriate departments of bodies where employees can report incidents (“Department of Veterans Affairs,” 2011).

The organization’s code of ethics is of great significance to the management. The management uses code ethics in evaluating the actions of employees. The code of ethics determines whether an employee’s action is right or wrong. Management reviews the code of ethics to determine the disciplinary action to take against an employee who portrays unethical conduct. When managers observe or become aware of unethical practices, the code of conduct requires the management to take immediate action be commencing investigations into the issue. The management uses the code of ethics to create credibility in the organization. For instance, by enforcing the code of ethics, employees are more likely to show integrity, honesty, fairness, and generally sound moral values. The code of ethics helps managers to unite the workforce and leadership. In organizations where ethical codes of conduct guide behavior, decision makers and employees are likely to develop good relations. Employees and the organization work towards achieving a common goal.

The board of directors makes use of the code of ethics to implement various changes at VA Medical Center. The board of directors uses the code of ethics to continually review and improve the quality of care at the hospital. The board of directors is mandated with improving the quality of care. Through enforcement of the code of ethics, the medical fraternity is able to provide quality services to patients. For example, the code of ethics prohibits medical personnel from engaging in activities that may conflict with provision of public duties. The board is mandated with ensuring that the hospital meets regulatory as well as legal requirements. The board of directors can also use the code of ethics to ensure that employees’ actions are in accordance to legal and regulatory requirements. For example at VA, the code of ethics requires employees to observe the state’s laws in addition to the facility’s policies. The board of directors can also use the codes of ethic to promote positive relationships among employees, community, funding sources, local businesses, state government, and other health organizations. This is because code of ethics encourages employees to work with integrity and fairness with others.

Veterans Administration Medical Center may need to modify the existing code of ethics. In the recent past, a number of public scandals has rocked the facility due to a lax in the implementation of code of ethics. As a new CEO, it would be necessary to modify the code of ethics and restore credibility in the facility. The contentious issue involved intentional manipulation of books to indicate shorter wait times by patients. Veterans seeking care would not be clocked in the hospital system but instead would be forced to wait in informal ques where clocking did not take place. This was facilitated by collusion of staff members at a number of facilities (“Department of Veterans Affairs,” 2011). As a new CEO, it would be prudent to establish mandatory compliance training program for all employees. Ethical and compliance training is important since it raises awareness among employees about the importance of ethics and ethical behavior in the workplace.

Ethics and compliance training can reduce or eliminate risky behaviors among employees, such as involvement in unfair practices which have reputational, legal, and financial implications (Purtilo & Doherty, 2016). It is expected that employees and managers may be unwilling to attend the mandatory ethics and compliance training program. People generally tend to resist change. In order to encourage the employees to attend the program, it would be necessary to talk to them in a meeting and explain the benefits of attending the program. A strong organizational culture will encourage the employees to quickly adapt the new code. As such, most employees will be willing to attend the training sessions and learn.

In summary, codes of ethic is critical in guiding the behavior of employees across organizations. The duty-driven ethical system applied at Veterans Administration Medical Center has greatly helped in encouraging positive behavior among employees. Codes of ethics are important to employees, the management, and the board of directors since it helps them achieve their different objectives as well as organizational goals.




Department of Veterans Affairs. (2011). Ethical and Professional Standards of Conduct. Retrieved from:    Standards%20090911.pdf

McDonnell, A. (2013). Managing geriatric health services. Burlington, Mass: Bartlett Learning.

Purtilo, R. B., & Doherty, R. F. (2016). Ethical dimensions in the health professions. St. Louis,                                                   Missouri: Elsevier.

  • S. Department of Veteran Affairs. (2015). About VA. Retrieved from:

Ethical Issues in Business

Ethical Issues in Business

The basis of the issue lies in the way organizations handle pension especially in the recent times. In contrast to the earlier years when corporations provided pension to all employees, the modern corporations have diverted these funds which mostly end up in the account of the CEO. Currently, employees have been forced into risky pension plans which they pay by themselves, while the CEOS enjoy tax free pension in their retirement days. It is unethical for corporations to deny employees a formidable pension plan while exclusively diverting all the money meant for this to CEOs. It is unethical that employees who devote a lot of time and effort in the corporation end up with nothing and even worse find themselves unable to pay basic amenities or bills once they retire. On the other hand, the CEOs are stashed with more cash than they were genuinely entitled (Gerard, 2016)

As employee pension plans in corporations disappear, many of them are being forced into 401(k) plans where they can save for retirement. However, there are inherent risks with putting money in such plans – often, employees are duped by financial advisers to invest their retirement savings in bogus schemes which not only give low yields but also puts the retirement savings at greater risks. The article also looks at how corporations have gained power over employees and their unions. Currently, employees have little bargaining power as all that has been taken away by corporations that are backed by the government. Surprisingly, the article notes that it’s only about 6.7 percent of private sector workers that are currently members in employee unions. The employee plans limits the amount each one of them can save in a year, while CEOs can stash away any amount for retirement plans. This is unethical and shows greed in the upper management levels (Gerard, 2016).


Gerard, L. W. (2016, April 11). Pensions: For CEOs Only. Huffington Post.




A&O Life Funds is a business firm shut down by the regulators in 2007 due to its misconduct.  The business aim was buying life insurance policies from insured individuals at a price lesser than the face value and later collects the benefits of the insurance policy after the death of people. Investors received part of the funds collected from the insurance firms as their profit. A&O Life Funds violated ethical procedures of business firms (The Associated Press, 2011).

The founders of this business represented it as risk free in order to attract more investors. They failed to reveal business risks associated to the investors before investment. This means that the founders denied investors full disclosure of their contract details. The firm founders also misrepresented the size of their business together with record of success. These are major business features that the world, which includes the government, investors and other stakeholders, received wrong and false details regarding them.

Set rules and regulations that govern businesses in the US require a business to give true and fair value of their books of accounts. Books of account indicate financial size of a business and profits made in a financial year. The founders of this firm denied investors, government and other stakeholders the access to true value of the business. This act was against the law and regulation set to govern business operations.

According to (The Associated Press, 2011) government was able to identify marketing materials that the company founders lied about their usage. The government believes the purpose of these materials was to excite the sale’s agents therefore increasing the firm’s sales. Investors of this company made losses due to poor management. The founders did not keep insurance premiums in force but used profits made for their own usage. This fraud committed by the founders was a major crime that raised attention and the regulators found the founders corrupt therefore legible for prosecution.


The Associated Press. (2011, 03 14). Texas man charged in $100 million fraud case goes on trial in federal court in Virginia. Retrieved 04 14, 2016, from The Washington Post: