Category Archives: history

Hindu Myths

Hindu Myths

A rather isolated myth among the Indians is that of the deliverance of the elephant.  In the myth the serpents which had captured and fettered on the elephant not only submit but also surrender the animal to the high God Vishnu when he appears seated on Garuda. However, according to another version of the same myth developed by another section of the Indians states that the conquest of the serpent is integrated with the great cycle of universal evolution. According to this new version of the myth, the creation of the earth and all the things in it mark the beginning of the evolution as the solid surface is flooded with blooded creatures unfolding like a lotus.   However, this evolution process and the cycle is subject to certain setbacks such as crises that require the intervention of the highest God (Zimmer & In Campbell, 2017).  Unfortunately, there exists a counter-current force that often threatens the evolution process which forced the highest God Vishnu to assume the form of a gigantic boar to protect the evolution by overcoming the serpent king.

The event of the struggle and fight between the boar and the serpent king is well documented in the relief of Udayagiri Gwalior.  The celestial beings keenly follow the exploits of the heroic boar. It is worth noting that this exploit is deemed necessary as it threatens the very existence of other animals as well as the universal evolution process. Notably, the third incident of Vishnu as an opponent and a winner of the serpent king is documented with his most popular incarnation of Krishna (Daniélou, 2017). This myth is told in Vi hnu Purana and reviews the circumstances that led to the coming of Krishna into the world.


Daniélou, A. (2017). The myths and gods of India: The classic work on Hindu polytheism.

Zimmer, H. R., & In Campbell, J. (2017). Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization.


Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline

Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline

Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline

The U.S. has one of the strongest and most equipped military forces around the world. Over the years, the U.S. has been involved in a number of military operations abroad, with mixed reactions from both the America public and the world. Some factions support the U.S. involvement in military operations abroad claiming it is necessary, while others see it as an infringement on people’s rights and a show of power to the less developed states.

The U.S. military intervention in foreign states play a positive role in improving the quality of lives of citizens in these states as exemplified in the military interventions.

Over the recent past, the U.S. has been involved in a number of military interventions abroad. In 2011, the U.S. and other allied European countries launched an operation against Muammar Qaddafi, the then sitting president. This operation was meant to impose a no-fly zone sanction which had been imposed by United Nations, and to ouster Qaddafi from presidency. According to Kirkpatrick, Erlanger, & Bumilller (2011), the military intervention against the then sitting President Qaddafi was driven by reports that forces allied to Qaddafi had planned to attack Benghazi, a town dominated by rebels. This is despite calls for cease-fire between the two warring factions. Qaddafi was accused of perpetrating aggressive actions throughout Libya on all those opposing his regime. The United Nations deemed it appropriate to protect Libyan civilians from the atrocities of Qaddafi regime.

The U.S. is currently involved in military operations in Syria, to root out elements of the ISIL group which has reigned terror in the region over the past few years. Most of the military operations in Syria involve airstrikes against ISIL in ISIL controlled territory. ISIL is a terrorist group involved in various atrocities in the Middle East, ranging from mass murders, abduction of children who are trained as child fighters, abduction of women, among other heinous crimes. The U.S. military intervention in Syria has helped curtail the spread of ISIL and their influence in the region through launching missile strikes against ISIL targets. The U.S. has also been involved in curtailing the advancement of ISIL in other regions of the world including Libya.

Aspects of U.S. history since 1865

  • The experiences from the World War I (1917) created the need to establish the most equipped and mightiest military in the entire world. In addition, most countries suffered great damages during the war which gave the U.S. a good head-start.
  • Second, the U.S. involvement in the Cold War established the need for the U.S. to act as protector or leader of the free world.
  • The rise of capitalism in the U.S. encouraged more production and innovation. The U.S. was thus able to develop and advance weapons which could be used in war (Cobbs, Blum, & Gjerde, 2012).

International incidents since World War II where America has taken on a policing role

  • The civil war in Somalia – following the outbreak of a civil war in Somalia in 1991, the U.S. and the United Nations peacekeeping forces were involved in trying to establish peace in the region.
  • The U.S. was involved in the Vietnam War between 1954 and 1975.
  • The Iraq War between 2003 and 2011 – the U.S. was involved in ousting Saddam Hussein from power.

Driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving international incidents outlined

  • The need to protect the U.S. from outside threats.
  • The need to protect the rights of civilians in different countries.
  • The need to check on extremists and international terrorist organizations.


Cobbs, H. E., Blum, E. J., & Gjerde, J. (2012). Major problems in American history: Documents and essays / edited by Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman, Edward J. Blum, Jon Gjerde. Boston,             MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Kirkpatrick, D., Erlanger, S., & Bumiller, E. (2011, March 19). Allies Open Air Assault on          Qaddafi’s Forces in Libya. The New York Times.

Lee, C. E., Entous, A., & Gorman, S. (2013 Aug. 30). U.S. Prepares for Solo Strike on Syria        After Britain Balks. The Wall Street Journal.

Personal Reflections on Module Readings


The material for this module/week has led you from Europe, through first contacts, to the establishment of a solid English presence in the Americas. After reading and thinking about materials for this module/week, what do you notice most about the founding of the American colonies in North America? Did anything surprise you? Did your reading challenge your ideas or visions about colonial America?

Sample paper

Personal Reflections on Module Readings

After carefully studying and reading materials from his module, I have realized how greedy and murderous human being can be considering that most of the material shows how greed and murder are widely spread in the country. It is quite clear the nation is built on greed and murder especially from the settlers and racist who were ready to do anything to maintain their slaves at a good condition. Moreover, people in authority and those entrusted to lead the ordinary population committed acts of brutality in the name of God something that is expected to run and live width most of the leaders in this country. To my surprise, most of the history books do not entirely tell the tale of most of Native Americans who initially and rightfully owned the land and how they suffered at the hands of settlers who were ready to kill to own these lands.  The settlement of settlers in native America led to the killing, displacement and enslaving of most Native Americans in different regions of the country.

Additionally, I learn from the module that Columbus may not have discovered as many lands as most historians and geologist claim. This is surprising considering that he is the person credited in history to have discovered most of the countries in the universe since it is hard to say that he discovered these countries yet there were people living in them.  On the other hand, it was quite clear from the reading that European settlers mistreated the natives and had selfish attitudes that led them to believe that they were superior to them.  This attitude and selfishness led them to war with other countries such as Spain over lands that they wanted to conquer. The materials provided me with more insight of the brutality used by white settlers in America.


[i] Mustafa Malhut, “System And History”, History Studies International Journal Of History Volume 3 Issue 1, no. 3 (2011): 203 – 216.

Stanley B. Winters, “Introduction: Robert A. Kann On “Speculative History””, Austrian History Yearbook 42 (2011): 201-202.


Malhut, Mustafa. “System And History”. History Studies International Journal Of History            Volume 3 Issue 1, no. 3 (2011): 203 – 216.

Winters, Stanley B. “Introduction: Robert A. Kann On “Speculative History””. Austrian History              Yearbook 42 (2011): 201-202.

Harlem Renaissance


Explain how key social, cultural, and artistic contributions contribute to historical changes.
Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context. 
Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions. 
Identify major historical developments in world cultures from the Renaissance to the contemporary period.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.
Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.

Sample paper

Harlem Renaissance

Analysis of Harlem poems

Langston Hughes Harlem (Dream Deferred)

The dream deferred is a poem written by Langston Hughes in after the Second World War which led to dispositioning of most African Americans. Hughes knew how important dreams are to individuals and this is the reason behind his question about the dream and about what happens when dreams are either ignored or postponed. At the setting of the war, the country had seen the end of both the great depression and the world war two, but this had little or no impact on most African Americans because their dreams and fantasy of the American dream was all but conceded (Brown, 2015).  However, the author considered every planning, dream and fan tansy of the African Americans important and took them to his heart as most of them began lives by planning on how to raise their kids appropriately.

The voice of the lyrics in the poem is a dark artist who makes the poem look like a structured talk from its attributes and characteristics. In the early days especially among most African American families, dark individuals were given the fantasies of value and correspondence, but to the disappointment of many, most of these dreams and fantasies were not effective. On the other hand, the black society could not encounter the unpredictability of the society despite the presence of legitimate, political and social powers to nullify the politically-sanctioned racial segregation. The desire by most blacks to enjoy equity, have equal opportunities and enjoy the same status as other races never worked out and their dreams were not realized. When dreams and fantasies are deferred, ignored or postponed there is a high likelihood that individuals will continue to live in misery and break the trust that exists between two individuals or organizations.  Despite the promises from the white government of better future and equal opportunities, nothing has brought into reality, and this broke the trust between the two races and African Americans continued to live in misery. Despite numerous failures and delays, a dream or a fantasy always live at the back of the mind of every individual.

Racial segregation is quite evident in the setting of this poem and the black Americans suffer in the hands of other races despite their promises to make the country better. They are never given equal opportunities as other individuals and are forced to postpone their fantasies and dreams of a better America that have no racial segregation (Harden, 2012). Most of them live in misery and poverty and their trust in the white government is no more as they break their commitments

Related:  Alexander the Great Achievements-Western Civilization

Claude McKay A Memory of June

This poem focuses on telling the readers of how the author perceive and sees the month of June which is made possible by the extensive utilization of symbolism in the poem. The message of the poem is thus directed to all individual who might share the same feelings as the author towards the month of June as he fully describes his feelings when he was a youth. According to the poet, the month of June presents a suitable resurrection platform after the passing of the month of May. Through the tone and language utilized in the poem, it is easy to tell that the author of the poem talks about a noteworthy other named June as well as the month of June itself. The poet also uses a praising tone, and he is also in remembrance of his youth and beliefs about the month of June. The author is simply describing the emotions, feelings, and images that come to his mind when he remembers and thinks of the month of June. Moreover, through the use of personification the poem successfully gives the month human abilities.

One of the most notable themes in this poem is love. The poet has extensively used names and words that clearly show there is love in the air. In the second stanza the last line, the author states that the arms were locked, their flesh pulsing with love’s pain. This line is a clear indication of two people in love a man and a woman who share intimate moments together and who are fully aware f the costs that come with love (Kemp, 2013). Moreover, in the last stanza the last line the author states that love so fugitive and so complete. This shows that he was in love though he could not fully express his love yet he felt that he was completely in love with June.

Part 3

Some individuals take their decoration in a flag

And of their status, they brag

They perceive outstanding, and they differentiate

And against those who are antithetic they discriminate


I asked you for your name

You tell me, I smile

I feel the joy

That has been hidden for a while

I like the way you laugh

I love the way you walk

The way your hips sway

The mesmerized jiggle of your ass

As you walk pass


Brown, T. J. (2015). Text Mining and Digital Humanities: Quantitative Analysis of African American Poetry.

Harden, R. &. (2012). Reading the Harlem Renaissance into Public Policy: Lessons from the Past to the Present. Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, 36(2), , 7.

Kemp, M. P. (2013). African American Women Poets, the Harlem Renaissance, and Modernism: An Apology. . Callaloo, 36(3),, 789-801.


Alexander the Great Achievements-Western Civilization

Western Civilization-Question and answers



Detail the course of the Crusades of the 11th through 13th centuries. Why did these wars occur? What were the results of these wars? Why were the Crusaders ultimately unsuccessful?

Question 7

Discuss the emergence of Islam in the seventh century. What do Muslims believe? What was early Muslim culture like? What were some of the accomplishments of early Muslim culture?

Sample paper

Western Civilization

Question 6

The Crusades of the 11th to 13th centuries were the result of long standing conflicts between Christians and Muslims. At the end of the 11th century, Muslims began mounting attacks on Christian territory, mainly Byzantine region in Asia (McKay, Crowston, Weisner-Hanks, & Perry, 2014). Emperor Alexius I became concerned with the prevalent Muslim attacks over Christian territory and decided to seek help from the west. Pope Urban II heeded to this call and begun efforts to retake Holy Christian lands that were under Islam rule. The Holy lands comprise of Jerusalem region, where Christians often made pilgrimages to commemorate birth of Christ. Pope Urban II organized Christian groups from Western Europe and another group from Central Europe. In 1095, Pope Urban II made an influential speech, which led to the creation of the first Crusades (McKay et al., 2014). In 1098, a French Crusade army reclaimed Antioch from Muslim influence, marching on to Jerusalem where fighting intensified. The crusades were able to liberate Jerusalem from Muslims.

The wars resulted to deaths of hundreds of fighters. Over a span of about 2 centuries, Christians and Muslims were engrossed in various battles over control of the Middle East region, and as a show of might for both sides. The wars had devastating consequences to both Christians and Muslims. In most of the Crusades, there was no clear winner. For instance, the Second Crusade that lasted from 1147 to 1149 did not have a clear winner (McKay et al., 2014). The Third Crusade started war in 1189, with no clear winner. During the entire span, thousands of people lost their lives in the war. The crusaders were largely unsuccessful because of the repeat attacks from Muslims. Whenever the invaders conquered a particular area, Muslims would organize retaliatory attacks. The crusaders were also unsuccessful since they lost focus. For instance in the Fourth Crusade in 1203, Venetians convinced the Crusaders to attack Constantinople, as opposed to Muslims (McKay et al., 2014). The people had also lost the zeal to fight. During the Fourth Crusade, only a few individuals expressed interest.

Question 7        

The rise of Islam can be traced to the seventh century between 632 and 700. Arabia is known as the cradle for Islam. In the cities of Medina and Mecca, trade had greatly thrived (McKay et al., 2014). In 571, Muhammad was born. Muhammad was to become the Prophet of God who would later establish Islam faith. Islamic accounts indicate that Muhammad felt lacking in spirit and decide to move to the countryside to seek spirituality and relevance. It was while at the countryside that he received divine insights from Allah. From 613, Muhammad begun extensive preaching in the city of Mecca to spread the message he received from Allah. This became the foundation of Islam. Muslims believe in the Five Pillars or tenets, which as the cornerstone for Islamism (McKay et al., 2014). The first belief is about having faith in Allah. The second belief is payment of a particular some of money (2.5% of the income) to support the poor. The third belief is about taking hajj, and the fourth about honoring the month of Ramadan, which is considered holy. Lastly, Muslims believe in prayer.

The early Muslim culture advocated for a strict adherence to the Islamic way of life as the key to eternal life. Muslims still hold the belief. In the early Islam culture, the state and religion were the same. As such, the caliph or the chief Islamic leader was also in charge of the political affairs (McKay et al., 2014). Early Muslims believed in military conquests over non-Muslims, and the forceful conversion of Christians to Islamic faith. The early Muslim culture made some great achievements. First, the Muslim culture managed to convert Christians and other groups into Islamism. Muhammad’s teachings greatly influenced people, contributing to the growth of Islam. Another accomplishment relating to the early Muslim culture is the expansion of Islamic rule throughout Middle East and parts of Africa such as Egypt.


McKay, J. P., Crowston, C. H., Weisner-Hanks, M. E., & Perry, J. (2014). Sources for western society: From antiquity to the enlightenment (3rd ed., Vol. 1). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Question 1


By the end of the eighth century, the Muslims had defeated the __________ in present-day Spain.


Kingdom of the Ostrogoths


Kingdom of the Visigoths


Kingdom of the Franks


Kingdom of the Lombards


Question 2


After the First Crusade, __________ Crusader states, also known as “Crusader kingdoms,” were established in the Middle East.










Question 3


By AD 800, __________ had established a powerful kingdom encompassing modern-day France, northern Spain, northern Italy, and western Germany.




Louis the German


Phillip Augustus




Question 4


In the system of __________, peasants were tied to manors to work for the local noble in exchange for his protection.


farm tenancy








Question 5


__________ led English forces during the Third Crusade.


Richard I


Philip IV




Henry I


Question 8


Match the person with the correct statement to describe them



  1. Abu al-Abbas

Founder of Abbasid Dynasty

  1. Gregory VII

Medieval pope known for “reform movement”

  1. Louis the Pious

Captured during the Seventh Crusade

  1. Avicenna

Arab physician who pioneered important medical advances

  1. Margrete I

United kingdoms in the Union of Kalmar

  1. Clovis

Founder of the Merovingian Dynasty

  1. Hilda

Adopted Roman practices by Anglo churches

  1. William

Norman conqueror of England

  1. Louis IX

Successor to Charlemagne

  1. Innocent III

Launched the Fourth Crusade in 1202

Alexander the Great Achievements-Western Civilization

Alexander the Great Achievements-Western Civilization



I believe that Alexander the Great had so many achievements due to his education. He was taught by one of the greatest philosophers Aristotle. His many achievements also came from the fact that his dad took him and molded him on how to be a leader at an early age and when it came time he was able to take over and create an undefeated army. I think he continues to be fascinate due to his length of reign and what he accomplished under his reign.

Sample papers

Alexander the Great Achievements-Western Civilization

The discussion post identifies education as the greatest asset that Alexander the Great applied in achieving the great conquests during his reign. This is true owing to the fact that he received a classical education from Aristotle, as the discussion post highlights. However, the discussion post fails to account for the contribution of physical education that Alexander the Great received from Leonidas, who taught him many skills among them how to ride chariots, using swords, memorizing, running, and other key skills (Skelton & Dell, 2005). Another important contributor to his many achievements relate to the teachings he received from his father, which molded him to become a warrior by making him believe he was chosen by gods. The discussion post asserts that Alexander continues to fascinate due to his great achievements and the long duration of his reign. This true because Alexander made great achievements that no other leader ever made in history.


Skelton, D., & Dell, P. (2005). Empire of Alexander the Great. New York: Facts On File.

Emperor Constantine-Western Civilization

  History of Rome

History of Rome

Question 1

Who led the Carthaginian armies during the second Punic War?


Question 2

To which place had Alexander led his army by 326Bc


Question 3

Who crossed the Rubicon River to defeat forces led by Pompey in 49Bc

Julius Caesar

Question 6

The Roman culture borrows heavily from the ancient Greeks. However, the Romans have been credited for stabilizing this culture into something of their own. Consequently, this influence is reflected in areas such as art, philosophy, literature and religion. Just like the ancient Greek, regarding religion, both these cultures approve of a polytheistic culture that embeds its emphasis on the importance of rituals and sacrifices in appeasing their gods and goddesses. Consequently, this is traced from the era when the ancient Greek fell to the Romans, and the Romans took in Greek slaves whom later ended up as teachers for noble Roman children.

The contrast in this is noted by the classical writer Horace. Regarding architecture, the Roman architecture is a reflection of the Greek architecture as reflected in their temple designs (Wesley, 2012).  The similarities and differences are notable regarding how the two cultures name their gods and goddesses. It is noticeable that they are the same gods but given different names by both cultures. According to the Greeks, their gods and goddesses were in abundant with each playing respective roles.  Subsequently, 12 of these primary gods reside in Mount Olympus with each town maintaining an independent deity. Several aspects of its religious rituals were adopted by the Romans an inclusive making emphasis on earthly rewards rather than the afterlife compensation. A variety of beliefs and practices are incorporated into the two elements of worship. From the time of Constantine 1, the change he made in moving the capital of Rome to Constantinople created an unspoken rift in the Roman world.

As a result, Rome began to be heavily influenced by the Greek culture; this can explain why Greek became its Prime language. The transition could have been voluntary or involuntary so to say, but the bottom line is Greek may have been on the top spot regarding Western civilizations.


Wesley, A. (2012). Greek Architecture Influences America’s Architecture. Welcome to Ann’s Web. Np, nd Web, 23.

Question 7

Ancient Rome had three main social classes that are the Patricians, the Plebeians, and slaves. Conversely, the aristocratic patricians were known as wealthy landowners, and they comprised a majority of the population that formed government officials. In business, they were also called very influential. Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical. However, there existed other overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual position may be higher or lower depending on the level. Rome continues to be a hierarchical class system with two dominant class of distinction spilled between the Plebeians and Patricians (Orizaga, 2013). The social classes in the late Republic are categorized into five levels that are the senators, the Equestrians, commons, and slaves. Conversely, the Senators and the equestrians from the upper class of the society.

One of the most significant attempt to reconcile these class differences is the elimination of the Patricians and the Plebeians. With the natural death of the Patricians, a gateway for the efficient removal of the two social classes was evident. Consequently, the Plebeians population was redesigned through some measured policies. The problems associated with these social classes stretched across the political, economic and social domains. Lower social class occupants were locked off from significant government positions and brought about numerous cases rebellions from the lower level. Other related cases include fierce battles possibly with propaganda of physical fights. Consequently, these ailments cause both economic and social uproar reflected the nature of the social relationships (Orizaga, 2013). The most significant impact, however, is associated with inherent problems related to the exploitation of the middle-class farmers. Factors such as overexpansion and military overspending, government corruption and political instability and weakening of the Roman legions are some of the key variables discussed under what Rome could have first addressed in attempts to hail the social class related problems.


Orizaga, R. Y. M. (2013). Self-Presentation and Identity in the Roman Empire, ca. 30 BCE to 225 CE.

Question 8                                                                                                     

  1. Led the senatorial conspiracy against Julius Caesar

Marcus Brutus

  1. General under Alexander later given command of Egypt


  1. A trusted lieutenant to Julius Caesar and later a member of the Second Triumvirate

Mark Antony

  1. A member of the First Triumvirate, later defeated by Julius Caesar


  1. Greek mathematician who calculated the circumference of the Earth nearly to its modern accepted value


  1. Site of the battle in 31 BC between Octavian Caesar and Mark Antony


  1. Who was the Greek mathematician whose work on geometry became the standard for centuries?


  1. Which Roman consul reform plans led to his assassination

Tiberius Gracchus

  1. who led the conquest of the Persian Empire and most of the Middle East for the Macedonians


  1. Who was the Roman general during the Punic Wars?

Scipio Africanus

How did revolutionary leaders convince common folk to fight against the British paper

Western Civilization-Earth Science Responses



There are many differences between Sparta and Athens. One of the biggest differences was the Spartans lived simply.  The Athenians chose to surround themselves with luxury. It is interesting to me that Spartans lived simply but still had servants. The Athenians did not surprise me that they had servants. Both cultures depended on agriculture to keep their state thriving. However, the Spartans depended on trade while the Athenians did not. There are many other differences such as: Spartans were superstitious while the Athens were not, Sparta discouraged the development of economic and social distinctions while Athens gave most of the control to the adult males, political and economic development caused a strain on both states. Sparta created a military state to relieve tensions while Athens established a government based on democratic principles.  I believe that both states had things that could apply to present day. For example, democratic principles that Athenians created are very important to present day. The one thing that struck me that is relevant or should I say prevalent in today’s society was how the Athenians chose luxury over simplicity. I think a large part of today’s society wish that they could live more simply. By being simplistic it did help past and present societies opportunities that may not be there if they chose luxury. It’s simple-if you spend all you funds on luxuries than there are no funds to build your state.



Yes, I believe that water is more valuable than oil today and it will continue to be in the future.  Where we live we take clean water for granted.  Other places in the world do not have it as easy as we do by getting water from a faucet.  Water is not replaceable.  If oil runs out, we will adapt and find another energy source.  We can learn to live without oil but we cannot live without water.  I think we adapt to issues that arise.  New technology develops every day.  We will learn to life with a different renewable energy resource.  In my opinion, water is a necessity and oil is a luxury; therefore, water will always be more valuable than oil.

Several years ago in my hometown we had a salmonella outbreak in the water.   Our water comes from an aquifer well and stored in in ground tanks as well as water towers.  I believe one of the tanks had a crack which causes the water to be contaminated.  I know the city put in additives to disinfect the water but I am not sure what.  We only use filtered water in my household.

Sample paper

Discussion Board Responses

Western Civilization

The paper on western civilization examines the differences between Sparta and Athens at length. The discussion board statement contrasts the lifestyles of Athenians and Spartans with regard to the social, economic, and political characteristics exhibited by each of the state. The article highlights the major difference between Spartans and Athenians as the lifestyles the two groups led. The Athenians lived in luxury, while Spartans lived simple lives. Nonetheless, the Spartans still maintained servants even with their simple lifestyle. With regard to the economic lifestyle, both of the cultures depended on trade as the backbone of their economies. The difference in their economic lifestyle is that the Spartans engaged on trade while Athenians did not engage in trade. Other differences exhibited include the two cultures’ political differences; Athenians practiced democracy while Spartans were more dictatorial. However, the discussion fails to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each of the differences or special characteristics of the cultures.

Earth Science

The discussion asserts that water is currently more valuable compared to oil, which may not be entirely correct. Currently, oil is still valuable than water, as it is easier to access clean water and at a cheaper price comparing to oil. In most places of the world, clean water is relatively available, which also depends on the local government’s efforts and financial ability to supply clean water. Nonetheless, the discussion maintains that water will be more valuable even in future. The discussion asserts that water is “not replaceable,” which again is not correct. The reason why this is not correct is that the water on earth cannot be exhausted, and its quantity is constant over time. What changes is the quantity of water held over land, and the amount that is actually fresh or clean for drinking. The hydrological cycle ensures that water moves from the sea as water vapor to the land where it condenses and falls as rainfall. When there is little water on land or the sources that are there becomes contaminated, that is when shortage of clean water occurs.

Question 3

When water falls in the form of precipitation, it may take different paths. One of the common paths is surface runoff where water collects and fills rivers and streams. This water may flow back to the ocean or sea, and some of it may be used for domestic purposes such as in homes (Nelson, 2003). The second different path that water may take is infiltration into the ground. When precipitation occurs over land, some of the water percolates deep into the ground where it forms ground water. This water is used to replenish aquifers that form streams or rivers where the underground rocks are exposed on the surface (Nelson, 2003). The third path that water may take is evapotranspiration. Some of the precipitation evaporates directly into the atmosphere while another portion is absorbed by plants and released back into the atmosphere through transpiration.


Nelson, R. (2003). The water cycle. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company.

Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens



What is your opinion of this course? Did it meet your expectations? What suggestions can you offer for improvement of this course for future students?


Why was Martin Luther so much more successful in discussing his criticisms of the church when John Hus was not?

Why did so many disputes erupt within the Roman Catholic Church in the 1400s and 1500s? How could these problems have been solved?


Discuss the rise of the Hundred Years’ War. Select the one development related to the war that you think was most significant for the development of Europe in this time, and discuss why?

Discuss the rise of universities during the Middle Ages. Why were they established, and how do they compare to modern colleges and universities?


Why did monasteries become the most important center of European learning in the early Middle Ages? Do you think the learning systems we have in place today would have worked in the Middle Ages? Why, or why not?


What did the “five good emperors” accomplish? What made them good?   Explain.

Do you think the destruction of the empire brought the stability Octavius promised? Did he save Rome by destroying the Republic?

Please choose one of the following questions to discuss:

Why do you think Alexander had so many achievements? Why do you think Alexander the Great continues to fascinate so many centuries after his death?

Do you think Romanization was beneficial? Do you think some form of it still exists today? Why do you think so?

Sample paper


Unit 8

The course provides great insights into the history detailing western culture development. The course provides an overview of the political, cultural, social and economic development in western civilization. The course fulfilled my expectations since it helped me understand the historical chronology of the developments in early western civilization to the early modern period. Future suggestions regarding the course concern a more practical and scientific approach where students spend some time in the field examining historical data or evidence.

Unit 7

Disputes arose within the Roman Catholic Church in the 1400s and 1500s. These disputes were the result of the Roman Catholic Church involvement in corruption and worldliness (Kerstetter, 2015). The Roman Catholic Church yielded great power over the people, which led to exploitation of the ignorant followers. The more money a person contributed to church, the better his chance of attaining salvation and going to heaven, which could only occur through church. The church engaged in venality, whereby services such as marriage annulments were bought, and selling of indulgences. These problems could have been solved if the church had acted according to the fundamental Gospel teachings, which advocate for the will of the heart, and the need to disassociate from the material wealth.

Unit 6

The earliest universities emerged in the 12th and 13th centuries. These universities were Bologna, Paris, Salerno, and Oxford. The earliest universities have no defined founders or date of beginning, but they just emerged slowly with time. The emergence of universities is the result of twelfth century renaissance (Haskins & Lewis, 2002). In 1100 and 1200s, Western Europe experienced an “influx of new knowledge” that can be traced to Italy, Sicily, and Arabic Scholars from Spain. The preexisting monastery and cathedral schools were overwhelmed by the new knowledge, which led to development of universities that could handle the new knowledge. Medieval universities compare to modern universities in a number of ways. Just like in the modern period, universities provided the highest level of learning. Students wore gowns during graduation. Lectures were also conducted in similar fashion to the modern period, with a master taking the role of instructing the students.

Unit 5

Monasteries were important centers of European learning in the early middle ages because they helped in preservation and copying of texts (Haskins & Lewis, 2002). This was key in passing knowledge from one period to the next. Monasteries also supported schools financially. The learning systems in place currently would not have worked in the Middle Ages. This is because in the Middle Ages, only men received education while in the modern ages, women are fully involved in education. In the Middle Ages, university education was meant for the rich who could afford tuition and accommodation. In the modern period, university education is more inclusive and involves even the poor.

Unit 4

The “five good governors” greatly expanded the Roman Empire from northern part of Britain to Dacia, Arabia and Mesopotamia (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2008). The Roman Empire also underwent consolidation and the perfection of its defense system. Administration of the Roman Empire was centralized under a provincial system that covered the whole empire as well as Italy. They are considered good because of good governance and tranquility that prevailed during their reign.

Unit 3

In the middle ages, Rome greatly expanded its influence and territory. This was mainly through converting non-Romans citizens into ‘Romanized’ individuals. Because of Romanization, a uniform culture evolved. There was more cohesion among citizens from various distinct communities. According to Mola (2012), Romanization greatly enhanced the development of agriculture as well as infrastructural development. The Roman culture of building cities was practiced not only in the cities but also in rural hinterland, leading to development in the rural areas. For example, grids were applied in rural landscaping. Great infrastructural developments such as construction of amphitheaters and development of roads were also achieved during Romanization (Mola, 2012). Some form of Romanization still exists today. Some modern construction designs borrow from the Romanization period. For instance, modern amphitheaters are similar to those used in early Roman period. The method of dividing rural land into grids also seems to have emerged from the early Roman period.


Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J. J. (2008). Essential world history. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Haskins, C. H., & Lewis, L. S. (2002). The rise of universities. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction             Publishers.

Kerstetter, T. M. (2015). Inspiration and innovation: Religion in the American West. Malden,      MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Mola, P. J. (2012). Romanization: the materiality of an immaterial concept. The Collegiate           Journal of Anthropology. Retrieved from         2011/article/romanization-the-materiality-of-an-immaterial-concept

Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens

Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens


Characterize the major differences between Sparta and Athens, including your view of the strengths and weaknesses of each. Which do you think reflected qualities necessary to the maintenance of present-day democracies, and why? NO WORD MINIMUM


Discuss gender and family roles in Ancient Greece. How do these roles compare to modern American ideas? How are they different? What were the advantages and weaknesses of the Greek system?

Your response should be at least 300 words in length.


Describe some of the Ancient Greek writers, scientists, and philosophers and their works. Which one had the greatest impact, and why?Your response should be at least 300 words in length.


  Democritus ,Socrates









Early poet known for such epic works as The Iliad and The Odyssey

Philosopher who believed there were two planes of existence, the material world and the eternal world of “forms”

Playwright among the earliest known tragedians-wrote that justice and reason should be used to resolve conflicts

Playwright known for the Oedipus trilogy

Physician who pioneered the ideas of clinical detachment from patients and ascribing natural causes to diseases

Philosopher who developed a system of questions and answers to develop critical thinking

Philosopher who applied logic to observations of human justice and natural phenomena which lead him to believe the sun revolved around the earth

Scientist who originated the theory that atoms were the building blocks of the universe

Philosopher who believed that water was the basic element of the universe

Satirist and playwright known for such works as The Clouds

Sample paper

Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens

A number of differences exist between Sparta and Athens. The two cities, pitted against each other by an ancient rivalry, existed in a perpetual state of war and the need to influence greatest control over one another. Sparta was military oriented, with all men required to join the army starting from a tender age. The importance of this is that it made it difficult for rival nations to conquer Sparta. On the flipside, intellectual development of the region was low. On the other hand, Athens was a city of scholars (Lightman, Lightman, & Lightman, 2008). Many scholars utilized logic, deductive reasoning, and critical thinking to develop mathematical and other scientific concepts. The importance of this is that education greatly flourished in Athens. On the other hand, Athens’ military prowess was to an extent lower compared to Sparta.

Athens practiced a more democratic rule where men could choose whether to join the army or pursue other interests. The benefit of this is that all spheres of the economy developed, including education.  On the other hand, Sparta was undemocratic and compelled all men to serve in the army. As such, Sparta’s education was detrimentally affected. Athens’ style of leadership reflects that in modern societies. This is because it was more democratic and allowed people to pursue educational interests.

Gender and Family Roles in Ancient Greece

Men and women performed different tasks in ancient Greece. The main role of women was to act as homemakers (Lightman, Lightman, & Lightman, 2008). Women bore kids and stayed at home to take care of their family as well as household chores. Men mostly accompanied women when they went out of the house. A patriarchal system was in place meaning that men controlled everything in the household, particularly the elderly males in the household. Rich women would take of their children, slaves, and household chores. Women did not have any role in the political arena. Men acted as providers for their families. Men provided both financial and other material needs to their families. Men received education from an early age, both formal and informal education. Men could work as farmers, businesspersons, or even hold high offices. Men could participate in games and other leisure activities. Another important distinction is that men were involved in the political happenings of ancient Greece.

Gender roles in ancient Greece compare in various ways to modern American ideas, with slight changes or modifications to modern ideas. In ancient Greece, women did not participate in political affairs of the region. Despite the tremendous policy changes in the U.S., women still make up a small fraction in political affairs. For instance in 2015, women accounted for 20% of the total House and Senate representatives (Desilver, 2015). In addition, women are less likely to hold high offices of authority. The U.S. has never had a female president, which reflects the societal views towards women and leadership. In ancient Greece, women were primarily involved with household chores. In the modern period, women still perform most of the household chores such as cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. Differences exist in voting rights, social life, education, have more responsibilities, and quality. In ancient Greek, women did not participate in politics, had limited social life, they did not join schools, and could not engage in work. In the contrary, modern women are educated, participate in politics, have dynamic social life, and participate in paid labor. Modern women are equal to men.

The Greek system of government was democratic. Decisions making rested on many individuals rather than a single individual. This greatly contributed to making of correct judgment or decisions. in the Greek system, records were made available to the public and thus improving accountability of the ruling system. The Greek system of leadership was also aristocratic and thus prevented the resting of political power upon an individual. One of the major weaknesses of the Greek system was ignorance of the masses, who could be influenced to vote bad leaders in office. The ruling elites held power for one year, meaning it was difficult to implement any tangible long-term plans.


Desilver, D. (2015). Despite progress, U.S. still lags many nations in women leaders. Pew            Research Center. Retrieved from    tank/2015/01/26/despite-progress-u-s-still-lags-many-nations-in-women-leadership/

Lightman, M., Lightman, B., & Lightman, M. (2008). A to Z of ancient Greek and Roman            women. New York: Facts On File.


Ancient Greek Writers. Some of the iconic Greek writers, scientists, and philosophers include Hippocrates, Plato, Archimedes, Homer, Sophocles, and others. Hippocrates was a Greek physician and is often considered the father of medicine. Hippocrates lived between 460 and 370 BC (Blackson, 2011). He developed the Hippocratic Corpus, which is a collection of various case studies on different medical issues. He is credited with developing the Hippocratic Oath for doctors. Some of the modern aspects of the Hippocratic Oath are borrowed from Hippocrates philosophy. Plato is another significant Greek figure. Plato is among the greatest contributors to Western philosophy. Plato’s philosophical ideas on forms and ideal state are a significant part of modern philosophical doctrine (Blackson, (2011). Sophocles was a writer, credited with over 123 plays. He wrote classics such as Oedipus, Antigone, Electra, and King. Sophocles introduced the aspect of scenography in theater. He also abolished the element of trilogy in plays, increasing their dramatic value in the process.

Archimedes lived between 287 – 212 BC. Archimedes is one of the greatest ancient scientist, with knowledge in various areas such as engineering, mathematics, and physics (Bispham, Harrison, & Sparkes, 2006). Archimedes discovered The Archimedes’ Screw, calculate the accurate value of pi, and established a method for measuring volume of irregular objects. Homer’s works are traced to 8th century BC. He is famous for his epic poems Iliad and Odyssey. The Iliad is one of the oldest Western literature. Homer’s works had a huge influence in ancient Greek literature, and formed one of the main works that almost all scholars had to read. In more recent period, his works greatly influenced Shakespeare. Hippocrates had the greatest influence in ancient Greek civilization (Bispham, Harrison, & Sparkes, 2006). This is because he advanced the concept of medicine at a time when knowledge on simple diseases was absent. Hippocrates made the earliest descriptions of various ailments such as heart disease and lung cancer.


Bispham, E., Harrison, T. J., & Sparkes, B. A. (2006). The Edinburgh companion to ancient         Greece and Rome. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Blackson, T. A. (2011). Ancient Greek philosophy: From the Presocratics to the Hellenistic             philosophers. Malden, Mass: Wiley-Blackwell.


Question 4

  1. Homer

Early poet known for such epic works as The Iliad and The Odyssey.

Philosopher who believed there were two planes of existence, the material world and the eternal world of “forms”.

Playwright among the earliest known tragedians-wrote that justice and reason should be used to resolve conflicts.

Playwright known for the Oedipus trilogy.

Physician who pioneered the ideas of clinical detachment from patients and ascribing natural causes to diseases.

Philosopher who developed a system of questions and answers to develop critical thinking.


Philosopher who applied logic to observations of human justice and natural phenomena which lead him to believe the sun revolved around the earth.

Scientist who originated the theory that atoms were the building blocks of the universe.

Philosopher who believed that water was the basic element of the universe.

Satirist and playwright known for such works as The Cloud.

Black Death’s impacts on the economic and cultural life of medieval Europe