Category Archives: IT Management homework help

Object-Oriented Programming, Event-Driven Programming, Procedural Programming

Object-Oriented Programming, Event-Driven Programming, Procedural Programming

There are a number of advantages to using object-oriented programming (OOP) to procedural programming. OOP is a type of computer programming in which the data structure and functions are well defined and added in the data structure (Phillips, 2010). In OOP, an objects attributes are classified as a single unit. On the other hand, procedural programming involves the break-up of complicated programs into smaller procedures. Object-oriented programming is better in that it enables a programmer to reuse the code during application development. Thus a developer can be able to reuse the code instead of writing a new one which may be time consuming. Procedural programming does not allow reuse of the code. Another advantage of OOP is that it enhances inheritance (Phillips, 2010). OOP enables a programmer to base an object on an existing class or object. This is referred to as class-inheritance and prototypal inheritance respectively.

The following is an example of simple class with one at least one attribute and one method.

import datetime # utilized for date objects.


class Person:


def __init__(self, name, birthdate, surname, telephone, address, email): = name

self.birthdate = birthdate

self.surname = surname



self.telephone = telephone

self.address = address = email


def age(self):

today =

age = today.year self.birthdate.year


if today <, self.birthdate.month,

age -= 1


return age


person = Person(


“doe”,, 3, 12), # year, month, day

“No. 21 Swift Street, Smallville”,

“555 456 0987”,









Class represents related data that is grouped together and functions applied to act upon the data. The class above represents personal data of a particular individual. The classes store a number of attributes. These include birthdate, name, age, address, telephone and email. The purpose of the related method is to establish a new object by using the provided data. The class, attributes and methods are related. The first type of relationship stems from the fact that all of them describe the same object but in different ways.

Feature of object-oriented programming that Visual Logic Lacks

Visual Logic supports development of programs which have multiple procedures but does not support the development of classes in programming. In Visual Logic, classes or objects cannot share common attributes or features as often happens in inheritance. This feature is present in object oriented programming. Lack of class development has been a major challenge impacting the application of Visual Logic in programming. In object oriented programming, it is easy for the programmer to establish class hierarchies which is quite difficult while using Visual Logic. Class hierarchies can be easily identified while using design class diagrams and other tools while using Unified Modeling Language (Dale & Weems, 2007).

Another drawback with the use of Visual Logic are inherent challenges in the programming language being used. Visual Logic commonly employs Prolog as the programming language. In most of the programming languages such as Prolog, the programmer is forced to determine all the procedural aspects detailing the execution of the program (Dale & Weems, 2007). In this case, the logical semantics are incompatible with the procedural semantics established in the program. This means that the programmer must spend more time in developing the semantics to use. It is also more expensive, a reason why most programmers opt for object oriented programming.

Advantage of using event-driven programming, compared to purely procedural programming

The use of event-driven programming has a number of advantages to using purely procedural programming. First, event-driven programming is known for its high flexibility compared to procedural programming (Yeager, 2014). This is because in event-driven programming, the application flow is controlled by events rather than a sequential program. In most cases, there is no need for users to get an understanding of how tasks in event-driven programming are executed or performed. Procedural programming executes commands in particular order. This leads to rigidity in execution of tasks which limits users on how tasks can be performed or executed. Owing to this limitation, procedural programming is better suited to small projects such as in computers. For instance, it can be applied in giving instructions to computers on various tasks such as multiplying numbers and displaying the results.

Another advantage of using event-driven programming is that it offers robustness (Yeager, 2014). Event-driven programming is less sensitive to the order of activities performed by the users. In procedural programming, a sequence of all the activities must be maintained and well thought out during the developmental stages. The programmer must anticipate all the sequence of activities that a user can implement while using the program. This is followed by identification of feedbacks on all the steps anticipated. Signals provide crucial feedback upon which future decisions are based. This makes purely procedural programming less robust compared to event-driven programming. Event-driven programming is reaction-bound in nature (Yeager, 2014). This means that it works through receiving signals or events from users. Procedural programming is based on acting rather than being reaction based. Another benefit of event-driven programming is that it is service oriented and time driven.


Nell B. Dale, Chip Weems, Programming and problem solving with Java, Edition 2, Jones &       Bartlett Publishers, 2007,

Phillips, D. (2010). Python 3 object oriented programming: Harness the power of Python 3          objects. Birmingham, U.K: Packt Pub.

Yeager, D. P. (2014). Object-oriented programming languages and event-driven programming.   Dulles, VA: Mercury Learning and Information.



Cyber Security    


Identify cyber security risk components that may exist within your real or fictional company.

Develop and describe a cyber security risk mitigation strategy for a real or fictional company.

Describe the challenges and benefits of implementing a cyber security risk mitigation strategy for a real or fictional


Sample paper

Cyber Security

Cyber security remains a major threat to the operations of organizations worldwide. With the increased reliance on modern technologies by business organizations, there has been a tremendous rise in cyber security risks. Today’s organizational leaders are more concerned about cyber security risks than any other period in history. The dynamic nature of cyber security risks in terms of size and complexity makes it difficult for cybersecurity experts to develop a single solution for the cyber security risks. Organizations have established different methods or mechanisms of averting cyber security risks or ensuring they do not cause major harm. The financial industry is one of the most affected by the cyber security threat. This paper examines cyber security risk issues facing PAC Inc., a fictitious multinational company that offers financial services.

Cyber Security Risk Components

One of the cyber security risk components facing PAC Inc. and other organizations is the reliance on legacy systems (Cuomo & Lawsky, 2014). Although PAC Inc. updates its systems regularly, it may not entirely escape the application of legacy systems that come through acquisition. Legacy systems obtained through acquisitions pose significant risks due to the security vulnerabilities that come with them. The organization may take a long time before updating the legacy systems that have higher security vulnerabilities. Another cyber security risk is susceptibility to breach through the third-party vendor ecosystems. Most financial service companies including PAC Inc. rely on third-party vendors for delivery of certain services such as email services, cloud storage services, web-hosting services, and cloud storage services (Cuomo & Lawsky, 2014). The security vulnerabilities facing the third-party vendors increase cyber security risks at PAC Inc. It is difficult for organizations to replace their third-party vendors even if it is found their network security is weak due to the complexities involved in changing users.

Another cyber security risk component facing PAC Inc. is cyber threats. There are new forms of cyber-attacks that have hit the financial sector. Common cyber-attacks include Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, ATM cash out, and Corporate Account Take Over (CATO) (“Conference of State Bank Supervisors (CSBS),” 2015). DDoS attacks are the most common. As the name suggests, these attacks involves directing excessive traffic to a company’s website in such a way that it interferes with normal service delivery. DDoS attacks may affect the reputation of the organization by denying customers access to essential services they need. CATO is a form of attack where cyber criminals impersonate the company and conduct transactions using customers’ accounts. Cyber-criminals gain access to corporate login credentials using malicious software, which they then use to transfer funds (“CSBS”, 2015). This form of crime targets online banking. ATM cash outs involve cyber criminals taking control of the web-based ATM control panels using malicious software. This may cause huge losses.

Cyber Security Risk Mitigation Strategy

Organizations are currently likely to experience cyber-security threats than any other period in history. A good mitigation strategy is developing an incidence response plan that outlines the critical steps that an organization can take in case of a cyberattack (Lebanidze, 2011). The incident response plan also identifies the critical steps that the organization should take in anticipation of a cyberattack. An incident response plan should include documentation of procedures, training, and rehearsal targeting the team involved in mitigating an incidence or breach of security. An incidence response plan comprises of various plans that the organization should draw. The first is the contingency plan that addresses issues concerning continuity of operations in case an unplanned outage affects the organization.

An incident response plan should include a disaster recovery plan. The disaster recovery plan outlines the steps to take in case of a major disruption to business. This plan may include system backups and off-site storage. System backup is vital for ensuring that there is no loss of data in case of a hacking incident. The incident response plan should also address the following.

  • Ways of addressing potential losses
  • Criteria for engaging digital forensic experts
  • Budget for the plans
  • The effectiveness of the incident response strategy
  • Communication to stakeholders concerning the issue

The incident response plan includes detailed plans, clearly defined roles, training of IT staff, and proper management oversight to ensure that the plans are in place. An effective incident response plan can help PAC Inc. to identify and contain attacks early before they cause significant damage.

Benefits and challenges of implementing a cyber-security mitigation strategy

There are various benefits in implementing a cyber-security mitigation strategy such as the response plan described above. One of the benefits of a mitigation strategy is the early identification of potential threats (Lebanidze, 2011). This means that attacks can be easily contained before they spread beyond uncontrollable levels. The cyber-security mitigation strategy can help in managing various stakeholders in the event a security lapse occurs. The incident response plan identifies plans on communication to stakeholders including customers if an incident occurs. An incident response plan can ensure the continuity of operations in case an attack occurs. On the other hand, one challenge of implementing a cyber-security mitigation strategy is the high cost. Mitigation strategies are costly and hence organizations try to weight the costs Vis a Vis the benefits. Another challenge in cyber-security mitigation lies in the dynamic nature of cyberspace. Every day, new and sophisticated attacks are emerging, which may invalidate any mitigation strategy in place.

To conclude, cyber security continues to be a major challenge facing modern organizations and including PAC Inc. Cyber security leads to losses or damage to reputation of companies involved. There is no foolproof method of preventing cyber-attacks. As such, modern organizations should develop incident response plans that can help them deal with potential cyber-attacks.


Conference of State Bank Supervisors (CSBS). (2015). A resource guide for bank executives.      Retrieved from source%20Guide%20FINAL.pdf

Cuomo, A. M., & Lawsky, B. M. (2014). Report on cyber security in the banking sector. New      York State Department of Financial Services. Retrieved from   

Lebanidze, E. (2011). Guide to developing a cyber security and risk mitigation plan. Retrieved    from           21.pdf


Risk Management Strategies

Differences between data warehouses and data marts.


Data Warehouses and Data Marts

Discusses the differences between data warehouses and data marts.

Also, discuss how organizations can use data warehouses and data marts to acquire data.

Sample paper

Differences between data warehouses and data marts

In recent times, data and information have become increasingly part of the human being as he seeks to use it to perform various daily activities such as education and training. A data mart is a subset of a warehouse and is often oriented to a particular business line or a group.  On the other hand, a data warehouse is a storage to protect and save information from different sources (Inmon & Lindstedt, 2015).  Despite being closely related, data mart and data warehousing have significant differences as the following points show.

  1. Data scope – a data warehouse helps a user to store all kinds of data in relation to the system while a data mart can only allow the user to store data concerning a specific subject. Therefore, a data warehouse has a large data scope and is in general in nature while a data mart has a smaller scope and it is much more focused.
  2. Size – based on the definition, it is clear that a data warehouse is far much bigger in size compared to a data mart. As a matter of fact, a data warehouse is made up of several data marts. A data warehouse can store large and diverse quantities of data.
  3. Integration – a data warehouse integrates different sources of data for it to feed its databases and the system needs since it stored different genres of data. However, a data mart is less integrated as it houses on a specific data with regard to a specific phenomenon (Linstedt & Olschimke, 2015).
  4. Management – given its size and integrations, the management of a data warehouse is far much complex compared to a data mart. Since data marts are smaller and subject oriented, they are easy to manage


Inmon, W. H., & Lindstedt, D. (2015). Data architecture: A primer for the data scientist : big data, data warehouse and data vault. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Linstedt, D., & Olschimke, M. (2015). Building a scalable data warehouse with data vault 2.0.


Cost benefits to cloud computing

Cost benefits to cloud computing

Cost benefits to cloud computing

In a world of technology, there are new concepts each and every year. Cloud computing comprises of the act of utilizing a system of a remote server facilitated on the web to store, oversee and handle information instead of utilization the nearby server or a PC. This new technology in the market empowers universal systems to access a common system of configurable computing servers. Research shows that there are great cost benefits associated with the use of cloud computing and they include:

  1. The availability of fully utilized hardware – cloud computing provides high utilization and smoothing of the unavoidable peaks and troughs in workloads. This means that users have an opportunity to store their work in this web-based hardware which enables them to access their data from any point provided they have an internet access(Bigelow, 2012). Additionally, the fully utilized programming enables the appropriated processing provider to propel the framework needs of its server ranches thus reducing the expenses of the user.
  2. Lower power costs – it is far much cheaper for any computer and internet user to use cloud computing services from a cloud administration supplier compared to purchasing personal server space. When an individual runs his or her private server, it means that the servers provided cloud administration suppliers will not be fully utilized which leads to waste vitality which increases the cost of purchase a server space(Hodges, 2011).
  3. Zero capital costs – when an internet user moves to cloud computing, he or she is not required to pay or have capital costs for server installment since he can rent this service from a cloud computing administration supplier(Olavsrud, 2013). This reduces the cost needed for one to use cloud computing compared with the initial cost needed to purchase a server space


Bigelow, S. J. (2012). Cost savings, efficiencies lead IT pros to cloud computing. Retrieved from search cloud computing:

Hodges, C. (2011). Cloud Computing Rains Cost Savings, Productivity Benefits. Retrieved from industryweek:

Olavsrud, T. (2013). How Cloud Computing Helps Cut Costs, Boost Profits. Retrieved from cio:–boost-profits.html


Components of an Information System


discuss each of the different components of an information system, and then explain how you can use the five-component model to guide your learning and thinking about

 Define each component of an information system.

Define how you can use the five-component model to guide your learning and thinking about information systems.

Sample paper

Components of an Information System

Information system refers to integrated set of components that help in collecting, organizing, storing, and processing of data for useful purposes. There are various components of an information system. The first component is the hardware. The hardware comprises of the physical computers, machines, associated devices, computer systems, and various media (Kroenke, Bunker, & Wilson, 2013). The second component is software resources. Software refers to information processing instructions that are stored as programs. The various resources associated with software include application software, system software, and procedures. The other component is people. Every information system is developed for end users or clients who utilize the data or information produced. Information system also comprises of specialists who are responsible for its development and maintenance (Kroenke, Bunker, & Wilson, 2013). The next component is data resources. Data refers to the alphanumerical input that is converted to information as output. The last component is procedures. Procedures refers to policies that guide users in the operation of the information system.

The five-component model can guide one in learning about the information system. Having knowledge concerning the five-component model enables one to understand how the entire information system works. The five-component model acts as a guide to learning and thinking about the information system. For instance, the learner can focus on a single component and understand about how it works or how it interacts with other components before moving to another component. It thus promotes a structured approach to learning and understanding the information system. One can use the five-component model to learn more about new computer-based information systems. For instance, one can focus on programs, system administration, hardware needs, databases, and others.


Kroenke, D., Bunker, D., & Wilson, D. (2013). Experiencing MIS. United Kingdom, UK:             Pearson Higher Education.


Applying Concepts-Theories of Security Management

Applying Concepts-Theories of Security Management

This class teaches learners about dealing with security threats, vulnerabilities, and potential losses facing an organization’s IS/IT systems.

Applying the Learning Outcomes to my Professional and Personal Life

The learning outcomes of this course are applicable to the professional as well as personal life. With regard to the professional life, the learning outcomes enable a learner to gain a better understanding about information security management in organizations. The learning outcomes of the course enable the learner to learn about various ways of securing business information as well as how one can handle the information environment. By studying the course, the learner is able to increase skills in ensuring the integrity, confidentiality, and security of the IS/IT system. Another way to apply the learning outcomes of the course to my professional life is in conducting research, which can enable the learner to come up with new ideas or innovations. Studying the course enables the learner to acquire skills and new knowledge that he/she can apply in developing new solutions to problems. This can foster innovation in the workplace.

The learning outcomes of the course will also apply in my personal life. The learning outcomes of the course will enable me to identify potential security threats that might affect me at the personal level. In the recent period, security threats have increased due to the increased adoption of technology and technological devices. For instance, financial services are increasingly accessible via the mobile phone. The improvement in technology also presents new opportunities for hackers to gain access to critical data through the new technological outlets. Consumers must be aware of the various methods used by hackers to steal critical information.


Dealing with Breaches-IT SECURITY MANAGEMENT

The CISSP Certification Exam


“The CISSP Certification Exam” Please respond to the following:

  • Last week, you were asked to consider the CISSP certification exam. Describe the efforts you’ve made to secure a time, date, and location for the exam. Do you feel ready? Why or why not? Even if you don’t take the exam, you’ve learned so much valuable information. Talk about a few of the items you’ve learned and how having this knowledge will help you in your management position in IT once you get your master’s degree and get on the job. Why is it important to know about security if you’re going to manage program developers for example?

Sample paper

CISSP Certification

I have made various efforts to secure a time, date, and location for the exam. With regard to time and date, I have scheduled my exam through the Pearson VUE website. I have scheduled the exam at a time i will have completed my studies and done as many practice exercises as possible. This will help me pass my exams. The Pearson VUE website provides a list of available exam centers countrywide. The website also offers the learner the opportunity to choose a specific date for taking the exam. The website provides the learners with an average 8 different days in each month for which one can set as the exam date. I have chosen Pearson Professional Centers in Seattle as my exam venue. This is because I will be in Washington in the weekend leading to the exam date, which will be on December 18th 2017.

I feel ready to take my CISSP exam. I feel ready because in the last few months, I have dedicated a lot of my time in studying about information systems security. I have spent considerable time examining information relating to the CISSP exam domains. I have successfully completed all the training required. In addition to completing the required training, I have dedicated my time towards completing many practice questions. I have been able to answer the practice questions with ease and confidence. Given this, I feel confident to sit for my CISSP exam. I have no doubt in my mind that I will pass the CISSP exam.

I have learned so much valuable information in this course. The course provides learners with knowledge on how to deal with various security risks that may affect an organization. One of the areas I have gained immense knowledge is in designing and protecting network security. This is in the fourth domain of the course, communications and network security. The course provides an understanding of how an IT professional can secure a network. It also elaborates on the key components of a network that enable it to function. This knowledge will be very useful in the real world where as an IT professional I will be required to ensure the integrity of the network security. One of the key roles of an IT professional is to ensure the information systems are resilient from any form of attacks.

I have also gained a lot regarding security and risk management. This area deals with the identification, assessment, and prioritization of various risks facing an organization’s network systems. The course has provided me with knowledge on how to handle security threats once they occur in the organization. The course enables an IT professional to learn about how one may handle real threats within the organization. It provides in-depth details on how to monitor and lessen the impact of various unforeseen events in the organization. For instance, an IT professional with knowledge on security risk management can be able to prioritize activities based on the probability and possible consequence of risk. The IT professional can then focus more on the most risky and high value activities within the organization.

Another important item the course covers is security operations. In this era of rising cybercrime, it is important that an IT professional develop deep knowledge on how to secure information systems against attacks. The course provides knowledge on how an IT professional can enhance the integrity of the information system and ensure that day-to-day access does not increase the vulnerability of stored data. By covering about security operations, I have gained immense knowledge on how to reduce downtimes, whether resulting from malicious attacks or due to other reasons such as power failure.

It is important to know about security even if my role involves managing program developers. By knowing about security, it is possible to identify or pinpoint security weaknesses in various programs. As such, I may be able to highlight areas for improvement to the program developers. There is possibility that program developers may overlook certain key areas with regard to ensuring the security of the programs. Knowing about security can enable an IT professional in charge of program developers to ensure there are no malicious efforts by developers to create areas of weaknesses in the programs. Some malicious developers can create areas of weaknesses that they may later use to their advantage to cause damage to the organization, for instance, stealing customer data. Knowing about security can enable an IT professional to contribute towards fostering security innovations. The IT professional can be able to engage with the program developers and suggest possible improvements that may enhance the security of the programs.


Disaster Recovery

Disaster Recovery


“Disaster Recovery” Please respond to the following:

  • Disaster recovery has been the topic of study this week. What do you think is the most difficult and expensive disaster to plan for? Do you think companies plan adequately? In your experience (or research if you have no experience) what aspect is most lacking in corporate planning? Why do you think this is?

Sample paper

Disaster Recovery

The most difficult and expensive disasters to plan for are the natural disasters, specifically storms. Natural disasters arise from environmental causes and are beyond human control. The cost of damage from natural hazards is very expensive to not only organizations but also the government. Natural hazards such as storms may cause great damage to buildings and infrastructure. The damage may extend over a wide geographical region hence affecting the entire economy. When natural hazards such as storms occur, businesses suffer direct and indirect losses. The direct losses result from the destruction of the buildings and the need to close business for some period. On the other hand, the indirect losses relate to the disruption of economic activities throughout the entire economy. In the recent period, the risk of natural disasters especially storms and floods have significantly increased due to the effects of climate change. The possibility of such catastrophic natural events continues to rise due to climate change.

Although the organization may take several measures to minimize its vulnerability to natural disasters, it is not possible to mitigate fully the risks emanating from various natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. As the natural hazards increase in intensity and severity, the ability of the organization to mitigate the risks weakens. In 2014, the United States experienced severe storms leading to the closure of businesses. Majority of small businesses affected by these storms were unable to resume operations due to the severe damages experienced. A report by the American Red Cross (n.d) indicates that about 40 percent of small businesses never reopen following a major disruption caused by erratic weather such as flooding.

Companies often lack adequate disaster management plans and often react to events as they occur. A recent survey indicated that 43 percent of real estate investors did not consider disaster planning and recovery as an important business issue (“Real Estate Weekly News,” 2013). This survey was an analysis of 200 real estate professionals. The findings of this study support the findings of another study by Drew (2012). This study involved various business professionals in the small-scale sector. The findings indicated that over 60 percent of small businesses in the U.S. lack emergency response plans. This means that such businesses are vulnerable to natural catastrophes. A recent study by Zetta (2016) reveals that even among the organizations that develop disaster recovery plans majority fail to test their strategy. This leaves them vulnerable to applying the inefficient and ineffective strategies.

Majority of companies that lack disaster management plans associate this to high costs and difficulty in implementation of the plans. It is worth noting that disaster recovery plans are difficult to develop and maintain. They often take time to develop and may be too costly especially for the small businesses. They may also require the organization to tie a significant amount of resources to the plans. This may significantly increase the operational costs. Nonetheless, organizational leaders should be aware that disaster recovery plans are critical for the survival of the organization when disasters occur. The plans provide the organization with direction during difficult moments.

The aspect that is most lacking in corporate planning is the failure to test and implement the plans. While a significant number of organizations develop disaster recovery plans, few commit to ensuring that the plans are effective or practical. Most organizational leaders write plans but then fail to follow up with the plans to ensure they may be of use in times of disasters. Organizational leaders should continually review disaster recovery plans in order to ensure those plans are realistic. Continuous monitoring of the plans enables the organizational leaders to identify weaknesses in those plans and take necessary action to eliminate the weaknesses. Testing of the plans is a critical part of the disaster recovery process.

Failure to test the plans is the aspect lacking most because about 60 percent of firms have established some form of disaster recovery plans, yet when disasters strike a significantly higher number of firms see their operations affected. This is because in such firms, organizational leaders do not take adequate time to test the plans and see whether they can be of use in times of a real disaster occurring. The managers may assume that once drawn, the plans are fit to ensure the organization continues operations in the face of disasters. The failure to test the disaster recovery plans is one of the major reasons why the plans fail. As such, organizational managers must ensure that the plans are relevant and may actually support the organization even when the worst disaster strikes.


American Red Cross. (n.d). Preparing your business for the unthinkable. Retrieved from               usfortheUnthinkable.pdf

Drew, J. (2012). Most U.S. small businesses lack disaster-recovery plans. Journal of         Accountancy. Retrieved from h         ttps://

Survey reveals more than half of real estate companies lack business continuity and disaster         recovery plans. (2013). Real Estate Weekly News, , 371.

Zetta. (2016). State of disaster recovery 2016. Retrieved from


Dealing with Breaches-IT SECURITY MANAGEMENT

Dealing with Breaches-IT SECURITY MANAGEMENT


“Dealing with Breaches” Please respond to the following:

  • Once a breach has occurred, it’s very important to know about it. Not only does a company need to know that it occurred, but it also needs to know the scope of the damage. Was data stolen? Were files damaged? Was a back door installed that will facilitate future breaches? This is the forensic part of information security. Describe one of the topics from this week that you think would make a good episode of a crime drama like CSI. How would the main character go about solving the crime and identifying the perpetrator using the tools you’ve learned about? Have fun throwing in plot twists on your classmates’ posts.

Sample paper

Dealing with Breaches

One of the topics that would a good episode of a crime drama series is “Dealing with Breaches”. The main character would apply several steps in solving the security breach incident. First, the main character would have to visit the affected business and conduct the investigations from there. The first step would involve identifying the nature of the attack. In this, the main character would seek to identify the system, services, or devices that were compromised by the breach. According to Harris (2017), it is important to investigate a number of aspects concerning the breach, such as a thorough examination of the logs. The main character would start by examining the logs in search for unusual or malicious patterns. This would give clues about how the system was hacked, when the attack occurred, the data exposed, and the employees at risk of having their identity stolen.

The main character would then aim at determining the source of the attacks. In this case, the main character would evaluate whether the attack comes from a host within the network or from outside the information system perimeter. The main character would also gather the information relating to the command towers as well as the control servers used to launch the attacks. This would involve collecting information such as domain names, IP addresses, host, and other vital information. After collecting all the information, the main character can accurately verify the nature of the attack. For instance, the attack may be DDoS, data theft, remote access, or other type of attack. It is important to notify the law enforcement agencies about the data breach (Harris, 2017). The law enforcement agencies may also help in analyzing the nature of the attack to determine whether it fits a larger pattern or whether it is unique to the company.

Another critical step is determine whether the breach is specific to the company or whether it has affected the entire industry. If the breach is company-specific, the main character should determine the agenda of the attack (Fowler, 2016). A wide number of reasons including political, social, and economic reasons could have motivated the perpetrators. The main character would then seek ways to quarantine the damage and prevent further attacks from happening. The main character should identify the affected servers, computers, and other devices. These should be quarantined to prevent further attacks. Failure to quarantine may lead to the spread of the virus to other parts of the system. On the other hand, taking the entire network offline may negatively affect the business and may not solve the issue at hand.

The main character would then engage in measures to disinfect the servers, computers, and affected servers (Fowler, 2016). During this process, the main character may try to compare the backup data before infection and post infection. This would allow the main character to gain insight into the possible damage caused by the data breach. The main character should also make copies of the illegal content found in the system. The illegal content is important since it may serve as evidence in legal proceedings. Lastly, the main character should develop a communication plan on how to inform the relevant stakeholders of the data breach. The stakeholders include the customers, the investors, owners, and the public.


Fowler, K. (2016). Data breach preparation and response: Breaches are certain, impact is not.
Cambridge, MA : Syngress is an imprint of Elsevier

Harris, J. P. (2017). Dealing with a data breach: Steps commonly undertaken when employee or customer information is stolen. New Hampshire Business Review, 39(9), 12.


Mitigating Attacks

Ensuring Current Defenses


“Ensuring Current Defenses”

  • Making sure your defenses are current is a major function of the IT professional team at any company. This week’s studies offer lots of suggestions on how to manage this. What concepts and topics do you think are most important, and how do you see yourself and your team implementing such suggestions when you get on the job?Security architecture vulnerabilities, threats, and countermeasures,Security operations

Sample paper

Ensuring Current Defenses

There are some critical concepts in enhancing the defense of the security systems. One of the concepts is implementing a layered security system. This because any single security defense system may have certain flaws and thus vulnerable to a particular attack. A series of defenses may help cover the vulnerabilities or gaps of the different defense systems, thus enhancing the overall capabilities of the security system. Layered security might involve one or more of security procedures. The IT professional team may choose from among firewalls, malware scanners, anti-spam applications, privacy controls, intrusion detection systems, data storage encryption tools, and among others. Implementation of administrative and physical controls may further improve the resilience of the security system to attacks.

Another important concept is to regularly update and patch the security systems as well as the computer applications (Young, 2013). Frequent updating is vital in reducing the vulnerability of the security system to various external threats. The effectiveness of the security system will depend on the frequency of updating the programs, various applications, and the operating system. Automatic updating of the security systems, applications, and operating systems would offer the best guarantee in reducing the vulnerability to various internal and external risks (Young, 2013). Another way is to set the frequency of security systems update. This may be necessary where updating the security system, applications, and operating systems interfere with the normal organizational operations. The IT team may schedule updates to take place at a time when there would be minimal disruptions to the normal workflow.

One of the crucial topics is security architecture vulnerabilities, threats, and countermeasures. This topic explores a wide range of issues concerning security threats and vulnerabilities (Stewart, Chapple, & Gibson, 2012). The first part of the topic covers vulnerabilities associated with security architectures such as state attacks, covert channels, and emanations. The part also covers technology aspects and process integration. State attacks are those targeting the timing and data flow. They may also disrupt the transition process from one state to another. Covert channel refers to a method of passing information through unique paths (Stewart, Chapple, & Gibson, 2012). By using a covert channel, hackers may be able to gain access to information without detection. The topic focuses on the issue of emanations, which relates to the normal electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic components during normal operations. In order to eliminate interception of emanations, it is necessary to apply cable shielding and physical controls to ensure that unauthorized persons do not go near sensitive equipment.

The topic is critical in understanding threats facing distributed architecture systems. This involves security vulnerabilities and threats facing client-based, web-based, server-based, and distributed systems (Stewart, Chapple, & Gibson, 2012). The topic also provides general safeguards that apply to distributed architecture systems, for instance, the need to screen emails since they may contain malicious software. Another important topic is security operations. Security operations are vital since this enhances the detection of changes that could have resulted out of a possible breach. The essence of security operations is to ensure the integrity of the entire information system. This involves monitoring of databases, networks, web sites, data centers, servers, and applications. These suggestions are very applicable to the real job scenario. For instance, screening emails will help in reducing malware attacks or downloading of malicious software. Another application is the need to implement physical safeguards that limit access to sensitive areas or equipment.


Stewart, J. M., Chapple, M., & Gibson, D. (2012). CISSP. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Young, P. (2013). Untangling the web: A guide to Internet research. Retrieved from               date+and+patch+security+systems&source=gbs_navlinks_s


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