Category Archives: law assignment help

Pretrial Procedures, warrants, probable cause


Assume a law enforcement officer has probable cause to arrest a defendant for armed assault, and he also has probable cause to believe that the person is hiding in a third person’s garage, which is attached to the house.

  1. What warrants, if any, does the officer need to enter the garage to arrest the defendant? What if the officer is in hot pursuit of the defendant? What if the defendant is known to be injured and unarmed? Provide evidence to support your answer.
  2. Formulate a set of circumstances in which there is probable cause to search but not probable cause to arrest or in which there is probable cause to both arrest and to search.
  3. Mr. A walks into a police station, drops three wristwatches on a table, and tells an officer that Mr. B robbed a local jewelry store 2 weeks ago. Mr. A will not say anything else in response to police questioning. A quick investigation reveals that the three watches were among a number of items stolen in the jewelry store robbery
  4. Do the police have probable cause to do any or all of the following?

Arrest Mr. A

Arrest Mr. B

Search Mr. A’s home

Search Mr. B’s home

  1. If you answered no to any of the above, explain why in detail. If you answered yes to any of them, draft the complaint or affidavit for a warrant or explain why a warrant is not needed.

Sample paper

Pretrial Procedures, warrants, probable cause

Often when people are questioned by officers of law question individuals, they are afraid to foot away from the law enforcers. What most individuals do not know is that until they have been formally detained or arrested, these law officers have no power or authority to prevent them from walking away. However, when an officer obstructs an individual from footing away, that individual has already been arrested as the Constitution allows them to make arrests provided that they have probable cause. The primary aim of this assignment is to address whether the law officer had probable cause to rely that the suspect is hiding in the third person’s garage as well as assume that the police officer who may or may not have probable cause to arrest a defendant can proceed with the arrest (Strutin, 2015).  Moreover, the assignment will attempt to explain whether the officer in question needs or does not need the warrant to search the premises as well as arrest the suspect who is in the third person’s property.  Also, this study will attempt to identify if the law officer of the law is in hot pursuit with the accused and if the suspect can be described as injured and armed and explain the probable cause to arrest Mr. A and Mr. B and hunt their residences.

Question 1 a

The constitution of the country states clearly that every citizen has the right to be untroubled in his person, house, paper and effects against unwarranted hunts and consfications. As a result, for the officer of the law to enter the garage of the third person to arrest the defendant, he needs to have a warrant to arrest as required by the constitution. Moreover, for the officer to obtain this warrant he or she has probable cause, subsidized by the swearing of affirmation and especially expounding on the location or premises to be hunted, and the person and things to be confiscated (Israel, 2014). No officer of the law has the right and the power to an unwarranted search and confiscate considering that the rights of the defendant or the accused are protected unless there is a court warrant supported by oath of affirmation.  Moreover, it is worth noting that an officer of law executing a warrant to search is always limited to search in the area and place stated in the warrant only. Thus, the warrant to search, in this case, should clearly state and describe the third person’s garage for it to be valid.  Besides, a misidentification will eventually nullify the warrant of frisk unless the officer in the charge could not mistake the area and place to be frisked.

Question 1 B

Not every hunt, confiscation or arrest must be made under a legally executed warrant. Often, the officers of law pursue suspects when they escape or run, but have a reasonable suspicion and probable cause to pursue them. As a result, the constitution gives power and authority to officers of the law to arrest suspects and defendants whom they believe they are in the process of committing a crime or has already committed the crime without a warrant of arrest.  In such a case, the officer may search the defendant’s belongings and residence to obtain the necessary evidence as well as protecting himself and the general public. Such arrest cases are common in the case of hot pursuit (O’Malley, 2015). In most cases, when a suspect or a defendant is caught in hot pursuit, the officer has the right to search the impounded vehicle to make an inventory of its contents as well as gathering evidence.  Thus, if the officers of the law are not in hot pursuit of the defendant and have no warrant to search the garage, they have no right to arrest or search the third person’s garage.

Question 1C

Someone commits act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on purpose. However, not all criminal activities go as intended and at times the defendant may injure his or herself in the process. A defendant can violate his or her rights of protection when they have illegal arms or have committed a crime against the state, a police officer or another individual. In such a case, the police officer handling the case has the right and the Authority to protect and defend the general public from criminal himself or herself and any criminal acts and activities (Laurin, 2014). Thus, the defendant has a right to see a medic and receive medication for his or her injuries, but they will be arrested or confined to a secure location. Upon fully recovering from the injuries, the defendant will eventually be sent to jail to await their arraignment in a court of law as well counsel.

Question 2

Probable cause widely invokes to the demands of the criminal law that the police officers have concrete and adequate evidence to arrest a suspect, frisk or even confiscate property about an alleged crime. Often, for an officer to secure an arrest warrant, he or she has to sign a testimony indicating that the facts as to why probable cause exists to detain a person. On the other side, probable cause for detention is legal when the events and scenarios within the police’s evidence would make a sensible individual  to believe that the accused has committed, is committing or is about to commit a crime (Rivera, 2016). The circumstances below show when both probable cause for arrest and probable cause for search are valid.

Take a case of Johnson, a drug peddler in the street of New York. He gets his drugs from a neighboring state of New Jersey only to sell them in New York. Two neighbors have reported suspicious activities in Johnson’s house, especially at night. The police conduct an investigation and find out that Johnson is a drug dealer. If the police force presents their case to a judge, they will obtain a search warrant to search and seize any drugs in Johnson’s house. If any drugs are impounded, the officers have the rights to detain and arrest Johnson.


Question 3

Arrest Mr. A – the police officer at the station has the right and the power to detain Mr. A with or without probable cause for handling stolen goods. Also, the police has the authority to frisk Mr. A if he relies beyond reasonable doubt that he could be one of the people who robbed the store and turned himself in only to blame Mr. B which would give the police reasons and probable cause to conduct a hunt. The officer may detain Mr. A and confiscate the three watches as evidence for some time before being released (O’Malley, 2015). However, he should file a stolen property report to justify his actions as well as pave the way for an investigation regarding the robbed local jewelry store.

Arrest Mr. B – The officer at the station must prove that he or she has a reasonable doubt and probable cause that Mr. B was involved in the reported robbery. As a result, the officer must obtain a warrant of search as well as arrest from a court judge to proceed with the search and arrest.  The quick investigation conducted that revealed that the three watches were actually among the stolen jewelry is not enough, and Mr. A needs to sign an oath of affirmation about his information of the robbery considering that he was not willing to say anything regarding the robbery when questioned.

Search Mr. A house – considering that Mr. A was already in possession of stolen goods; the officers have the right and power to search his house with or without a warrant.  With the stolen goods in his possession, the police officers may believe that he has already committed the crime and for public safety, they should search his residence.

Search Mr. B house – considering that there is no enough evidence that Mr. B participated in the robbery except the world of mouth from Mr. A who refused to answer any questions about the crime; the officers need to obtain a warrant for search and arrest since Mr. is protected by the united states constitution (Laurin, 2014). The judge must establish credibility and reliability in the facts provided by the police before giving out the warrant.


Israel, J. &. (2014). Criminal Procedure, Constitutional Limitations in a Nutshell, 8th. . West Academic.

Laurin, J. E. (2014). Quasi-Inquisitorialsim: Accounting for Deference in Pretrial Criminal Procedure. . Notre Dame L. Rev., 90,, 783.

O’Malley, M. (. (2015). Witness intimidation in the digital age: intimidation in pretrial proceedings-the Philadelphia experience. Prosecutor, . Journal of the National District Attorneys Association, 49(1), , 16-24.

Rivera, A. (. (2016). Probable Cause and Due Process in International Extradition.

Strutin, K. (. (2015). DNA without Warrant: Decoding Privacy, Probable Cause and Personhood. Browser Download This Paper.


History of Court Systems

History of Court Systems

History of Court Systems

Voluminous research regarding the role of nature and nurture in influencing offender characteristics exist today. Much of this research attempts to shed light on the influence of nature or nurture in determining criminal behavior. Earliest studies on the subject are Jukes family study and Kallikak family study. The study findings indicate a positive correlation between criminal behavior and family background. However still, some proponents point out to the environment/nurture as the key determinant of criminal behavior on both studies. This may be an indication that both nature and nurture plays critical role in shaping behavior of individuals. Nonetheless, some studies assert that nurture has a strong role in influencing an individual’s behavior. This paper examines the nature/nurture controversy with regard to characteristics of offenders.

The Jukes family study is among various studies that provides insights into the nature/nurture controversy. Elisha Harris conducted initial investigations into the Jukes family to establish the nature of offender characteristics. He noted that for six generations, Jukes family had maintained a history of criminal behavior (Lombardo, 2012). A large number of family members turned out to become criminals, vagrants, and paupers. For example, one generation had fourteen children, nine of whom received incarceration for antisocial behavior. Picking from where Harris left, Dugdale conducted further research into Dukes family, noting that majority were poor, incarcerated for various crimes, or living in deplorable conditions (Lombardo, 2012). Dugdale propounded on the idea of heredity and the environment being a key determinant of criminal behavior in Jukes family.

The Kallikak family study is another attempt to determine the role of nature versus nurture in shaping criminal behavior. The study documents the aspect of feeble-mindedness in Kallikak family tree. The study is a documentation of five generations from two families. In the study, Goddard traced history of the family resulting from the marriage between Kallikak and a supposedly “feeble-minded woman” (Elks, 2005). This marriage resulted to feeble-minded children whom Goddard traced to five generations. Kallikak also had children with another woman described as “respectable” and as of noble character. The children from the second union gave rise to children who had good moral values and majority became wealthy. Goddard claimed that this was clearly an indication of inheritance as the most significant determinant of criminal behavior. Nonetheless, Kallikak family study is surrounded by controversies and criticisms from various quarters. A major criticism is the retouching of photographs in order to make those from the bad family lineage look more menacing (Elks, 2005).

Recent studies have shed more light on the nature/nurture controversy with regard to criminal behavior. Junger, Greene, Schipper, Hesper, and Estourgie (2013) assert that there is strong evidence suggesting that crime runs in families. However, the environment plays a critical role in determining whether an individual ends up acquiring antisocial behavior. Children exhibiting antisocial behaviors in early childhood are more likely to drop out of school and developing psychiatric disorders such as depression and substance addiction in later life. In addition, they have lower chances of finding employment and may thus end up in prison due to involvement in errant behavior. Nonetheless Junger et al., (2013) asserts that it is possible to avoid the negative consequences through taking early interventions. This shows that the environment has a critical role to play in shaping behavior. As such, the upbringing has a strong role to play in determining criminal behavior among individuals.

There is higher likelihood that a child born of a family with high number of incarcerated members acquires some form of antisocial behavior, which may lead to imprisonment. The Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development asserts that parents involvement in crime, especially the father, is a strong predictor to the involvement in crime of the son. Other critical factors that lead to a high propensity to commit crime are family violence and partner violence. This points to nurture as a critical factor in determining criminal behavior. On the other hand, the study indicates that nature has a role to play in determining criminal behavior. The study results indicate that 52.5% of all arrests in the study sample were family related, while 47.5% did not show any links to family (Junger et al., 2013).

The genetic component of criminal behavior manifests itself through genes that determine intelligence, aggression, emotions, and other aspects. Various studies attempt to identify specific links between antisocial behavior and the role of genetics. Bernet, Vnencak-Jones, Farahany, and Montgomery (2007) argue that men born with a specific form of allele derived from monoamine oxidase A gene are likely to manifest antisocial behavior as adults. Another form of allele present in serotine transporter gene increases an individual’s likelihood of developing depression and suicidal tendencies in adulthood.

In conclusion, characteristics of offenders such as propensity for violence and dishonest nature are determined by hereditary as well as environmental factors. Thus, it is possible that individuals who come family backgrounds with history of violence and other forms of antisocial behavior are likely to end up in prison. However, drawing on the vast literature available and from above, it is clear that environmental factors such as parenting are more significant compared to hereditary factors in shaping criminal behavior.


Bernet, W., Vnencak-Jones, C. L., Farahany, N., & Montgomery, S. A. (2007). Bad Nature, Bad Nurture, and Testimony Regarding MAOA and SLC6A4 Genotyping at Murder Trials.    Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52(6): 1362-1371.

Elks, M. A. (2005). Visual indictment: A contextual analysis of the kallikak family             photographs. Mental Retardation, 43(4), 268.

Junger, M., Greene, J., Schipper, R., Hesper, F., & Estourgie, V. (2013). Parental Criminality,      Family Violence and Intergenerational Transmission of Crime Within a Birth Cohort.       European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 19(2): 117-113.

Lombardo, P. A. (2012). Return of the Jukes: eugenic mythologies and internet evangelism. The Journal of Legal Medicine, 33(2), 207 – 233.


Alternatives to Incarceration

Alternatives to Incarceration


You have graduated from the Online Campus, and now you are working for Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) within the long-term planning department of private prisons. As a Private Prison Design Specialist, you have the authority to conceptualize future prisons around the prison issues of today and tomorrow, so your supervisor has turned to you to discuss some issues in a paper of 2–3 pages to be submitted for review. You have a reputation for thinking outside of the box while being realistic and because of this, your supervisor feels you can properly address alternatives to incarceration. Now you are to make the changes, as outlined below, based upon today’s resources and prison systems.

Prisons are overloaded with inmates who are incarcerated for drug offenses. What is an alternative to incarcerating them? Describe how you would handle this type of problem without incarceration, and give reasons supporting why your solution would be more cost-effective and prone to rehabilitation.

Sample paper

Alternatives to Incarceration


As a Private Prison Design Specialist, it is critical to come up with long-term solutions to the current congestion problems at most of the prisons in the U.S. There is an urgent need to address congestion issues at prisons through long-term planning and seeking alternatives to incarceration especially in relation with individuals who commit minor crimes. Currently, more than half of those incarcerated are due to minor offences such as drug peddling, which can be addressed through other means to avoid overloading of the prisons. This paper addresses some of the alternatives to incarceration that the Corrections Corporation of America (CCA) can adopt to avoid overloading of prisons.

Alternatives to Corrections


Those found guilty for various drug offences should undergo community corrections or probation. Probation occurs when the offender remains within the community but with limited freedom and under certain obligations (Phelps, 2016). A probation sentence places various restrictions or obligations on the offender during the entire probation period. For instance, the offender may be subject to random urine tests, the offender may be under house arrest, it could be mandatory to meet a probation officer on specific period, the offender may be subject to mandatory community service, or the offender may participate in a drug and substance abuse rehabilitation program. Failure to adhere to the requirements of the probation may attract heavier penalties such as strict supervision and at times serving time in prison. According to Families Against Mandatory Minimums (2011), probation costs about $9.92 per day per inmate compared to imprisonment which is more than $ 50 per day per prisoner. As such, probation is much cheaper comparing to incarceration.

Electronic Home Monitoring

Electronic home Monitoring (EHM) or house arrest refers to a sentence that requires the offender to stay in particular areas such as their homes (Pattavina, 2009). However, a house arrest sentence may allow an offender to go to some preapproved areas such as attending court sessions or work. The offender should not, under any circumstances go to unauthorized areas such as bars where he/she is likely to engage in drug use or selling. Offenders placed under EHM sentence wear electronic devices that send signals to the police department informing them of the offender’s whereabouts at all times. The offender wears the electronic device at either the hand or ankle. Offenders may take drug tests on a regular basis to ensure they remain clean during the entire period. Failure to comply with these obligations or failing a drug test can lead to severe punishment for the offender such as serving a prison sentence. According to Pattavina (2009), the average cost for an offender on EHM is between $5 and $15 per day, compared to about $80 per day for incarcerated prisoners.

Fines. This is another effective alternative to incarceration for drug offenders. In this alternative, the offender pays fines, fees, and costs incurred in court. This form of punishment is most effective while used in addition to other form of punishment such as probation (Orrick & Vieraitis, 2015). Contrary to the current system, fines should depend on the offender’s income. The current system levies fixed fines for some drug-related offences such as driving under the influence of alcohol. Such a system may be lenient to those with high incomes and on the other hand may be too high for those with relatively low incomes. As such, fines should depend on the income of the offender so that they may be effective. Fines can be effective in deterring drug-related offenses since inability to pay the fine may lead to even higher punishment such as imprisonment. Fines may be cost effective since the government does not have to spend taxpayer’s money on maintaining offenders in prison. Rather, the offenders pay the government for the costs incurred such as court costs.

Restorative justice. Restorative justice is another suitable alternative to incarceration that that Corrections Corporation of America can implement. Restorative justice is a form of punishment that entails holistic sentencing (FAMM, 2011). The main idea behind restorative justice is to bring healing to all individuals impacted by the act. In dealing with drug related offences, offenders should first undergo a mandatory therapy program or counselling. Those who fail to complete the program successfully should face severe punishment such as imprisonment for a particular period. On the other hand, those who successfully complete the program should help law enforcement officers reach out to drug addicts and other type of offenders in order to help them quit the vice. For instance, they can help fight drug abuse in schools and in community as part of their commitment to stop drug use for a particular period. Restorative justice may be cheaper to incarceration, which costs about $80 per prisoner per day. Therapy programs are effective to incarceration in helping drug addicts quit the vice. Majority of drug offenders who reenter the community face the risk of recidivism.

To conclude, there is need for alternative solutions to incarceration in order to deal with the current problem of prison overcrowding. Some of the effective alternative solutions to prison overcrowding include probation, Electronic Home Monitoring, fines, and restorative justice. These alternative methods are cheaper in terms of costs comparing with incarceration, while also providing the benefit of less overcrowding in prisons.


Families Against Mandatory Minimums (FAMM). (2011). Alternative to incarceration in a          nutshell. Retrieved from        in-a-Nutshell-7.8.pdf

Orrick, E. A., & Vieraitis, L. M. (2015). The cost of incarceration in Texas: Estimating the           benefits of reducing the prison population. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(2),         399 – 415. doi:10.1007/s12103-014-9265-3

Pattavina, A. (2009). The use of Electronic Monitoring as persuasive technology: Reconsidering the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring. Victims &          Offenders, 4(4), 385 – 390. Doi:10.1080/15564880903260611

Phelps, M. S. (2016). The paradox of probation: community supervision in the age of mass          incarceration (excerpted). Federal Sentencing Reporter, 28(4), 283.


Explain difference between the following court systems  and their role in government ;

Introduction to American Court System

Introduction to American Court System

Jones, February 6, 2005, cocaine possession was his third drug offense. Under state and federal law there exists a rule called the three-strikes law, the law varies greatly from state to state with 28 states in the country that carry out the three-strikes laws (Walsh, 2007). The imposition of the three-strike law is to ensure that repeat offenders are continuously imprisoned. The law in Texas allows for the application of the three-strike law. I am of the opinion that in the case of Jones where he is a third offender he should be convicted under state law.

In Kansas, felonies are defined as crimes that can be prosecuted by a state term of a year or more. Proceeding with the case under state law will mean that the offender will receive mandatory sentencing. For a third strike offense of drug possession in Kansas, the mandatory sentencing is up to 42 months incarceration. Possession of marijuana as a third offense is presumed to be a drug severity level 5 felony that is punishable by incarceration for ten months’ probation and 42months incarceration with a maximum fine imposed at $100,000.

If we proceed with the case as a drug paraphernalia offense, we risk the sentencing that can be meted out against the defendant will change depending on the severity level. Possession of drug with an intention to cultivate is considered drug severity level 5 felony that is punishable by a ten months’ imprisonment and a fine not exceeding $100,000.  Possession with intent to use paraphernalia to store or ingest is considered a class A non-person misdemeanor punishable by one-year incarceration and fine not exceeding $2,500. Sale of the same paraphernalia is a class A nonperson misdemeanor liable to the maximum of 1-year imprisonment and fine not exceeding $2,500. I believe we should proceed with the case as a drug paraphernalia case.

I recommend filing the case in the city of Wichita. The offender, Jones has collaborated with the law enforcement officers to enable them to get a conviction. The drug court program under the City of Wichita Municipal Court is a program aimed at providing a nontraditional therapeutic approach to dealing with drug offenders. In a drug court the prosecutor, probation officers, a treatment provider and the defendant’s attorney, in this case, Jones will work to influence a substance free behavior to the defendant. Because the offense can be commuted to a paraphernalia possession, the defendant will have to enter a plea of guilty and he will commence with the drug court program without the case ever being set for trial. The defendant must complete a minimum one-year program that includes treatment, random drug testing, and regular court appearances. A successful completion of the requirements as laid out by the drug court will see the charges dismissed, and the defendant will be given an opportunity to avoid a criminal conviction.

Article 2 of Kansas rules of evidence states that at trial the witness testimony must and should be taken in an open court unless otherwise provided by law. The testimony of the undercover agents is sufficient as evidence against Smith. The erroneous admission of evidence in violation of a constitutional rights is governed by a federal rule called the federal constitutional error rule that contains therein provision which states that an error is harmless only if the reviewing court can be able to declare beyond any reasonable doubt that error had little, if any, the likelihood of changing outcome of a trial. The evidence offered as a testimony of the undercover agents, in this case, is relevant to the disputed fact, which is a drug sale. It is, therefore, imperative to state that the evidence is and can be admissible before a court of law.

In Kansas, the sentencing guidelines are very specific, and the charges preferred against an offender will largely depend on the person’s prior charges and the amount of drugs that he is alleged to have been selling. A person that has been accused of selling Cocaine like Smith might be looking at very serious time in prison of around 14 to 51 months or 4with general original jurisdiction years behind bars as a felony record. The place of suit for the offense committed by Smith the most appropriate and suitable court with competence to entertain such a case is the Kansas District Court. It is a creation of the constitution with both general and original jurisdiction over all civil and criminal cases.

Original jurisdiction of the District Court is its power to hear a case for the first time, basing my argument on this premise, I am of the opinion that since this case has not been heard before the District Court is the appropriate place of suit for the case. General jurisdiction refers to the power of the court to hear all types of cases except those which have been prohibited by the laws of the state, in this particular case Kansas. The District court also has general jurisdiction to hear the case since it is not barred by any state law. If it is a felony charge that involves 450grams to 30kg the sentencing will be 92 to 144 months and a fine of $300,000. If it involves 30kg or more, the sentencing will be 138 to 204 months behind bars and a maximum fine of $300,000. It is important to note that the sentencing that will be meted out to Smith will greatly depend on the category and drug severity level.

It is a rule that when a party to a case asserts an error without providing any argument or authority that supports the assertion, an appellate Court cannot address the appellant’s claim of an error in the case. In this case scenario the defendant, Mr. Thompson is on record to having sold Jones, the informant cocaine on five different occasions. It is also on record that Thompson has never sold to the undercover cops as he is very wary of acquiring new customers. The sales made to Jones were personally observed by the undercover detectives. Once a criminal prosecution against a defendant has commenced, the defendant’s statements that he makes to an undercover informant that is acting as an agent for the state cannot be used against the accused in a trial for any reason including impeachment of the defendant’s testimony.

The credibility of having Jones stand as prosecution witness with the aim of a successful conviction is highly in doubt, and upon the face of the law, it will not be accepted. In the State of Kansas v. Donnie Ray Ventris. The petitioner petitioned the Court to review Court of Appeals decision that affirmed his convictions for aggravated robbery and aggravated burglary. The petitioner is the assertion that the district court had improperly admitted into evidence an impeachment testimony from a jailhouse informant that had been surreptitiously planted in his jail cell by the state. The Court held that the admission of the informant’s statements as evidence in the case was a violation of the Sixth Amendment right to counsel. It is, therefore, sufficient to say that Jones testimony as evidence cannot be relied upon by the prosecution. In any attempt to introduce a case for

In a case of Walder v the United States. The case allowed for the admission of illegally obtained evidence to impeach a defendant even though the evidence was not admissible in the government’s case-in-chief. The prosecution has to share with the defense any information that forms the basis of the defendant’s case. The prosecution normally has to disclose all the witnesses that are relevant to the case regardless of whether or not they will testify; they often don’t have to reveal the informant’s identity. During the trial the prior convictions of the confidential informants can be used to rebut witness statements, there are instances when the informants were convicted offenders, liars or even double agents (Kelly, 2016).

The appropriate place of suit for the case is the state court of Kansas. A federal court has jurisdiction over drug-related offenses that involve bringing or transportation of drugs into the country. The case at hand involves a drug dealer, the court with jurisdiction to ensure the Minimum mandatory sentencing is the State court. It has jurisdiction over drug-related offenses that take place within the state.


Didier, M.A.(n.d) Kansas Felony Crimes by Class and Sentences. Retrieved from:                    offense/kansas-felony-class.htm

Kansas Laws & Penalties (2016). Retrieved from:

Kelly, A. (2016) Learning the Identity of a Confidential Informant. Retrieved from:                   informant.html

Walsh, J. E. (2007). Three strikes laws. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Explain difference between the following court systems  and their role in government ;


Explain difference between the following court systems  and their role in government ;Criminal,Civil,Trial,Appeals,Courts of last resort,Courts of general jurisdiction,Courts of specific jurisdiction

Sample paper

Court systems

Every country in the world has an arm of the government that is usually known as the judiciary. This arm of the government has the duties and responsibilities of interpreting the laws made by the legislature to ensure there are justice and fairness in that particular country. The court’s system in most if not all countries in the globe interpret and applies the law on behalf of the state. Moreover, the court systems also provide a mechanism and ways for settling disputes through various methods such as negotiation, mediation, and the court system. In countries that have both federal and state governments such as the United States, the court system comprises of both state and federal courts, tribunals and all administrative bodies (Langton, 2007). This paper attempts to differentiate various court systems as well as stating their roles in the government.

  1. Criminal – there is no one single country in the universe that can claim that it does not witness criminal activities in the country and that is the main reason as to why the criminal court system is important in each and every country. The criminal court system consists of agencies that provide processes and policies that are usually adopted by the government or the administrative organ in the country to curb criminal activities as well as punishing all criminals by imposing penalties. There is no single best way that criminal court works, and they all depend on the rules and regulation in their area of jurisdiction. A criminal court system helps to minimize criminal activities in a country.
  2. Civil court system – usually, courts systems are a dividend by what they handle. The Civil court system is tasked with handling legal disputes that do not fall under the criminal court system. All attorney, judges, and law firms have to choose one particular legal dispute that they specialize in, but it needs not to fall under criminal law. An example of non-criminal law includes patent law and divorce law. In these legal disputes, there is no prosecution by the government, unlike criminal law(Nicholson, 2008).
  3. Trial – through this system, the accused and the plaintiff have a chance to present their evidence in the case at hand and then the judge and the jury makes his decision regarding the case presented to him by the evidence presented. Cases are first heard for the first time in trial courts, and the jury can determine whether there is a case or not.
  4. Appeals – Appeal court system gives a chance to the accused to have his decision reviewed if he or she feels that the jury or the judge was unfair or too harsh in their judgment. However, the appeal court systems do not open a new case but rather listens to oral arguments to arrive at a decision.
  5. Court of last resort – the Supreme Court which is the most powerful court is usually regarded as the court of last resort. It has the power and mandate to listen and decide crucial issues on the constitution and statutory law and provides clarity in case of any confusion. Its decision is final and cannot be challenged.
  6. Courts of general jurisdiction – courts of general jurisdiction have the power and mandate to listen to all types of courts regardless of their nature as long as they are not prohibited by the laws of a country or state. Such courts help to loosen congestion that may be witnessed in other courts because it can deal with all kind of cases(Fowler, 2009).
  7. Courts of specific jurisdiction – specific jurisdiction arises from the defendant having particular lowest contacts with the forum state so that the court can proceed with its hearing whose issue may arise from minimum contacts


Fowler, F. C. (2009). olicy studies for educational leaders: An introduction. . Allyn & Bacon/Pearson..

Langton, L. &. (2007). State Court Organization, 1987-2004.

Nicholson, P. (2008). Borrowing court systems: The experience of socialist Vietnam. Melbourne Law School Research Paper Series,, (352).

Crime prevention proposal



You have been elected mayor of the imaginary city of Pleasantville and are tasked with solving the crime problem. Design and present a policy proposal that will holistically address the issue. It is not essential that you come up with an original idea. As we will learn in this course, there are several practices and programs that have been found to work in preventing crime and delinquency. You are encouraged to replicate these programs (as long as you correctly describe their components, their theoretical rationale, and their evaluation outcomes).

Individual Paper:
Your paper must coincide with your assigned role as mayor, but the content of your paper may be broader. Your paper must answer the following questions:
1. What is the problem your policy suggestions aim to address?
2. Is there empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the crime preventions strategy you propose to implement?

You may propose a fairly specific program (e.g. Drug Abuse Resistance Education), a closely related set of programs (e.g., mentoring programs, family training programs), or a more loosely related set of programs (e.g., the war on drugs, gun control).
Outline the strategy you select and describe the strategy. Discuss the rationale or theoretical justification behind the strategy, the extent to which the strategy has been implemented, evidence on the effectiveness of the strategy, and any special disadvantages or advantages associated with the strategy (e.g., is it expensive, does it violate rights, does it have positive outcomes on other variables besides crime and delinquency, and your recommendations, etc.).

Include the following details:
1. The paper must be 3–5 pages. There is no need to include a running head.
2. Include a title page.
3. Include in-text citations and a reference section at the end of your paper using current APA style.
4. Your crime prevention policy proposal must come from a biblical perspective. This must be incorporated throughout your paper rather than simply citing Scripture references at the end. Generally, you must incorporate a biblical perspective and use a specific Scripture or passage of Scripture as your in-text citation.

Sample paper

Crime prevention proposal

Concerning the characteristics and extent of crime in the world today, the different media outlets have significantly played part in the modification of the facts and fictions about criminal activities. As a result, concepts regarding the origin of criminal behavior of adults and the youths have been widely distorted making it hard for security agencies to fight crimes effectively and successfully. A crime widely constitutes of unlawful acts that are punishable by the state or other authority bestowed in the country to fight crime. Crime is always established in the sinful characteristic of humankind and encompasses acting opposite to God’s standard laws revealed by his servant in the Holy Scriptures. Perpetration comes under the authority of the state or civil authorities while all crimes as outlined by the Bible and other religious books as sins and should be punishable by the law put in place (“Ideas, Institutions and Situational Crime Prevention,” n.d.,). Criminologists believe that criminals purposely choose their course of activities long before they participate in crime. Therefore, to successfully prevent delinquency and the increase rate of crime, there is the need to appeal to the attitudes and mentality of the youths and adults in an attempt to convince them to change their ways. Crime prevention largely focuses on formulating strategies and plans to deter crime and criminals. This assignment will largely focus on different strategies that a community or a security agency can employ to completely deter or reduce chances and opportunities for people to commit a crime.

In the recent years, crime is increasingly becoming a menace that each country faces and attempts to fight. Research indicates that society has direct impact in creating and developing criminals thus forcing the government and other agencies to impose many laws to curb the crime rate and make the world a better habitable place to live in although the results are not always pleasing.  Different nations fight perpetration in different ways with different levels of success. To effectively and successfully fight crime, it is necessary to understand what causes crime and what lead to the development of criminal behaviors in people. One of the best ways to curb criminal activities in a society is through building youth mentoring programs. According to the biblical perspective, preaching to the sinners and criminals is the best and most effective way to fight crime. Thus, through creation, development, and implementation of youth mentoring programs, the organizers can incorporate biblical teachings and be preaching in the attempt of bringing up the youths in a religious manner that discourages crime in the society. Mentorship comprises of activities of experienced and more knowledgeable individuals helping to guide the less experienced and less knowledgeable individuals, in this case, the youths or children. Mentoring is an effective tool to prevent youth violent and drug abuse which are the main causes of increase in crime in most parts of the globe (“Mentoring Programs Significantly Improve Outcomes For Youth: Studies Find Quality Mentoring Programs Can Enhance Youth Outcomes, But Poor Mentoring Relationships Can Harm Youth,” n.d.,). Statistics clearly indicates that through mentorship there is a significant reduction in the number of reported cases number of youths participating in criminal activities. Mentorship programs help to connect individuals with particular skills and knowledge with persons who need these skills and knowledge to improve their lives and influence their attitudes and mentality. Often, all the participants share their beliefs and personal objectives in a reciprocally respectful, supportive manner that prompts both parties to live a more enriched life.

For many youths, having an older or a senior person to talk to and spend time with as well as someone who provides encouragement and friendship makes the difference between criminals and successful youths. With a sensible senior who is ready to lend the youths a shoulder on which they can lean on, there is a high chance that they will not become involved with drugs and develop the strength and self-confidence to resist peer pressure. The Bible in the book of Proverbs has widely encouraged the youths to heed and act on the bits of advice they get from their seniors be it, parents or spiritual parents.  Proverbs 15:5 states that a fool despises his father’s instructions and advises but whoever heeds reproof is prudent.  Youths who participate in mentoring programs have a low probability, and likelihood to experiment with drugs, reduces the aggression of these youths physically and stands a low chance of skipping school and other teaching programs than their counterparts (Mekinda & Hirsch, n.d.). Through the creation, development, and implementation of mentoring programs to prevent crime, the mentors provide the all important and extra support that is lacking in most youths as they try to find their way in life. Mentorship programs are successful since they provide encouragement and guidance to the participants especially the youths. There are many advantages and benefits of a mentoring program that are likely to change the lives of the youths with the mentality and intentions of experimenting with drugs. Such benefits include:

  1. Mentoring project creates more opportunities and understanding for educators and trainers previously inaccessible due to many roadblocks, prejudices or lack alternatives.
  2. Mentor projects provide an affordable, quick way to pass valuable skills, moral values, and information, from one individual to another.
  3. Often, mentoring projects that specializes in youth counseling, individuals from outside this age group daily environment cooperate to repair and perfect a youth’s circumstance, to give the society a stake in her or his future life.
  4. Adults woodcraft are the best form of raising the children that includes the advancement of a usefulness state with the youths, the chance to give an account of personal experiences and history without the pressures of being legally responsible (Walker, n.d., p.).

Civil authorities globally categorize various activities and behaviors as criminal which are not according to most religious books including the Holy Scriptures and worshiping God. Mentoring is a powerful tool for building confidence, leadership skills and engagement with youths, which improves their personal safety, increases their engagement with the community and reduces risks and antisocial behavior. Additionally, psychologists believe that it is easy to change the mentality and attitude as well as the point of view of children between the ages of 1 to 10 compared to adults (“Ideas, Institutions and Situational Crime Prevention,” n.d.,).  Thus, by creating youth’s crime prevention mentoring programs, there is a high chance that the society will be in a position to curb the increase in crime in the society compared to changing the adult. By identifying the root cause of increased crime in the society which is a lack of guidance and advice as well as mentorship from the seniors, there is a high chance of successfully curbing crime. Therefore, the government and security agencies should strive to build an effective peer mentoring programs in schools and other training institutions to make sure that their emotional, mental and physical needs are fully attended and satisfied.


Ideas, Institutions and Situational Crime Prevention. (n.d.). Ethical and Social Perspectives on Situational Crime Prevention. doi:10.5040/

Mekinda, M. A., & Hirsch, B. J. (n.d.). After-School Programs. Handbook of Youth Mentoring, 221-232. doi:10.4135/9781412996907.n15

Mentoring Programs Significantly Improve Outcomes For Youth: Studies Find Quality Mentoring Programs Can Enhance Youth Outcomes, But Poor Mentoring Relationships Can Harm Youth. (n.d.). PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e480762006-001

Walker, G. (n.d.). Youth Mentoring and Public Policy. Handbook of Youth Mentoring, 510-524. doi:10.4135/9781412976664.n34

The Role of Schools in Crime Prevention


In chapter 14 of your text, the role of schools in crime prevention is discussed. What are some of the theoretical views regarding the importance of schools in developing behavior? What are some of the educational factors that affect delinquency? From biblical worldview, what should our response be to the effect school and education has on delinquent behavior?

Sample paper

The Role of Schools in Crime Prevention

Crime prevention, especially at an early age, is the best method to reduce as well as deter perpetration and criminal behavior in a community. However, to successfully prevent crime, there is the need for the community or strategist to learn and understand the root cause and the sources of criminal behavior. As a result, the introduction of school-based programs that can help to teach the youths and school children on dangerous or factors that can lead them into crime can help to change their attitude and mentality towards criminal activities (Kupchik, 2010,). Research shows that most of the youths engage in criminal activities because of lack of knowledge regarding crime. This assignment will attempt to show the importance of introducing school-based crime prevention programs.

Highest percentages of youths that engage in crime are always associated with drugs.  Thus, if schools can find a way to keep the youths and school students away from drugs, there is a high possibility that they can control criminal activities in society. Apart from training and educating the youths in various ways and techniques they can use to ensure that they do not end up committing crimes, schools can invent and introduce other crime prevention programs such as maintenance that are common among most youths addicted, detoxification and outpatient drug-free programs. The most paramount advancement in early prepuberty social cognition is the advancement of the theory of mind (Hinton, 2016).  Social cognition is at the core of children’s capability to integrate with other persons and to see things from their perspective.  As a long result, prevention programs such as education, information, knowledge, resistance skills as well as evidence on prevention programs have a better and strong chance of having a significant impact on the lives of children at an early age compared to adults. Therefore, most psychologists believe that it is easy to influence the attitude and mentality of the kids through the theory of mind which states that understanding each person has to do with their mental being considering that each person has his or her own mental states.

Schools have a great potential as a locus for crime prevention.  Often, these education programs offer constant access to students through the development years adequate with dedicated educators dedicated to helping the youths lead a healthy and happy life. Thus, schools are crucial to developing a behavior of youth. Some of the known factors that contribute to delinquency include to poor performance in school which discourages as they feel out of place and inferior to their peers (Hinton, 2016).  On the other side, insufficient education on criminology plays an important part in influencing these youths in joining criminal organizations which contribute to their criminal behaviors. Additionally, lack of strong moral guidance at both at school and at home widely influences the behaviors of the youths prompting them to join and participate in crime related activities. Acts of crime are innately moral actions, and as a result, educators and trainers should emphasize on changing the moral setup of a child’s behavior.

The Bible strongly discourages children and youths from defying advice from their superiors on how to lead a better life. In the book of Proverbs 15:5 the Bible says that “a fool despises his father instruction, but whoever heeds reproof is prudent.”  This verse is a clear indication that through training and education from parents and seniors, children and the youths, in general, can learn how to avoid crime and leave a happy and healthy life.


(2017). Retrieved 29 March 2017, from 323 LMS/Presentation 6 (LMS)/res/

Hinton, E. K. (2016). From the war on poverty to the war on crime: The making of mass incarceration in America.

Kupchik, A. (2010). Editor’s Introduction: Crime, Crime Prevention, and Punishment in Schools. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 26(3), 252-253. doi:10.1177/1043986210369287


Secondary Crime prevention


Chapter 10 of your text talks about predicting future offending. First, how does your text define secondary prevention? What are the common risk factors associated with offending/repeat offending? Given these risk factors, what are fruitful crime prevention approaches? Is there anywhere in the Bible where we read that certain types of behaviors/conditions of the heart (risk factors) lead to criminal behavior

Sample paper

Crime prevention

For decades, the police force has been given the responsibilities and duties to protect the people of a nation and minimize if not eliminate crimes in a region. It is worth noting that the duties and responsibilities of preventing unlawful and punishable activities by the state and other authorities should not be solely be left in the hands of the police force and other security agencies but rather should be a collective effort. Often, criminal activities are aimed at harming not only an individual but an entire community, society or a country. Therefore, there is the need for all security agencies as well as the general public to design, create and develop ways to which they can prevent these harmful activities before they take place (“Crime Prevention in the Twentieth Century,” n.d.,). The greater the numbers of risks factors present, the greater the risk of criminal involvement. Notably, secondary crime prevention programs are mainly focused on preventing crime before it happens as well as successive incidents. This assignment will focus and identify different approaches that can be employed to keep the society and the country in general safe preventing crime before it happens as well as successive crime.

There are some common factors that are often associated with repetitive crime and that influences people to commit criminal activities over and over again.  These factors include:

  1. Peer influence such as gang membership- when individuals associate themselves with criminal gangs, there is an increased probability that they will be influenced or forced to commit another crime by other gang members or friends (Farrington & Welsh, n.d).
  2. Peer and community rejection – in most cases, criminals find it very hard to integrate and relate well with their families and the community in general after serving their sentences forcing them to feel rejected and unwanted. Such conditions and instances force these individuals to fall back and continue to commit these crimes.
  3. Violent neighborhood and poor academic performance – insecure community and poor academic performance go hand in hand. When students and youths perform poorly in schools and live in a violent neighborhood, there is a high probability that they will end up in crime in an attempt to make their lives better.

Crime prevention seeks to create, develop and implement strategies to curb the increase of factors that lead to crime and victimization.  Given the common factors above, there are two major approaches that can be implemented to prevent crime and they include:

  1. Environmental crime prevention approach – this approach widely attempts to pervert the features of the ecology such as the neighborhood that may activate criminal minds and behavior (Farrington & Welsh, n.d). This approach helps to curb perpetration by planning as well as corrupting physical ecology to reduce possibilities and chances for crime to take place. For example, situational crime prevention that modifies contextual factors to limit chances of engaging in crime.
  2. Social crime prevention – unlike the environmental crime prevention approach that focuses on the physical environment, social crime prevention widely emphasizes on changing the underlying social and economic factors that lead to perpetration as well as criminal motivation to limit their chances of commit a crime (Sorensen, 2012). However, this approach may take the time to give substantial results, unlike the physical approach. For example, the developmental crime prevention approach helps to intervene in the early life of a child to make sure that they influence his or her social life and limit all the chances of the child getting in crime.

The Bible is strongly against criminal behavior and activities and in the book of Proverbs 1:10, the Bible says that “my sons, if sinners entice you, do not consent.” This verse clearly shows that the physical environment in which a person lives can trigger their criminal behavior, and it is upon them to decide what is right and what is wrong.  They should fight the feeling of engaging in crime.


Crime Prevention in the Twentieth Century. (n.d.). Crime Prevention: A Critical Introduction Crime prevention: A critical introduction, 5-27. doi:10.4135/9781446251317.n2

Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (n.d.). Family-based crime prevention. Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, 22-55. doi:10.4324/9780203166697_chapter_3

Sorensen, S. L. (2012). Situational Crime Prevention and Opportunity Blocking. Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention, 143-147. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-385246-5.00011-0

The Future Of Crime Prevention-Article Review


This purpose of this project is twofold:
1. To help you become more familiar with searching for peer-reviewed academic journal articles in the library database.
2. To become more familiar with reviewing empirical (research-based) literature and the findings presented.

For this assignment, search for a peer-reviewed journal article that assesses a crime prevention program or method. If there is a particular crime prevention method discussed in your text that interests you, you are encouraged to search for an article related to this topic.

Sample paper

Article Review

In The Future Of Crime Prevention: Developmental And Situational Strategies, (Welsh, 2010) discusses how crime prevention strategies will change in future. The author has reviewed other crime prevention approaches and analyzed their effectiveness.  In most cases, crime prevention seeks to prevent crime in the first instance, before the criminal activity is committed. Crime prevention falls as the fourth pillar of crime prevention after institutions such as police, courts, and corrections. Although there are many crime prevention that have been studied and applied over time, the article dwells on developmental and situational prevention measures. Developmental prevention is a strategy that is meant to prevent criminal potential in  people from developing. The strategy particularly targets protective and risk factor in human development studies.  Situational prevention is a strategy that seeks to reduce crime by increasing the risk and difficulty of engaging in criminal activity as well as reducing opportunities that lead to committing crime.

The goal of the article is to address and provide answers to three main questions relating to developmental and situational crime prevention currently and in the future. These are ;

  1. What do we know? This is mainly about how the two strategies are effective.
  2. What do we need to know? This addresses the gaps between the effectiveness of the strategies and the key issues related to them.
  • How can we find out? This question addresses the research strategies that can successively address the gaps in knowledge and what priorities should be considered in the research.

What do we know?

Developmental prevention targets early risk factors since most of them are well established and are replicable. Some of the predictors of delinquency that replicate over time and place include poor parental supervision, attention problems, having an antisocial parent, financial instability, being born to a young mother, coming from a broken home, large family size, poor school performance, impulsivity, and parental conflict among others. These factors can be linked to offending in one way or another.

What makes situational prevention different from developmental prevention is because it focuses on that place where the crime takes place as well as its crime-specific focus. It is known that crime is not randomly distributed across a city but rather, it is concentrated in some places. In the United States for example 10 percent of the places host around 60 percent of the crime.

What do we need to know?

As knowledge on developmental and situational crime prevention grows, there is a growing need to delve further into research in order to address a wide range of issues relating to effectiveness. Risk focused prevention has achieved considerable success over time. However, some of the risk factors identified may not lead to offending. It would be more efficient to focus on the root causes of offending rather than the risk factors. There should be mechanisms that mediate between intervention and outcomes. In addition, displacement of crime is a major concern that questions situational prevention strategy (Welsh, 2010).

How can we find out?

In order to address the gaps, a new method of longitudinal-experimental studies should be adopted. Combining longitudinal and experimental methods of research can yield better results. Longitudinal surveys are the best in determining the risk and protective factors of crime while experimental surveys establish the particular risk and protective factors that have casual effects.

In conclusion, the hypothesis of the study is correct. The already acquired knowledge about developmental and situational crime prevention is a good start in this journey. However, more research should be conducted in order to bring to light more about the issue. The methods of conducting research in order to fill the gaps should also be revisited in order to get the best results.


Welsh, B. (2010). The Future of Crime Prevention: Developmental and Situational Strategies. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved 28 March 2017, from

Crime prevention


Chapters 4–6 discuss various approaches and methods to crime prevention. First, define what is meant by primary prevention. Second, what are the 3 overarching crime prevention methods outlined in these chapters? Provide examples of these methods in action including their effectiveness or lack of effectiveness. Finally, is there a biblical precedence for any of these methods (use Scripture to support your points)?

Sample paper

Crime prevention

There is a reported increase in the number of crime in recent years in the society especially with the increase in technology. However, crime is always associated with violent neighborhood and drug abuse in the society. Primary crime prevention encompasses all the strategies and techniques created, developed and adopted in an attempt to fight and deter crime and criminal activities. Basically, primary crime prevention is often practiced by the government and other law agencies in the country through the application of force and laws as well as maintaining criminal justice. Therefore, criminologists are always on the front line to determine what contributes to the rise in criminal behavior as well as to analyze techniques and methods that can be applied to reduce the level of crime in a country effectively (Ayhan, 2016). Given the importance of security in a country, this assignment will attempt to identify and explain different ways security agencies can deter and reduce crime in a country.

The government can use different strategies to curb the spread of crime in a country without the use of force such as the use of environmental design to reduce if not completely eliminate crime. Crime prevention through environmental design integrates different approaches and disciplines to reduce crime through altering and modification of the physical environment to make sure that all factors that can trigger criminal behaviors are completely eradicated. This design relies on the ability to influence offender decisions, attitude and mentality that preceded crime. It is worth noting that crime prevention through environmental design can only work effectively in a built environment such as in urban areas. For example, the use of CCTV cameras and community lighting has significantly reduced the number of crime in the society. However, CCTV cameras may not be in a position to identify masked thieves and robbers.

Secondly, the government and security agencies can also use neighborhood crime prevention strategy to deter criminal activities in the societies. Neighborhood crime prevention widely known as neighborhood watch brings residents of an area together as a means of improving the security of an area through enhancing the knowledge of one another and their ability to recognize who does and who does not belong in the area. Any member of the community is open to joining these programs that seek to encourage the members of the community such as the youths to avoid and stay away from drugs which are the main contributor to the rising cases of crime in the society through the creation of community anti-drugs programs (Ayhan, 2016). This program may effectively curb the use of drugs and violence but may be unable to reduce the levels f other crime in the society such as theft and robbery.

The other strategy that can work miracles in the society is crime displacement. This strategy involves the relocation of crime or criminals from one area to another due to police crime prevention efforts such as taking the crime suspects to prisons and remand. For decades, crime displacement has been associated to problem-oriented policing but may also occur at other levels in the society. Taking criminals to prison may have both negative and positive effects given that prisoners are rational and can make informed and free-will decisions to engage in criminal activities or not.

The Bible encourages the youths and the general public to listen to their mentors and their seniors to heed to their advice and instructions and act upon the advice given for them to lead a healthy and comfortable life. Proverbs 15:5 states that “a fool rejects his father’s discipline instruction, but whoever heeds reproof is prudent.



(2017). Retrieved 1 April 2017, from

Ayhan, U. (2016). Crime Prevention Techniques and Crime Prevention in Turkey. Inquiry, 2(1).  


Evaluation and Crime Prevention