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Evaluation and Crime Prevention


Topic: Evaluation and Crime Prevention

Thread Prompt: Chapters 1 and 2 of your text discuss trends in crime over the past 3 decades and crime prevention through history. Chapter 3 begins by introducing the evaluation of crime prevention. Discuss the types of crime prevention evaluation your text outlines. Which of these methods has the most evidence supporting it?
The name of this class is Delinquency and Crime Prevention.

Sample paper

Evaluation and Crime Prevention

Law enforcement agencies record crime statistics in order to evaluate patterns in crime levels in the society. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is one of the agencies that records and provides official crime statistics in the country, through the Uniform Crime Reports (Lab, 2016). This report documents Part I crimes, which constitute murder, rape, burglary, robbery, auto theft, arson, property crimes, larceny, and violent crimes. The FBI does not include other forms of crime. The statistics indicate that violent crime rate have drastically fallen since reaching peak in 1993 (Lab, 2016). From 2000 to 2010, violent crime rate reduced steadily. However, there was a small spike in 2006. The level of violent crime rate in 2013 matched those in the period between 1968 and 1973. Property crime is also on a decline. This form of crime reached its peak in the 1980s (Lab, 2016). The current crime rates are higher comparing to crime rates in the 1960s.

Victimization statistics covers crimes that are not included in the official crime statistics list. Victimization surveys indicate that the rates have been on a decline over the last decade. The highest property victimization levels were recorded in 1980 (Lab, 2016). Since then, property victimization rates have been declining. On the other hand, victimization resulting from violent crime has fairly declined since 1994. In the period between 1970 and 1980, violent crime rates decreased significantly. This trend reversed from 1981 when violent crime rates rose steadily up to 1994. With regard to fear of crime, statistics indicate that about 40% to 50% of the population express some form of fear of a particular crime occurring (Lab, 2016).

Crime prevention is not a new idea, but one that has been around since ages. In the earlier days, the individual or family was responsible for crime prevention. Revenge was a common way of settling grudges among individuals. In about 1900 B.C., the Code of Hammurabi was established (Lab, 2016). This code advocated for vengeance as the ultimate way of settling scores among individuals. The Code of Hammurabi is popular for advocating the concept of “an eye for an eye”. Policing is a relatively new issue that emerged in France and Roman Empire. This was mainly in the cities and often dealt with issues involving the ruling authority. In 1066, the first citizen policing emerged (Lab, 2016). This was referred to as “obligatory policing”. In this system, men combined in groups that were responsible for maintaining discipline among the members. “Watch and Ward” followed this system, which involved men taking shifts to watch over a designated area. In 1285, the Statutes of Winchester gave the “watchers” the right to bear arms (Lab, 2016). Over the years, crime prevention has undergone various evolutions until the formation of formal police forces.

The text discusses three types of evaluations that include impact evaluation, process evaluation, and cost-benefit evaluation (Lab, 2016). Crime evaluation examines the efficacy of a particular intervention in deterring crime. Impact evaluations examine the efficacy of an intervention, program or policy in reducing crime rate. The aim is to examine the extent to which a particular intervention delivers desired results such as low recidivism levels. Process evaluation examines how a particular program may be effectively implemented. (Lab, 2016). The focus here is not on the end results, but the means and processes of reaching the end results. Lastly, a cost-benefit evaluation helps in analyzing the costs of a particular program Vis a Vis the benefits attributed to the program. Process evaluation has the most evidence supporting it.


Lab, S. P. (2016). Crime prevention: Approaches, practices, and evaluations (9th ed.). New         York, NY: Routledge

Related: Heritage Foundation Inc Organization Analysis

 Heritage Foundation Inc Organization Analysis 


Question/Prompt: For this assignment, you will choose 1 group, organization, etc. that is actively involved in engaging the culture. Possible groups include (but are not limited to):
•Heritage Foundation
•Patriot Academy
•Leadership Institute
•Liberty Counsel
•Live Action
•State specific organization such as the Texas Public Policy Foundation

The goal is to explain and analyze what the organization is doing to impact the culture. You can focus on the strengths and accomplishments of the group, or you could focus on its weaknesses and suggest ways the group could be more effective. 

Sample paper

 Heritage Foundation Inc Organization Analysis

Cultural heritage is one of the most treasured wealth in a community in the world today.  Culture has both social and economic impacts on the members of a social organization considering that it creates the paste that holds the community together and can be used to attract tourists. For a culture to successfully have impacts on the members of a social group, it has to have a cumulative deposit of knowledge, experiences, beliefs and values acquired by the group or individuals in the course of generations (Stanco, 2011). However, different communities have different and unique cultures from their neighbors which may be highly influenced by geographical location.

To be in a position to preserve, maintain and protect the culture of different communities, there are organizations in various states purposely formed to protect the cultural heritage of these communities. Heritage foundations are an example of these state organs whose primary mission is to create and popularize conservative public policies based on traditional values. The Cultural Heritage Foundation Inc. has a sole mission of collecting, preserving, and interpreting the architecture and the culture of southern California.

Some of the remarkable achievements of this state organ are fighting against amnesty for illegal immigrants in 2007. This heritage foundation was on the front line to stress the importance of improving border security. Additionally, this organization played a leading role in launching leadership for American campaign to restore the nation’s First Principle back to its rightful place in the heart of American society. However, the most recognized effort by the movement was defeating a treaty that could have left America so vulnerable in the form of the anti-ballistic missile treaty thus making way for deployment of missile defenses (Stanco, 2011). Moreover, the heritage foundation helped in fighting government spending in 2005 a marshal plan for the Gulf Coast in response to Hurricane Katrina.  With proper support and dedication, the foundation can achieve much more.


Stanco, F. B. (2011). Digital imaging for cultural heritage preservation: Analysis, restoration, and reconstruction of ancient artworks. . CRC Press.


Behavioral Theory: Behavior Plan


Resources: University of Phoenix Material: Individual Case Studies, University of Phoenix Material: Behavior Plan Template, and the ?Effective Treatment for Addicted Criminal Justice Clients? article located on the National Criminal Justice Reference Service website.

Use the ?Effective Treatment for Addicted Criminal Justice Clients? article as a sample for how to write a behavior plan. The ?Case Study? section near the end of the article provides a good example of a behavior plan.

Choose one behavioral theory from your course textbook.

Choose one of the following case studies from the University of Phoenix Material: Individual Case Studies:

Case One: Violet
Case Two: Max
Case Three: Onur

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Behavior Plan Template based on your selected behavioral theory for your selected case-study patient?Violet, Max, or Onur.Incorporate one peer-reviewed research study as justification for the theory you used in your plan.

Sample paper

Behavioral Theory: Behavior Plan


Client Identifying Information

List all pertinent and known identifying information.

Name Max Age Mid Thirties
Gender Male Religion Not Specified.

Describe all pertinent and known history.

Medical No terminal illnesses
Family Single. No other details about family are mentioned
Substance Abuse None
Developmental and Social Social person with a great personality.

Has weird sexual behavior.

Course of Treatment

List two target behaviors and two interventions.

Target Behaviors 1.Max should come up with a career plan 2. Max should not have multiple sexual partners.
Frequency and Duration of Target Behaviors 1. Max should be consistent in his jobs and should not change jobs unless he gets a better deal. 2.Max should choose one partner with whom he can build a long lasting relationship
Severity and Number of Relapses 1. If Max changes jobs twice in 6 months, an action will be taken against him. 2. If he has more than one partner in a year, a legal action will be taken.
Interventions 1. Max can show that he has changed by reporting to the criminal justice system accompanied by a representative from his employer. In addition, he should present a certificate of good conduct to his employer every six months. 2. Max together with his partner should attend therapy sessions to help him adopt positive behavior.

Goals and Objectives

List two long-term goals, two short-term goals, and one objective to work towards each goal.

Long-Term Goal         i.            To help Max realize the importance of having a good character.

ii.            To help Max realize that multiple sexual relationships could be the reason for his depression and can cause other chronic illnesses.

Short-Term Goal         i.            Max should stop thinking about illicit sexual practices.

ii.            Max should understand that there are agencies that can help him become the entrepreneur he wants to be

iii.            Max should come up with a career plan.

Objectives 1.      Max’s treatment method should include behavioral modification techniques.

2.      At least six counseling sessions should be included in behavioral therapy.

3.      Max should not misuse his job as a salesman to attract women.

4.      Max should understand that all professions are equally important.

5.      Max’s employer should apply operant conditioning to punish him when he behaves unethically (Jones-Smith, 2012).

6.      Max should understand that the foundation of the society is based on beliefs and values.

7.      Max should understand that it is vital to grow spiritually.

Discharge and Termination Plans

Describe the discharge and termination plan for the client.

Discharge Plan In order to succeed as an ethical salesman, Max should have a career plan. He should be rewarded if for six months of working as a salesman, he does perform well and does not engage in unethical sexual relationships. He should also maintain a good and ethical relationship with fellow group members and should only engage in constructive conversations regarding career plans and behavior change. Max can only be released if behavior modification tests ascertain that he has reformed in line with the goals and objectives. After his release, he should report to the concerned authorities for the next two years for regular checkups.
Termination Plan If Max assaults women in his line of work, punishment should be continued. In addition, if he does not show any positive change after several training sessions, the treatment should be discontinued.




Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach. LA: Sage Publications

Business Law Assessment

Business Law Assessment

Business Law Assessment

Question 1

There exists a contract in restraint of trade between Globe Tickets Ltd and Juliet. The courts defined a contract in restraint of trade to be an arrangement whereby the employer agrees with the employee or any other party to restrict their future liberty in carrying out the trade with other parties which are not a party to that contract.[1] The essence of such an arrangement is to ensure that first the employer is cushioned from business competition from his former employers; and secondly that the salient trade secrets and confidential information of the business are kept a secret in a manner that does not harm the employer’s business. Juliet explicitly flouted the restraint of trade clause barring her not to represent sportsmen nor sell tickets relating to opera and classical music or theatre within two years after ceasing to be employed by Globe. In as much as this seems straightforward, Globe Tickets Ltd. is advised that courts have a structured approach to solving such disputes.

There are no hard and fast rules while interpreting clauses on restraint of trade. Courts tend not to enforce a restraint of trade clause which is made by an employer merely to protect the employer from competition. There must be some cogent legitimate proprietary or business interest which must be protected by the employer. The nature of the interest in question determines the preferable length and geographical extent of the restraint of trade provision. Courts are also alive to the fact that a prolonged restraint means that the employee remains without income for a while. If the Company goes ahead and sues Juliet, the most likely approach of the Court would be as explained below.

The first question that has to be asked would be whether the restraint is reasonable. In the case of Nordenfelt v Maxim Nordenfelt Guns &Ammunition Co Ltd[2], McNaghten LJ, held that contracts in restraint of trade are generally in contravention of public policy to the extent that they bar any sought of competition against the employer. An exception to this conception, however, is that if the restraint is limited in scope and serves a legitimate purpose, then it can be enforceable. The onus of proving that the clause was reasonable squarely lies on Globe Tickets Ltd.  Secondly, the court will determine the legitimacy of the purpose of inserting that clause in the contract. In the case of Littlewoods Organization Ltd v Harris,[3]It was asserted that at this point, the employer cannot rely on the general perception of trade secrets. There has to be a concise elucidation of the trade secrets that are being protected and what the employer would lose if they are not protected.

In the case at hand, given the fact that the employee decided to sabotage her former company by soliciting business for the new employer using the previous’ contacts, there is a legitimate interest that has to be protected by the law. Also, the nature and scope of restraint are not extrapolated to frustrate the employee technically. Therefore, Globe Tickets Ltd. are likely to succeed in their claim against Juliet.

Question 2

From a Labour Law perspective, for purposes of determining who an employee is, there are a number of tests that are employed. The very first test in this respect is the control test. Under the control test, if the master controls the actions of the servant or the employee, then an employment relationship subsists. This position was taken in the case of Yewens v Noakes.[4] Regarding Frank’s working conditions, in as much as his attendance at the place of work is not so much regulated, the employer superintends all the other aspects of work. From this perspective, he can easily be regarded as an employee.

Secondly, there is the integration test. Under this test, Courts consider whether the person or his or her role forms part of the organization. If what the servant does form the core business of the organization, then he or she can be considered as an employee. In Express & Echo Publications Ltd. v Tanton,[5] It was pronounced that under a Contract of service, an employed person is part of the business, and he carries out work which is an integral part of the business. On the other hand, in a contract for service, even though work is done for the firm, it is not fundamental to the operation of the business. Considering the case at hand, the role of guarding and inspecting areas at night is so central to the firm in the sense that the security company cannot be in operation without the services of people in Frank’s position. This approach was reaffirmed in Stevenson Jordan and Harrison v Mc Donald & Evans.[6]

There is also the substitution test under which, if the servant is allowed by the employer to take leave or to abscond duty and another worker can substitute his position, then he cannot be deemed to be an employee. In the case at hand, it appears that there was no obligation for Frank to appear at work and that he could easily be replaced. Finally, there is the business test. Also known as the economic reality test, the business test is concerned with whether or not the worker is in the business on their account. In Ready Mixed Concrete v Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance [1968] 2QB497, the court considered a number of factors associated with a contract of service and concluded that the independence with which the plaintiff operated would not render him an employee. Looking at all these tests, it would be plausible to conclude that Frank was an employee of the theatre.

Question 3

The Equality Act 2010 is a protectionist instrument which was enacted to curb discrimination and differential or preferential treatment in many spheres of human life. The Act stipulates that a person may not be discriminated against on grounds of sex, gender, race, religion or disability. This provision also applies when it comes to matters of employment. In the case at hand, Ranjat was denied a job because all the requirements of the job did not augur well with his religion and race and this occurred despite his justification of alternate approaches. This in many instances would readily amount to discrimination on the two grounds, but a closer look calls for more details.

The requirement of not wearing beards in the factory and that of putting on a safety helmet, are technically opposed to the Sikh religious faith. In addition to this, being subjected to an English test even though it was not a major requirement slightly points to racial discrimination. The provisions of the Equality Act 2010 are not absolute, however. So long as the employer can justify the reasons for actions taken, the allegations would stand no more. The justification given must point to the fact that first the stipulation is an occupational requirement. Secondly, there has to be a good reason or legitimate purpose of applying the requirement. It must also be proportional to invoke the requirement. That means that the rule must be the best way possible of achieving the goals of the employee. Finally, the employer must have reasonable grounds to believe that one does not meet the requirements.

Looking at this case, it is evident that the employer had a justification for every requirement imposed on interviewees, especially Ranjat. In the factory, it is of primary interest that hygiene is maintained and since Ranjat did not give an alternative of maintaining hygiene with his beard on, this cannot be construed as discrimination. Also, the safety of employees must be guaranteed by the management and as such the Company cannot be faulted for requiring that employees wear helmets. Finally, communication is essential in that setting, and English test was in order if it was aimed at establishing the communication skills of the interviewee.

 Question 4

The case of Fred and Yogesh reveals a number of malpractices by employers, especially when managing their employees. This dispute presents two major issues; the first one being unfair dismissal. The manner in which Fred and Yogesh were dismissed from work is unprocedural, and it disregards the provisions of the Employment Act. The two employees were first dismissed before being given a chance to explain themselves or to appeal. At Common Law, an employer is at liberty to dismiss the employee even without giving reasons. This was evidenced in the case of Ridge v Baldwin.[7] However, the employer has an obligation to give sufficient reasons for the dismissal. Fred and Yogesh were not subjected to a fair administrative action because they were not given a chance to say their side of the story before being dismissed.

The second issue presented by this case is that of differential or preferential treatment at the place of work. While two employees were dismissed even without explaining themselves, Anila’s job was still intact. She was not even investigated at all even though they had been working together for over two years. Therefore, the two employees who were prosecuted may also institute proceedings on grounds of discrimination from their employer.[8] Fred may not have any real claim because he was ultimately convicted. Yogesh, however, has the avenue of filing civil suits for false incarceration and subsequently sue the employer for discrimination at the place of work.



Basson, A. C., & Strydom, E. M. L. ‘Restraint of trade; Essential Labour Law’ 4th edn Oxford,   Oxford University Press, 2005

Collins, H.. Employment law. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.

Hardy, S. T. Labour law in Great Britain. Alphen Aan dens Rijn, The Netherlands:           Kluwer            Law International, 2011.

Smith, I. T., Wood, J. C., & Baker, A.. Smith & Wood’s Employment Law. Oxford, UK:    Oxford             University Press, 2003.


[1] Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Harper’s Garage (Stourport) Ltd [1968] AC 269 at page 317

[2][1894] AC 535 at 565

[3](1977) 1 WLR 1472 at 1485

[4] (1881) 6 QBD 530

[5] [1999] IRLR 367

[6] [1952] 1 TLR 101

[7] [1964]A.C 40

[8] Hardy, S. T. Labour law in Great Britain. (Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer                 Law International, 2011), 76.


The Ford Pinto Case Analysis -Business Law


Case Analysis

The Ford Pinto case is a well-known case that is often discussed in the context of business ethics. To summarize, Ford’s design of the Pinto’s fuel tank was defective, causing fires if the Pinto was involved in even minor rear-end collisions. Ford came to learn of the defect, but the company failed to correct it; Ford then predicted, based on a cost-benefit analysis, that it would cost more to repair the defect ($11 per vehicle, or $137 million total) than it would to pay for damages resulting from burn deaths, burn injuries, and burned vehicles ($47.5 million). Consider the Ford Pinto case in light of the who-how

(WH) framework for business ethics.

Would Ford’s decision to forego repairing the defective design comply with these ethical guidelines? If so, why? If not, then what actions should Ford have taken to satisfy them? Explain your reasoning.

The Ford Pinto Case Analysis -Business Law

Owing to the changes in customer needs, tastes, and preferences, businesses and companies are constantly dilemmas when it comes to business operations. As a result, the government has designed and implemented business laws through its agencies in an attempt to protect the business as well as the individual customers. However, for the business law to successfully, effectively and efficiently work, there is the need to incorporate the already designed principles with morals to create a safer operating place for both the business and the stakeholders. However, in the case of the Ford Pinto, the investor the Ford company failed on their part to create a safe product for their customers. According to the case, the ford company decided to match the high competition in the foreign markets by designing a pinto vehicle that was to weigh less than 2000 pounds and cost less than $ 2000 (Kubasek, 2016). Unfortunately, the new ford pinto failed to meet the new the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulations to reduce fires from traffic collisions. According to these regulations, all vehicles produced 1972 would have the ability to withstand a rear-end impact of 20mph without fuel loss. However, this was not the case with the ford pinto, and the company was faced with a dilemma. The management has to decide whether to go on with the production of the vehicle and endanger the lives of the commuters or delay production and redesign the fuel tank (Kubasek, 2016).

The Ford’s decision to go ahead with the production of the Ford Pinto and to put the lives of the people in danger would not go with ethical guidelines. Ethical guidelines often emphasize on the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. The company had a moral responsibility of protecting the lives of the people regardless of the amount of cash and resources used in making the car safer for the people (Kubasek, 2016). Given the reputation and the size of the company, the company officials would have delayed the production of the vehicle as stated in the timetable, redesign the fuel tank and any other necessary defects to ensure that they meet the needs and demands of their customers without putting their lives in danger. In this case, both the customers and the business would be affected in the sense that the more customers would lose their lives or get injured while the reputation and PR of the company would be tainted. Ford critics believe that more than 500 people lost their lives as a result of a collision even at a low speed when riding on their Ford Pinto despite the company insisting that only 23 people lost their lives (Kubasek, 2016). Further research shows that there were European and Japanese models in the country with similar design to that of pinto regarding price and weight ranges but with safer tank position. Therefore, Ford’s irresponsible decision significantly affected their reputation and image among the people. Given the importance of the consumers to the company, the company should have put their safety first rather than paying much attention to the benefits realized from this project. There was an ethical failure on the part of the company.


Kubasek, N. B. (2016). Dynamic business law: The essentials (3rd ed.). . New York, NY:: McGraw-Hill Education.

Federal and State Drug Statutes PowerPoint

Civil and alternative dispute resolution

Civil and alternative dispute resolution

Since man started living in organized communities, rules and regulations have been an important part of their lives as they attempt to maintain law and order in a society while at the same time ensuring that people live in peace and harmony. In the case of failure to honor and respect the rules of the nation, people may file civil lawsuits or use Alternative Dispute Resolution to administer justice to all members of society. Civil cases often arise out of disputes and disagreements between individuals, entities or other institutions including government institutions. On the other hand, alternative dispute resolutions are often used by disputing parties to find a resolution without necessarily going to court or filing any litigation (Kubasek, 2016). This assignment will attempt to determine factors to be considered when deciding whether to file a lawsuit.

Owing to the case provided above, as Pete’s lawyer, I would advise him to use alternative dispute resolutions to solve his dispute with the all-terrain vehicle rather than filing a civil lawsuit. When filing a civil case, the plaintiff through his advocates has to use the facts of the case and the law to present their claims in the most favorable manner. Notably, the fact that the plaintiff must present indisputable and concrete evidence and potential witnesses make Pete’s case a light case that should not be filled in a court of law but rather should be solved alternatives methods such as mediation and consolation. The attorneys need to analyze the evidence presented to prove the client’s claim. Before the client can present his or her evidence, the attorney must evaluate the credibility and strength of the evidence. Notably, litigation can be expensive. It is crucial for attorneys to discuss the forecasted expenditure of a lawsuit consisting of the attorney’s fees, investigation cost, filing costs and the cost of discovery (Kubasek, 2016). At the end of the day, it becomes expensive in terms of money and time for the plaintiff to file a lawsuit.

Related: International Law Comparison

On the other hand, Alternative Dispute Resolution, which comprises of mediation, conciliation, and arbitration. One of the most important steps of this method includes the evaluation and understanding of the dispute. In the case provided, there is a dispute between Pete and the all-terrain vehicle company since Pete feels that he should be compensated for the injuries inflicted by the vehicle. However, Pete needs to understand that despite the fact that the vehicle is an all-terrain car, there is a speed limit which helps to keep the vehicle balanced and prevent rolling over. By understanding the dispute, both parties can be in a position to evaluate the source of the problem and agree on the settlement plan (Kubasek, 2016). Moreover, Pete should be in a position to evaluate his option and settle for the best settlement plan that will result in a win-win situation. There are many ways to approach dispute resolution.

From the above argument, it is easy to point out that both a civil litigation and alternative dispute resolutions can be used to evaluate and settle a disagreement. However, considering the circumstances surrounding Pete’s case, it is correct to say that using alternative dispute resolution will yield the best results.


Kubasek, N. B. ((2016).). Dynamic business law: The essentials (3rd ed.). . New York, NY: : McGraw-Hill Education.

Federal and State Drug Statutes PowerPoint

Investigative Plan


You are hired as a consultant in City X and are charged with the responsibility of creating a plan to deal with the multiple daytime robbery attacks in your area. Police officers have been able to obtain limited information for each robbery. Your first order of business is to create a draft of a strategic operational/investigative plan to address the crimes. Your plan should be between 5–7 pages (excluding title and reference pages.)This will help too:

Investigative Plan


It is the duty of all citizens to live in a healthy environment both physically, mentally and spiritually. As a result, the police force and other law agencies have a responsibility of ensuring that the security of all people in an area of jurisdiction is put into consideration and that the freedom of one citizen does not endanger the life of the other citizens. On the other hand, the government and other governmental agencies have a responsibility of ensuring that they make strict and necessary laws that help to maintain law and order among the citizens. Laws of a country comprises of systems of rules that are enforced through the social institution to govern the behavior and activities of individuals in a certain area of jurisdiction. It is worth noting that there should be no single individual who should be favored by the laws made in the country to ensure that rule of law is observed as well as equality and fairness (Tudor-Owen, 2016). This assignment will mainly focus on developing and creating a plan to help in curbing the increased cases of daytime robbery attacks in city X.

Background Information

Considering that creating and developing a strategic plan on how to curb these crimes, there is the need for conducting a background study to determine the cause of the multiple daytime robberies in the town. When analyzing the patterns and trends used by these criminals, I as the newly appointed consultant, I need to use either of the following techniques to identify the source as well as determining the best alternative to implementing to stop these crimes.

  1. Reviewing police reports from all jurisdiction
  2. Re-interview any witnesses found in the police reports
  3. Review all forensic evidence from the cases found within the police reports
  4. Review any camera footage captured at the scenes
  5. Review the tactical analysis of the police agencies within the city’s multiple jurisdictions for trends and similarities they have already found.
  6. Seek assistance and further information from the nearby agencies in the neighboring towns to determine whether they are facing the same problem as well as asking for human resources if the need arises.

Besides, there is the need to develop a list of all the things that individuals working with me are supposed to perform and do to make sure that there is no conflict of resources as well as focusing resources on the most urgent areas. A predetermined plan ensures that all the members of the team clearly understand their roles and duties as well as boundaries in the team.

Investigative Plan

Even before my team could settle town to commence an investigation, we were notified of the robbery of three supermarkets within the city. From the investigations, it was easy to connect these recent robberies to the earlier incidences given the fact that there was a similar trail of evidence that was present in other incidences. On further review of the police reports, we were able to determine that there have been twelve other robberies with similar evidence and conducted in a similar mode and technique. This further showed the strongest correlation connecting all the cases considering that they were all conducted in a similar manner. Police report further indicated that there was a group of three notorious robbers who were suspected of conducting the crimes (Holmes, 2008). In conjunction with the police force, we agreed to conduct new investigations, review of the existing evidence as well as interviewing possible witnesses to apprehend the suspects. All the necessary elements for the crime, robbery have been met according to the law of the country to ensure that all the activities conducted are by the book and can also be documented to be used for further review or as a piece of evidence. Below are the activities and responsibilities of my team in the attempt to bring the suspect to justice as well as creating and developing a permanent plan that will help to reduce crimes in the city.

  1. The team has a duty of compiling and reviewing robbery reports for the previous four months considering that the rampant increase in daytime crime began two months ago. Such reports would be very useful in determining exactly when the first daytime robbery was a report and the possibility response from the police.
  2. The team must also work hand in hand with all other law agencies as well as neighboring agencies to determine the possible of the same attacks in their areas of jurisdiction. Moreover, this coordination would also determine whether the suspects commit crimes in one city and run away to take refuge in other cities. In addition, information sharing between agencies makes it easy to track the movements and actions of the suspects.
  3. The team has the power, authority, and duty to determine key witnesses who are assumed and thought to have important information that can cause be crucial in apprehending the suspects. Thus, such suspects need to be re-interviewed to obtain a new set of evidence.
  4. Review and re-examine important pieces of evidence such as camera footage from the victim businesses considering that this may lead investigators to create, unravel and develop suspects and patterns of behavior that can be key to the investigation.
  5. After conducting a new investigation and getting new information regarding all the cases, the team has a duty to provide reports to the intelligence officers for analyzing of patterns, characters, and behavior. The intelligence departments can prove useful in this case considering that it has the latest tracking software and can provide spreadsheets to better coordinate times, places, vehicles used and other information to help in determining if the same suspects are committing all robberies(Maguire, 2012).
  6. Identify potential suspects by extensively reviewing the modus operandi of all the crimes that have been conducted over time. Such activity and action can b very helpful in identifying and creating a list of suspects that need to be investigated to determine whether they are guilty or innocent and this can eventually lead to the apprehension of the offenders.

Technical Assistances

Given the recent innovations and inventions in technology, it is correct to state that the police force has come a long way regarding the technology that is used to combat crime in the city. In the early days most of the paperwork in a police station was primarily handwritten, but with technology, this culture is changing where things are done with a computer in the current era. However, because there is a budgetary limit to this activity, it becomes difficult to make a great strategic plan that will incorporate all the needed tools. As a result, this activity will attempt to utilize the technology in the police station, but in the case of needed assistance, my team will seek additional technology from the nearby agencies.

  1. The first technology that my team will be in need of being the Geographical Information Software (GIS) that would be crucial in the creation of a complex mapping data, making it easy to track down all the suspects for questioning and further investigation.
  2. AFIS and NCIC databases will be very helpful in identifying all the arrests as well as their comparison ad identification of fingerprints to make sure that they get the right people in custody. Moreover, these databases would be helpful in quickly locating matches as well as suspects recently arrested and released from the custody(Taylor, 2013).
  3. Finally, the team will need handheld radios with secure Bluetooth technology for communication between officers on the ground and the command unit. Digital photography and video cameras will also be utilized to servile the city as well as trace any vehicle raising suspicion in the city.

Analysis of the Robbery Activity

My team has a duty to scan, analyze, respond and assess all the patterns and behavior portrayed by the suspects. The first step will mainly focus on identifying the problem, in this case, is the daytime robbery in the city; analyze the source of the raw data to be used in the investigation. As a result, the crime reports and statements from the previous crimes will be analyzed to identify the times the crimes were committed, the number of people involved in each case and the response of the supermarket owners.

Synthesizing the Data

This part of the investigation focuses on prioritizing needs and requirements by taking out the data that are not needed for the team to focus on the particulars of the crimes that the team is interested in. The data obtained in the investigation will then be analyzed through the use of statistical methods according to variables available to the team (Barkan, 2009). Besides, the data will also be used to produce user-friendly graphs to show the average times of the crimes, sex, ethnicity, and ages of those suspected to commit the offenses.


Investigative Units Needed

For the team to work effectively and efficiently there is the need to divide them into units based on their area of expertise. These units are comprised of individual crime analysis units of the jurisdiction, the investigative units of each jurisdiction, regular cops as well as the forensic team. Moreover, there is the need to increase the patrol unit to ensure the suspects do not g away with their offenses.

Procuring Equipment

Considering that most of the equipment and tools needed to conduct this investigation are within the police force, there will be no extra funds needed to fund the investigation. Most of the tools within the police force will be re-purposed, and other equipment will be donated by the local business owners who are the victims or likely victims of the crimes.


Looking at the crimes in the city from a law enforcement perspective, crime analysis units provide the most effective information.  A copy of this plan will be provided to the mayor of the city as well as city council members for approval at an open forum (Holmes, 2008). The recommendation of this study is to hire more patrol personnel to ensure a high police presence in the areas affected by this population increase.



Barkan, S. E. (2009). Criminology: A sociological understanding. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Holmes, R. M. (2008). Profiling violent crimes: An investigative tool. Sage publications.

Maguire, M. M. (2012). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford University Press.

Taylor, I. W. (2013). Critical Criminology (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Tudor-Owen, J. (2016). Written plans and self-evaluations in investigative interviews with                       witnesses

Federal and State Drug Statutes PowerPoint

International Law Comparison


Short Paper:International Law Comparison

Compare and contrast the justice system of a foreign country with that of the United States.Be sure to address three of the following issues in your essay:

Substantive Law

Procedural Law

Judicial Review

Policing Systems

International Police Cooperation


International Law Comparison

The justice system is a set of institutions, agencies, and process that have been established by the government to control crime and impose penalties on persons violating the laws. Justice systems vary across the many jurisdictions in the world; this paper is a critical analysis and comparison of the judicial organization of America against another jurisdiction with an effective legal system. The parameters around which the comparison will be centered constitute factors like substantive and procedural law, judicial review, policing systems and international police corporation. Norway will be the jurisdiction in comparison, the purpose of the benchmarks provided in this comparison is to not to serve as policy but to offer a little guidance on the concept of the justice system, how it operates and its’ procedures. It serves as a practical framework, which aims to develop a good comprehension and understanding of judicial systems and provide scholars and students alike with a structure around which they can evaluate a system’s efficiency and conduct research.

A look at the concepts and science behind the substantive law as a significant practical factor in the operationalization of courts requires a shift of accent from the mere study of the legal doctrine to the study of an operation of an institution. Substantive law and procedural law work in tandem with each other to ensure that in all civil and criminal cases instated in courts, appropriate rules are applied, and proper procedures followed to bring the case to trial. Substantive laws are the written statutory rules, which are passed by the legislature; the laws have defined crimes, set punishments and defined our rights and responsibilities as citizens. Elements of substantive law exist in both civil and criminal law. Substantive law is used in determining whether a crime or tort has been committed. It defines the charge as well as whether the evidence present can sustain the charge for a successful prosecution. The substance of charges or the elements of a crime or tort must be evaluated carefully to determine if a crime or tort exists, stated; this effectively means that a set facts should be proven first before a defendant is convicted (Arnold, 2016). The procedural law governs the mechanics of how a legal case flows including the steps of processing a case; it adheres to due process, a right granted by the 14th Amendment. In a murder charge, substantive law proves that a person had men’s Rea and Actus rea just as the arrest of the suspect for trial is also within the rights of the police. Due process dictates that the individual has to be aware of all the charges against him within 72 hours of his arrest (Cornell University Law School, n.d.)

Related: Dealing with an Economic Downtown

In the United States, a defense for criminal intent is the plea of insanity, where an offender can plead to having been insane when he perpetrated the offense, the application of insanity as a defense in the United States is synonymous and widely associated with United States v. Hinckley, (1982). The defendant had attempted to assassinate president Ronal Regan but failed in his attempts and wounded a couple of people. At trial, defendant produced evidence in that point to the fact he was not guilty due to insanity. The jury found him not guilty since he lacked the men’s rea necessary for committing the crime. It must be noted that in the U.S, jurors shy away from finding persons with mental deficiency not guilty, they are punished for their crimes and receive medical care while serving their sentences, however much they have been rehabilitated they will never get out of jail.

The current Norwegian insanity defense, which was introduced by 1902, requires no nexus between insanity and the criminal offense, the Breivik trial is a classical case example where the suspect’s sanity at the time of the murder was put into test (Melle, 2013). Psychiatric evaluations conducted on the offender produced different results, the first one concluding results similar with a ‘psychotic’ as read with the Penal Code. The second reported results those were incompatible with the legal concept of psychotic. Norwegian laws dictate that a defendant should be given accorded reason of doubt as to whether insanity as a defense can be applicable. Nobel Laureate in Literature, Knut Hamsun was accused of collaborating with the Nazi during the German occupation of Norway. Because of his advanced age and hearing impairment, he was wrongly suspected to be of unsound mind following an investigation by professional psychiatrists. The report concluded that he was suffering from a severe form of mental disability. The court opted to levy a fine instead of convicting him. Had the Breivik case been tried in U.S., the chances of the defendant raising a guilty plea are greatly significantly reduced to almost nil. This is primarily due to the reason that most, if not all, apply the M’Naghten rule and require that at least some level of mental impairment which in reality does not exist (FindLaw, n.d.)

Related:  The Bill of Rights

In the modern U.S., the president and Congress have some degree of control over the judiciary with power to appoint and confirm judges and justices. Congress can circumvent a court ruling by passing a slightly different law than that which had been previously rendered unconstitutional. The federal courts have a very significant power, which is judicial review, they have the power to interpret the constitution and shape public policy. Judicial review is the best-known power of the Supreme Court that was first decided in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803). It is the power of the court to declare an act of Congress or the Executive as unconstitutional. The case played an important role in establishing the Supreme Court as a separate branch of the government at par with congress and executive. In Norway, the concept that the law shall functions to regulate the parliamentary as well as executive powers has been in existence for  a long period. However, the constitution does not directly state this. The duty the court plays to safeguard the rights of citizens and minorities whose views do not prevail in the political field is what is referred to as judicial review. Norway’s constitution that dates back to 1814 does not explicitly mention judicial review as compared to other European countries, the power to review arose from the Supreme Courts exercise of its mandate. Two distinct, interrelated stages were involved in this evolution; the first stage was the supreme court’s adoption of the constitution as its instrument for true legal norms. In Norway, judicial review was developed in the early 19th century and was based on the U.S. model of judicial review. In the 20th century, this concept was revisited and a number of changes were made, mainly the insertion of the position principle by Norway (Smith, 2000).

Policing in America and Norway are two things that sharply vary. In America, since the police killed the first three victims in 2015, another 687 persons have lost their lives at the hands of the police making an average of three killings daily. The Norwegian police have not killed anyone since 2006 making it only a single police fatality issue. Among the 34 members of the Economic Co-operation and Development, Norway stands out from the rest as one of four other countries that employ unarmed police. Notwithstanding, they have access to firearms that always remain locked in patrol cars and are restricted to using the same on permission from a higher authority. The country enjoys one of the lowest prison population with less than 4000 out of its citizen population of 5, 000,000 in jail, and the recidivism rates are also low compared. The U.S. has one of the largest prison population in the world with approximately one out of every 100 adults being behind prison bars; the recidivism rates here are as high as 76 percent (Nevins, 2015).

The comparison between the international police corporation between American cops and the Norwegian cops is a seemingly stunning case; American cops train for nine weeks while their Norwegian counterparts train for three years. The corporation in international policing as witnessed in America has reached heights never before established as the European Union envisions corporation with minimal limits. The United States corporation level cannot be questioned, as they are also active participants in the collaborative efforts aimed at intelligence gathering, evidence gathering and cooperation in information and evidence gathering (Klosek, 1999).


(n.d.). 14th Amendment. U.S. Constitution.Retrieved from:   

(n.d.). Marbury v. Madison. The Court and Democracy. Retrieved from:

Arnold, W. T. (2016). The Role of Substantive Law and Procedure in the Legal Process. Retrieved          from:    s

Klosek, J. (1999). The Development of International Police Cooperation within the EU and Between the EU and Third Party States: A Discussion of the Legal Bases of Such Cooperation and the Problems and Promises Resulting Thereof. Retrieved from:

Melle, Ingrid. (2013). The Breivik case and what psychiatrists can learn from it. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Nevins, S. (2015). What Norway Is Getting Right About Policing That American Cops Just Can’t Figure Out. Retrieved from:

Smith, C. (January 01, 2000). Judicial review of parliamentary legislation: Norway as a European pioneer. Public Law, 595-606.


Federal and State Drug Statutes PowerPoint

Hypothesis on Criminal Justice Practitioners


Identify and describe five scientific methods of research inquiry and how you would apply them to a   research Project.Be sure to provide examples. Develop a hypothesis focused on the professional practices of criminal justice practitioners. An example of a hypothesis would be: You could propose a hypothesis that focuses on whether law enforcement is better equipped to handle terrorism post 9/11 or whether airline safety has improved since the attacks of 9/11, etc.

Then select two methods of inquiries and how you would apply them to your hypothesis to reach a conclusion.


Hypothesis on Criminal Justice Practitioners

Retrospective Cohort Study

This method of research inquiry involves the researcher identifying a cohort of individuals who are exposed to a particular factor in the environment. The researcher examines whether exposure to particular factors in the environment leads to the development of a disease or particular characteristics on the cohort of individuals. In a retrospective study, the researcher examines a historical cohort through analysis of existing official records (Taylor, 2010). The aim of the researcher here is to assess the kinds of exposures or outcomes that have affects to the cohort during the initial stages of the study. For example, a researcher may be interested in examining the risk factors that are associated with increased rate of recidivism among juvenile offenders. The researcher may identify a cohort of juvenile offenders and then examine existing official documentation concerning the juvenile offenders. The researcher may also conduct a longitudinal analysis on the select cohort of individuals.


A meta-analysis refers to a study that examines and combines the results obtained from multiple scientific studies. A meta-analysis employs statistical methods to evaluate the results of other similar scientific studies for errors or for their accuracy (Card & In Little, 2016). The basic premise of meta-analyses studies is that the results of multiple scientific studies bear some truth, which can be ascertained through statistical analysis. In meta-analysis, the researcher aims at making references from a wide pool of available studies relating to the problem under investigation (Card & In Little, 2016). For example, a researcher may be interested in examining the efficacy of various forms of treatment methods available for mental health issues among juvenile offenders. In order to do this, the researcher must identify existing literature on the subject and conduct statistical analysis to come up with a conclusion.

Randomized Controlled Trial

A randomized controlled trial is a study in which participants are randomly allocated to either a control group or an experimental group (Taylor, 2010). Those in the experimental group receive treatment and are closely monitored by the researchers for any changes. On the other hand, those in the control group are given placebo treatment or may not receive anything. The random allocation of the research subjects to any of the two groups reduces bias, while allowing the researchers to compare the effects of the treatment on the experimental group Vis a Vis the control group. For example, in an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of a particular therapeutic program on juvenile offenders, the researcher may randomly place the subjects to either the control group or the experimental group. The experimental group undergoes treatment, while the control group does not.

Quasi-Experimental Method

The quasi-experimental method is similar to randomized controlled trials in that in both, the researcher identifies the control group as well as the experimental group (Thyer, 2012). However, the main difference is that there is no random allocation of research subjects to the treatment group or the control group. A quasi-experimental design thereby allows the researcher to take control of the assignment of the subjects based on particular criteria. For instance, in an investigation to examine the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy among mentally ill prisoners, the researcher may allocate a group of subject above the age of 20 to the treatment group and those below this age to the control group.

Case Study Method

The case study method involves detailed investigations concerning particular phenomena, people or community. The researcher gathers data usually through observation and interviews. The researcher may follow the research subjects for a period, until he/she gathers adequate data. On most occasions, case studies involve a limited geographical coverage or limited number of participants. Case studies often apply in the study of real-life phenomenon that is currently ongoing and often involves the detailed analysis of a limited number of factors or conditions. For example, a researcher my conduct a case study to determine the impacts of smoking marijuana on a group of youths. The researcher may follow the groups of youths for a period of time in order to learn of its impacts to their health and social life.

Hypothesis development

This study hypothesizes that law enforcement is not better equipped to handle terrorism in the post 9/11 period.

A method that can be applied in the examination of this hypothesis is meta-analysis of existing literature. A researcher can examine existing literature concerning the effectiveness of law enforcement in curbing terrorism since 9/11. For instance, the researcher may examine 100 studies that detail the changes that have taken place in law enforcement since 9/11 attacks and its effectiveness in general. A retrospective cohort study can also be used to examine this hypothesis. In a retrospective cohort study, the researcher may begin the research by examining existing official records on the effectiveness of law enforcement since the 9/11 attacks. After the examination of the documents, the researcher may conduct a longitudinal analysis to the current problem by examining how law enforcement tackles challenges related to terrorism.


Card, N. A., & In Little, T. D. (2016). Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research. New York: Guilford Press.

Taylor, C. B. (2010). How to practice evidence-based psychiatry: Basic principles and case         studies. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.

Thyer, B. A. (2012). Quasi-experimental research designs. New York: Oxford University Press.

Federal and State Drug Statutes PowerPoint

Decision Making Process in ACA

 Decision Making Process in ACA

Footer notes

Slide 2

Founded in 1870, the American Correctional Association (ACA) has been at the forefront of prison reforms and expansion in the United States (American Correctional Association (ACA), 2016). ACA acts as an accrediting body in the corrections industry. The ACA was the first justice organization to publish standards manuals before the accreditation program was in place. In the 1960s, ACA established and helped to implement national correctional standards across U.S. prisons. This came after an increased pressure from courts for prison reforms. The major aim of these reforms was to implement the best possible standards or practices in prisons across the U.S. ACA standards guide the development of policies and procedures that are critical in formulation of correctional programs that deal with the welfare of inmates.

Slide 3

ACA is a nonprofit and nongovernmental organization in the corrections industry. It acts as a professional membership organization whose major aim is to improve the general state of corrections (ACA, 2016). The professional body also aims at improving the quality of service provision by correctional professionals through training and development. ACA extends its mandate to a number of corrections systems, which include juvenile institutions, adult institutions, higher learning institutions, and in community corrections.

Slide 4

ACA has a number of departments each charged with a specific responsibility or service. The professional body has six departments that provide a variety of services. The first department is Membership and Financial Services department. This department coordinates various services such as membership and renewal of the same, chapters and affiliates, and student information for the students under ACA. The second department is Publications and Professional Development. This department is responsible for making publications of standards and other reports as well as ensuring training and development of employees. The third department is the Conferences department, which oversees the workshops and conferences (ACA, 2016).

Slide 5

The fourth department is Advertising and Corporate Relations department. This department deals with the media and other bodies to enhance the public image and to pass important information to the public. The Correctional Heath Care department oversees the accreditation of health care programs through certification. The Global Corrections department oversees various activities such as outreach programs, international scholarship programs, internship programs, and among others (ACA, 2016).

Slide 6

The American Correctional Association uses the ethical model of decision making. The ethical model emphasizes on a logical procedure in decision making rather than rational procedure (Verma, 2014). The ethical decision model gives the individuals involved in decision making the autonomy to develop decisions. In ethical decision making, the parties involved focus on developing solutions that are not harmful to others. By utilizing a systematic model in decision making, policymakers are able to provide rationale for choosing a particular plan of action. The ethical model of decision making is of great significance to organizations. Business ethics are core essentials in any organization, impacting the entire organization from the lower levels to the upper managerial levels (Verma, 2014). Business ethics determine the performance of an organization. When there is poor conformance to ethics, the organization may perform poorly due to unethical practices some of which may undermine the image of the organization to the public.

Slide 7

Individuals involved in ethical decision making follow a certain procedure in identifying solutions to various challenges. The first step is to identify the problem and to evaluate the potential issues surrounding the problem. Potential issues affecting the problem may include duties, rights, and welfare. The second step involves analyzing the ethical codes surrounding the identified problem. The next step involves examining the various local or national regulations affecting the problem. In case the decision makers lack adequate knowledge concerning the ethical issue at hand, they can consult professionals who may shed more light about the problem.

Slide 8

The next step involves analyzing the possible solutions and consequences involved. When there are significant consequences to a particular solution, the best alternative is to examine other possible solutions which have less severe consequences. The selected solution should bear three distinct characteristics that include universality, publicity, and justice. Lastly, the decision makers must settle on the best alternative. The implementation stage involves ensuring that the selected course of action is implemented (Verma, 2014). This stage also involves analyzing the possible problems that emerge from the implementation of the selected course of action.

Slide 9

The American Correctional Association is mainly involved in formulating standards and the accreditation process. The body ensures there is higher oversight in the country’s prisons, jails, correctional facilities, and juvenile detention centers (Bogard, 2010). ACA publishes a variety of correctional standard manuals that guide different organizational types and programs. Over the last three decades, ACA has expanded its mandate to cater for development of institutional health care standards.

Slide 11

The linear organizational structure exhibited in the previous slide indicates the simple organizational structure employed by the American Correctional Association. The Board of Governors is the highest level of decision making. There is at least 18 board members who represent diverse areas of corrections such as juvenile, probation, parole, correctional administration, and others (American Correctional Association (ACA), 2013). The Board of Governors (BOG) makes crucial decisions regarding adoption and modification of various standards. The Executive Committee comprises of eight members. They include treasurer, president elect, vice-president, executive director, and other board members. The role of the Executive Committee is to exercise the powers of the BOG.

slide 12

The Delegate Assemble is made up of members drawn from geographical chapters, board members, professional affiliates, and past presidents (ACA, 2013). The Delegate Assembly is charged with a number of roles including policy establishment, determining key programs, defining legislative priorities, and establishing ACA’s position on various professional issues. At the bottom of the chain, there exist different committees. The committees chair reports and helps in formulation of standards. The committee comprise of many individuals who collectively contribute towards decision making and policy enactment.

Slide 13

The American Correctional Association has established a Standards Committee that is in charge of decision making. The Standards Committee is made up of about 20 members with diverse correctional knowledge and expertise. The members yield diverse expertise on jail administration, community corrections, consultation, and in other areas. The Standards Committee makes crucial decisions on whether to adopt new or revised standards (ACA, 2013). Meetings are held twice a year. Extensive consultation from relevant individuals in the corrections systems inform the committee of whether to adopt the new standards or to dismiss them. Consultations also enable the committee decide on whether to accept modifications of existing standards. A solicitation process in the field enables the Standards Committee to identify the need for new standards or the need for modification of preexisting standards.

Slide 14

A number of individuals or bodies in the corrections may generate changes to standards within the industry. Prisoner advocacy organizations are some of the bodies that recommend various changes to standards (Bogard, 2010). Once the advocacy organizations make recommendations, the Standards Committee evaluates them and makes decisions on whether to implement the recommendations. Facility managers also make recommendations. Facility managers are in charge of various correctional organizations. As such, they are able to provide useful information concerning the areas that need changes. Various architects also make recommendations about appropriate standards (Bogard, 2010). The corrections systems may consult various professionals involved in developing and implementation of changes in the corrections system.

Slide 15

Physicians also add significant value to the standards development process in corrections. Physicians and other healthcare workers who provide health services in jails and prisons provide important recommendations regarding health standards. Physicians generally help in improving the living conditions in prisons to reduce transmission of diseases. The accreditation commission members also provide insights into the improvement of correctional facilities. Commission members add their individual expertise into the development and modification of standards. Another important source of insight into standard development relates to consultants. Various consultants may provide useful recommendations on improving or modification of standards. Consultants have knowledge and expertise on various issues touching on correctional facilities in the country.

Slide 16

The decision making process is an intricate and complex process. The decisions by the Standards Committee undergo rigorous checks to ensure they promote the general welfare in correctional organizations (Bogard, 2010). As such, the decisions are subject to robust discussions in order to determine their efficacy. Various debates are held in order to examine the strengths as well as the weakness of each decision. The main agenda during such debates is to examine whether the proposals made serves the interests of various correctional facilities. The cost of implementing a particular standard is a critical determinant in deciding whether to implement the particular proposals or standards. The cost implications of various standards may make it impractical to implement the standards. Another important consideration pertains the adherence of the proposed standard to federal regulations or statutes. The attorneys may not accept a standard that violates federal or state laws.

Slide 17

The decision making process is a key component in the success of an organization. In criminal justice organizations such as American Correctional Association, decision making has played a pivotal role in ensuring the implementation of new standards in correctional facilities. Application of robust decision making approaches has enabled ACA to improve practices in various correctional organizations such as Juvenile institutions, adult institutions, higher learning institutions, and community corrections. The American Correctional Association uses the ethical model of decision making. The ethical model emphasizes on a logical procedure in decision making rather than rational procedure.

Federal and State Drug Statutes PowerPoint