Category Archives: Management

Purposes and Benefits of induction both individuals and organisation


  • Explain 3 purposes of induction
  • Explain 3 benefits of induction to individuals
  • Explain 3 benefits of induction to your organisation
  • Prepare a 12 week induction programme in table format, for a new HR Administrator. Describe everything they need to learn, know and do, and which roles, teams and functions they need to meet, in order to be effective.  In doing so you should include the following:
  • The first week should be broken down into days
  • 2 activities in every time period
  • Show how progress will be monitored. Each activity must include a method of assessment, who will assess it and when.

Sample paper 

Purposes of induction

Induction programs play a critical role in the organization. One of the key roles of induction is to familiarize new employees with the policies and procedures of the organization. New employees have numerous requirements relating to the organization which can only be addressed through induction. Induction programs provide new employees with an understanding of the organization’s vision and goals. This enables them fit with the rest in the organization. Secondly, induction helps employees understand their new roles better during job changes. When employees are promoted or change jobs, induction programs are implemented to help the employees achieve a smooth transition. Often during job changes, the employee is confronted by new challenges he/she may not be able to solve. The induction program prepares the employee in advance of the problems to anticipate in the new position. Lastly, induction enables employees to keep abreast with new technological advancements. New work patterns keeps on emerging driven by changes in technology. Employees may find themselves having to take up new roles as a result of these changes. Induction programs can help employees learn new techniques as technology evolve. The induction program should enhance confidence and ensure that employees are motivated in line with the new roles

Benefits of induction to individuals.

There are a number of benefits individuals may realize from an induction program. To start with, individuals receive internal work motivation. Induction enables employees to attach meaning to their work and to clearly understand what is required of them. This significantly increases their motivation. Secondly, employees who pass through an induction program are likely to be generally satisfied with their work. This is because they are aware of what they are expected to achieve or what is expected of them by the management. Lastly successful induction programs lead to higher job involvement among individuals. During induction, individuals learn to work in teams and develop positive relations. When they encounter problems they are able to share with other colleagues. Their involvement is thus high.

Benefits of induction to the organization

Organizations which conduct induction programs also realize some benefits. First, these organizations experience a lower labor turnover. A lower labor turnover is cost saving on most organizations. Organizations which experience a higher labor turnover incur high costs of hiring and training new employees which erode their profits in the long run. Induction programs ensure employees are committed to their work hence reducing turnover and saving unnecessary costs. Second, induction programs ensure that employees are committed to the values of the organization as well as achieving the set goals. Commitment to goals and values ensures that employees remain focused. This increases their productivity and hence the overall performance of the company. Third, induction improves the general performance of the employees. This is because by the time the employees are allowed to commence work, they already know what they are expected to do and how to go about it. They are less likely to commit costly mistakes which may also take time to unravel. Mistakes by new employees may even lead to a bad reputation of the organization which is entirely avoided.


  Content of session Method of assessment Time Assessor
Week 1:  Day one Car parking

Otherfacilities’ orientation

Oral questions 2 hours General Manager
               Day two Handling fire safety equipments

First aid boxes

Oral questions 2 hours Chief Accounting Officer
              Day thee Health and safety procedures

Utilities orientation e.g lighting & water

Multiple-choice exams 2 hours General Manager
              Day four Mailing system

Use of notice boards

Oral questions 2 hours General Manager
             Day five Using the photocopier


Oral questions 2 hours General Manager
Week 2 Internet access

Computer systems

Multiple-choice questions 3 hours IT Officer
Week 3 Purpose of the organization

History of the organization and structure

Written tests 4 hours Assistant Manager
Week 4 Products and services the organization deals with

Key customers

Written tests 2 hours Assistant Manager
Week 5 Areas of responsibility and accountability

Induction in use of various equipments such as computers.

Written tests 4 hours Assistant Manager
Week 6 Etiquette & protocols

Work hours, leaves and other special days

Oral questions 2 hours Supervisor
Week 7 Disciplinary procedures

Grievance protocols

Quizzes 3 hours Supervisor
Week 8 Code of practice

Environmental awareness

Multiple-choice questions 2 hours
Week 9 Terms of engagement

Roles of each parties in the terms of engagement

Oral questions 3 hours General Manager
Week 10 Performance appraisal

HR documentation

Written tests 4 hours HR Manager
Week 11 Review of the recruitment process

Recruitment agencies


Presentations 6 hours HR Manager
Week 12 People management

Personnel development

Presentations 6 hours HR Manager


Burger King Case Analysis -BBA 3210, Business Law

American Administrative


A fundamental assumption of administrative reformers in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s was that politics could have only adverse affects on administration. How valid is that belief? Why? How, and to what extent, do current administrative structures and practices reflect that assumption? Also discuss the contributions of various scholars (at least five but preferably more) to the development of public administration as a discipline.

Sample paper

American Administrative

Since man started living in organized group politics and public administration has been part of his life.  Politics can be described as the processes and procedures of making choices reprocessing to all members of each community. Politics largely focuses on achieving and attaining as well as exerting positions of management and limited control over human activities particularly in a state. Additionally, politics emphasizes on the distribution of authority and backing within a given group and the relationships between communities and groups (Rose-Ackerman, Lindseth, & Emerson, 2017).  On the other hand, public administration emphasizes on the organization of governing authority policies and programs and the conduct of those in authority who have an obligation to distribute power and resources to the common man. The primary objective of public administration is to evaluate public policies so that they can be designed and implemented in the right context and to benefit people at large (Weihrich, 2010). This assignment will focus on identifying the relationship between politics and administration while at the same time examining the validity of the assumption that politics could have only adverse effects of administration.

The relations between public administration and politics are often described in the context of the political process.  However, there is a distinction made between the two, particularly during the policy making stages and policy implementation in which administration may play a less active part. Therefore, the fundamental assumption of administrative reformers in the late 1800s and early 1900s that politics could only have adverse impacts of administration is not entirely valid (Raadschelders, 2011). According to Woodrow Wilson, there is a clear distinction between politics and administration where he defined politics as the expression of will and administration as the execution of the will. Additionally, he goes further to state that a political council defines the goals which the administration will have to attain and those in politics and power can only implement the defined goals with the help of the administration. On the other hand,  Leonard D. White went ahead to argue that four critical traditions warrants the need for public administration in all political set ups in a nation or a group.  According to White, the administration is a crucial process that can be studied at all levels of the government, to boost and enhance management of people and resources, the concept that administration is a science and the fact that the administration is at the heart of problems in the modern government (Kickert & Stillman, n.d).   Therefore, it is quite clear that administration is part and parcel of politics and politics do not entirely adversely affect administration in a group.

Some of the notable contributors of different scholars on the issues of politics and administration include Max Weber, Fredrick W. Taylor,  and Woodrow Wilson.  For example, in their work Max Weber and Woodrow Wilson on the study of administration, they stated that interactions and the relationship between administration and politics could be subjected to scientific debate and empirical debates. One of the primary questions according to these scholars is whether and to what degree officials should be actively involved in the political process.  On the other hand, Fredrick W. Taylor as the father of scientific management felt that administrators who are compared to the scientific manager should break aware from politics to enforce the best way discovered onto the workforce (Taska, 2017).  Moreover, William F. Willoughby felt that public administration had universal aspects that could be applied to all branches of the government. Therefore, it is correct to say that politics do not entirely negatively affect administration as the above study shows.


Kickert, W., & Stillman, R. (n.d.). Changing European States, Changing Public Administration: Introduction. Comparative Public Administration, 735-740. doi:10.1016/s0732-1317(06)15033-2

Raadschelders, J. C. (2011). Four Intellectual Traditions in the Study of Public Administration. Public Administration, 149-175. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693894.003.0006

Rose-Ackerman, S., Lindseth, P., & Emerson, B. (2017). Comparative Administrative Law. doi:10.4337/9781784718671

Taska, L. (2017). Scientific Management. Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198708612.013.2

Weihrich, H. (2010). Management. Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited.


 Dissertation Proposal and Dissertation Manuscript

 Dissertation Proposal and Dissertation Manuscript


Please ask the writer to focus on synthesizing the journal information into an workplace conflict purpose statement. 

Sample paper

 Dissertation Proposal and Dissertation Manuscript

Begin writing here…


☐ Briefly introduce the study topic, state the research problem, and describe who or what is impacted by this problem.

☐ Clearly articulate the study purpose and guiding theoretical or conceptual framework of the study.

☐ Provide details about the research methodology, participants, questions, design, procedures, and analysis.

☐ Clearly present the results in relation to the research questions.

☐ State the conclusions to include both the potential implications of the results on and the recommendations for future research and practice.

☐ Do not include citations and abbreviations or acronyms, except those that are noted as exceptions by the American Psychological Association (APA).

☐ Do not exceed 350 words. Strive for one page.



Begin writing here…

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction.. 1


Statement of the Problem.. 1

Purpose of the Study. 2

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework. 3

Nature of the Study. 3

Research Questions. 4

Hypotheses [If Applicable] 4

Significance of the Study. 5

Definitions of Key Terms. 5

Summary. 6


Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 7


Theoretical/Conceptual Framework. 7

Theme or Subtopic [Repeat as Needed] 8

Summary. 8


Chapter 3: Research Method. 10


Research Methodology and Design.. 10

Population and Sample. 10

Materials/Instrumentation.. 11

Operational Definitions of Variables 12

Study Procedures. 12

Data Collection and Analysis. 13

Assumptions. 14

Limitations. 14

Delimitations. 14

Ethical Assurances. 15

Summary. 15


Chapter 4: Findings. 16


XXX of the Data. 16

Results. 17

Research Question 1/Hypothesis [Repeat as Needed] 17

Evaluation of the Findings. 18

Summary. 18


Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions. 19


Implications. 19

Recommendations for Practice. 19

Recommendations for Future Research.. 20

Conclusions. 20


References. 21


Appendices. 22

Appendix A: XXX.. 23

Appendix B: XXX [Repeat as Needed] 24

List of Tables


Begin list of tables here…

List of Figures


Begin list of figures here…


 Chapter 1: Introduction

Generational Workplace Conflict

Chapter 1: Introduction

            The modern workplace is becoming increasingly diverse in terms of not only ethnicity, culture, religion, and nationality, but also with regard to age. The age differences among employees within organizations are leading to conflicts. Organizational leaders are unable to resolve these conflicts leading to low productivity. The Traditionalists are the oldest in the workplace, and mostly holding leadership positions. The Traditionalists are those born before 1946. As the Traditionalists exit the workplace, they are replaced by the Millennials (Generation Y). The Millennials comprise of the largest and the fastest growing segment in the workforce. They comprise of the population segment born between 1976 and 1996. The high increase is the result of high number of Millennials joining the workforce, and partly due to migration patterns. The other groups include the Baby Boomers, born between 1945 and 1965, and the Generation X, born between 1964 and 1977.

Each of the generational cohorts has experienced unique social, cultural, and historical events. These events play a critical role in influencing each of the cohort’s experiences, values, attitudes, and workplace expectations. Common experiences by each of the cohort have played a part in inculcating unique beliefs and values that are different from those of other cohort groups (Moore, Grunberg, & Krause, 2015;2014;). Most of the Traditionalists have retired. However, they may still be called upon to offer their expertise. Those in active duty could be serving as managers, partners, or as senior support staff. One of the unique characteristics of the Traditionalists is that they are hardworking. The traditionalists grew up at a time when the country went through dark epochs including the Great Depression and the World War I and II. They are loyal and have great respect for authority. They may have challenges adopting to the modern workplace environment characterized by technological innovations.

The popular press indicates the Baby Boomers hold a strong work ethic (Moore, Grunberg, & Krause, 2015;2014;). They value work more than personal life. The Baby Boomers value formal work structures compared with Generation Y and the Millennials. They also value teamwork. Those in Generation X are the most skeptical with regard to job security. This is because they grew up in an era of rapid technological development, which meant increased job retrenchment. They have less loyalty to the organization but show great commitment to their careers. They are more likely to challenge the status quo. They value autonomy at work. The Millennials show the highest level of confidence and optimism (Moore, Grunberg, & Krause, 2015;2014;). They also prefer teamwork just like the Baby Boomers. They have strong zeal to succeed. However, the Millennials are the least loyal, and often change careers.

The differences in beliefs and values among the different generational cohorts lead to conflicts in the workplace. These conflicts are mostly likely to emerge where there is need to work together to achieve organizational goals. For instance, conflicts may emerge among employees drawn from different generational cohorts and working on the same project. This study attempts to investigate the nature of generational workplace conflicts. The study investigates whether the concerns by popular press have significant impact to nature of conflicts within organizations. This study is significant because it will help in explaining whether the generational differences are the major factors leading to conflicts or whether other variables such as job experience and career maturation play a significant role. In other words, the study will examine how generational differences contribute to conflict in the workplace. The study is also important because it will evaluate the possible strategies that organizational leaders can apply to solve workplace conflicts. Organizational leaders should be equipped with the right skills to resolve conflicts in the workplace.

Previous research on generational workplace conflict has focused in several areas. Some studies have focused on establishing the differences in communication preferences among the generational cohorts (Hall, 2016). Majority of studies examine generational differences with regard to various work-related variables that include personality, leadership, work-values, attitudes, and among others. Some studies have sought to examine whether generational workplace conflict is a legitimate issue in the modern workplace (Becton, Walker, & Jones-Farmer, 2014). This is in response to speculations that workplace conflicts could arise due to other factors such as differences in experience rather than generational differences. A large part of the literature suggests that generational differences play a key role in shaping the attitudes and values of workers (Hall, 2016; Becton, Walker, & Jones-Farmer, 2014; Favero, & Heath, 2012). The practical importance of this study is in informing organizational leaders about whether there is need to unique human resource strategies for each generational cohort, as some scholars have suggested. The study will help in establishing the best way forward for organizational leaders in dealing with a multigenerational workforce.

Statement of the Problem

The problem to be addressed by this study concerns whether general differences in the workplace lead to conflicts and the ways in which organizational leaders can address the conflicts. The study notes that controversy exists over whether generational differences exist or whether other factors such as life stage, experience, position, and others may explain the differences. In most organizations, there are conflicts between employees in different generational groups. This problem arises because of having employees with differing values, views, ambitions, skills, leadership styles, and even attitudes. This has led to wrangles and conflicts among the different generational groups owing to their uniqueness. According to Hillman (2014), the generational differences existing among groups of employees include differences in behaviors, personality traits, mental health, and attitudes. These have led to increased conflicts leading to reduced productivity.

Failure to resolve the growing conflicts among the different generational groups will give rise to a decline in performance. This may hinder the organization from achieving its set production targets. Conflicts within an organization may reduce employee job satisfaction, leading to high employee turnover. This increases operational costs since it is expensive to hire and train new employees. Moreover, the organization may lose the best talent due to low job satisfaction. This may lead to negative consequences. Increased workplace conflicts will curtail the achievement of organizational goals. Conflicts may also result in a bad customer experience. Even worse, there still exists great controversy about the existence of generational differences.

Four generational cohorts characterize the current workplace environment. These generational groups include the Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and the Millennials, the latter being the youngest generation cohort entering the job market. As Baby Boomers retire at an increasing rate, more Millennials are joining the workforce and taking their place (Lyons & Kuron, 2014). This has led to a dynamic shift in the labor force demographics resulting from younger employees with different perspectives joining the workforce. There is need to examine ways in which managers can solve the multigenerational workplace conflicts. This research will provide evidence on the existence of conflicts resulting from generational differences and provide managers with ways of solving these conflicts.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this quantitative correlational (factor-relating) study is to establish whether generational differences contribute to conflicts among workers using three key variables, which include willingness to work for longer hours, work ethics and compliance, willingness to work overtime, and job mobility. By examining how generational workplace conflicts in the four areas, it will be possible to identify whether generational differences are the key factors leading to conflicts and the role that other variables play. The key point is to establish whether there is existence of significant differences among the generational cohort groups, and to understand how these differences contribute to development of workplace conflicts. The study will test stereotypes propagated by the popular press regarding each generational cohort, and identify how the stereotypes contribute to conflicts with other generational cohort groups. The participants will include employees from three different leading banks in the region. The participants are drawn from all states where each bank operates subsidiaries. The study targets 1500 participants, drawn from different age segments. The participants will fill out an online questionnaire within a period of one week and submit the filled forms via email. This will help in saving time and resources.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

The theoretical foundation guiding this study is based on Strauss – Howe generational theory developed in 1991. According to the duo, a generation refers to a group of people born within a span of about 22 years (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). Strauss and Howe assert that generational cohorts develop peer personality, or a set of similar behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. A generational cohort can encompass the period coinciding with one phase of life. One phase of life spans about 22 years of an individual’s life during which one develops key social roles (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). Strauss and Howe argue that each generation has a unique biography that describes how the personality of each generation forms and the way in which this personality affects subsequent generations. The generational theory outlines peer personality as a fundamental aspect in the development of generational cohorts or groups (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). Peer personality is the persona of a particular generation, which identifies it from the rest of the generations.

The development of a peer personality is premised on three key factors. The first relates to sharing of a common age (about 22 years). The second factor is the sharing of similar beliefs and behavior. The third factor is membership perceptions of a particular group (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). In the last factor, individuals perceive themselves as belonging to a particular peer group. In other words, the individuals in a particular generation perceive themselves as being distinct from those in other generations. This is the result of the interaction of members from the different generations. During interactions, members of the same generation experience what Strauss and Howe identify as “social moments” (p. 12). Strauss and Howe define social moments as an era spanning about 10 years and during which certain historical events shape the social environment.

Strauss and Howe propound the idea that generations are dynamic – moving through time and under the influence of key historical events (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). The influence of historical events on generations and the interactions between them results in a generational diagonal. The generational diagonal lays the foundation in which different generations move through time and interact with one another. As a generation rises, the members reach the young-adult stage. In this period, their style does not conform or match that of the older generation (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). The younger generation is likely to make corrections of what is perceives as wrong with the older generation. For instance, the Millennials are likely to value authority and rather than distance themselves, which is common with Generation X. The younger generation also begins taking up the social roles formerly held by the elder generation.

Nature of the Study

This study adopts a quantitative research method. According to Wirtz and Strohmer (2016), quantitative research methods involve applying systematic methods of analyzing a particular phenomenon. The emphasis is on the use of numbers rather than a descriptive research to examine how particular variable react to changes. This study will examine how various generational cohorts relate to particular variables such as technology.  Quantitative research methods enable the research to examine phenomena and the particular relationships relating to the phenomena. In the study, the researcher will attempt to identify whether there are relationships between various generational cohorts and generational conflicts. The quantitative approach applies in research situations whereby the variables are measurable. In this study, all the variables are measurable. The aim of the researcher is to predict, explain, and control phenomena. Bansal and Corley (2012) assert that quantitative research can enable the researcher to assess the extent to which each of the generations holds particular values, attitudes, behaviors, and work ethics without necessarily offering descriptions. Quantitative research method is the best because it will provide an empirical analysis of the relationship between various variable and the phenomena.

This study adopts a correlational design. This design will help in analyzing the correlations among various variables. Correlational research applies in situations where the researcher cannot apply experimental research. This could be due to ethical reasons or conceptual challenges. Matta et al. (2017) employs a correlational analysis to examine the relationship between justice variability and employee stress. Correlational research design will allow the examination of various variable without altering the variables. The correlational design allows the researcher to identify key variables and test how they affect a group or individuals. Correlational design enables the researcher to evaluate the effect of two or more variables in the group. This is also known as multivariate analysis. This is the key reason why a correlational design was adopted for this study. There is no random assignment of participants in this study.

Research Questions

The research question seeks to establish the source of conflicts in the workplace. The study seeks to establish whether generational differences play a role in contributing to workplace conflicts and establishing possible solutions to this problem. This is in light of the realization of the current generational gap in the modern workplace, spanning roughly four generations. The study will identify whether these generational differences result to conflict or whether workplace conflicts are the result of other factors within organizations. It is worth noting that by examining whether generational differences contribute to conflicts in the workplace, the researcher will prove the validity of the generational stereotypes propagated in the popular media.

Popular press indicates that Baby Boomers show strong moral principles at work. Baby Boomers are likely to exude conformity in the workplace (Moore, Grunberg, & Krause, 2015;2014;). On the other hand, the Millennials have little regard for traditional values as well as conformance. Those in generation X are more skeptical about job security. Generation X is also more concerned with establishing work-life balance. The Traditionalists value the traditional work practices and are the last when it comes to technology adoption. They are few in the workplace. This analysis leads to the development of the following research questions.

RQ1. To what extent do those in Generation X report willingness to engage in overtime compared with other generational groups?

RQ2. How does the work ethics and compliance levels of Baby Boomers compare with those of Millennials and the Generation Xers?

RQ3. To what extent do the Millennials exhibit job mobility behaviors compared with other groups?


H10. Employees in Generation X are equally willing to engage in overtime compared to Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, and the Millennials.

H1a. Employees in Generation X exhibit higher tendency to engage in overtime compared with Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, and the Millennials.

H20. Baby Boomers will record equal incidences of good work ethics and compliance with organizational rules compared with Generation Xers and the Millennials.

H2a. Baby Boomers will record higher incidences of good work ethics and compliance with organizational rules compared with Generation Xers and the Millennials.

H20. The Millennials will record equal incidences of job mobility compared with Baby Boomers and Generation Xers.

H2a. The Millennials will exhibit higher incidences of job mobility compared with Baby Boomers and Generation Xers.

Significance of the Study

Few studies have examines the nature of conflicts in the modern workplace, especially in light of the changing generational composition patterns. With the emergence of a globalized workplace, the nature of conflicts has become increasingly complex. Organizational leaders and human resource managers must identify the sources of conflicts and implement measures aiming at establishing cooperation. This study will contributes to the knowledge on human resource management in various ways. First, the study adds to the existing literature on generational differences and their impact on organizational conflict. The study takes a quantitative approach. Majority of studies on generational conflicts in the workplace take a qualitative approach. As such, this study will provide quality findings by using a new approach. Second, the study adds to the literature on work-related values and how their influence in workplace conflicts. The study notes that employees from the same generational cohort share similar behaviors and values, which significantly differs from those of other generational groups. These differences contribute to conflicts.

Third, the study provides organizational leaders and human resource managers with knowledge on how they can effectively manage conflicts in the workplace. The study will provide empirical findings on the factors contributing to workplace conflicts. This will enable organizational leaders to handle conflicts using science-backed approaches. Fourth, this study is significant in that it integrates two different sets of factors: generational differences and workplace conflict. Fifth, the study will enable organizational leaders to anticipate particular behaviors from different generational groups represented in the workplace. In this way, the organizational leaders can be able to adapt a flexible leadership approach that caters to individual difference of the employees in different generational groups.

Definitions of Key Terms

            Generation. A generation refers to a group of people born around the same period in a particular location and who share similar historical and life experiences (Becton, Walker, & Jones-Farmer, 2014). The historical and life events greatly shape the behavior and values of the immediate generation. A generation evolves to become distinct from another generation owing to the different historical and life experiences.

            Generational gap. A generational gap refers to a difference of opinions among individuals in various generational groups (Kelly, Elizabeth, Bharat, & Jitendra, 2016).

            Cohort. A cohort refers to a group of people who share certain characteristics. The term is used in this research to indicate group of individuals who belong to the same generational group (Becton, Walker, & Jones-Farmer, 2014).

Generational diagonal. This refers to the interplay that arises from two different generational groups and the influence of social factors between the groups (Coomes & DeBard, 2004). A generational diagonal is the recognition of the dynamic nature of organizations – they are influenced by time as well as historical and life events.

Peer personality. This refers to the unique characteristic of a generation that arises due to three factors: sharing the same geographical location, having similar beliefs, and developing perceptions of belonging to a particular generational group (Coomes & DeBard, 2004).

Job satisfaction. This refers to contentment with one’s job. It also reflects high motivation levels among the employee. Job satisfaction is an important factor in ensuring high employee productivity and overall performance of the organization.


Managing the modern workplace is becoming increasingly complex owing to the generational differences among employees. The most contentious issue regards the presence of workplace conflicts and their negative impacts on productivity. There is no consensus on the causes of workplace conflict, with a faction attributing the situation to generational differences. Others argue that certain factors such as work experience could be the major factors influencing workplace conflicts. There is increased pressure on human resource managers to resolve workplace conflicts. However, there is little empirical research investigating workplace conflicts. This leaves most workforce managers with no way of applying scientific evidence in resolving workplace conflicts. This study applies a quantitative methodology in evaluating the influence of generational differences on workplace conflicts. The study emphasizes much on three generational cohorts dominant in the current workplace: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and the Millennials. The study also looks to an extent the Traditionalists, who are currently exiting the workplace for retirement. Majority of the Traditionalists have already exited the workplace. Nevertheless, some still hold vital positions within organizations. As such, their influence is still present in the workplace.


Bansal, K., & Corley, P. (2012). Publishing in AMJ-Part 7: What’s different about qualitative      research? Academy of Management Journal, 55, 509-513. doi:10.5465/amj.2012.4003

Becton, J. B., Walker, H. J., & Jones-Farmer, A. (2014). Generational differences in workplace    behaviour. Journal of Applied social Psychology, 44(3): 175-189.

Coomes, M. D., & DeBard, R. (2004). Serving the millennial generation. San Francisco: Jossey-  Bass.

Favero, L. W., & Heath, R. G. (2012). Generational perspectives in the workplace: Interpreting    the discourses that constitute Women’s struggle to balance work and life. Journal of   Business Communication, 49(4), 332-356. doi:10.1177/0021943612456037

Hall, A. (2016). Exploring the workplace communication preferences of millennials. Journal of             Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 20, 35.

Hillman, D. R. (2014). Understanding multigenerational work-value conflict resolution. Journal of Workplace Behavioural Health, 29(3), 240-257. doi:10.1080/15555240.2014.933961

Kelly, C., Elizabeth, F., Bharat, M., & Jitendra, M. (2016). Generation gaps: Changes in the         workplace due to differing generational values. Advances in Management, 9(5), 1.

Lyons, S., & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the           evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 35(S1),   S139-S157. doi:10.1002/job.1913

Matta, F. K., Scott, B. A., Coluquitt, J. A, Koopman, J., Passantino, L. (2017). Is consistently       unfair better than sporadically fair? An investigation of justice variability and stress.      Academy of Management Journal, 60(2): 743–770. DOI:   

Moore, S., Grunberg, L., & Krause, A. J. (2015;2014;). Generational differences in workplace             expectations: A comparison of production and professional workers. Current         Psychology, 34(2), 346-362. doi:10.1007/s12144-014-9261-2

Wirtz, M. A., & Strohmer, J. (2016). Application and integration of qualitative and quantitative   research methods in intervention studies in rehabilitation research. Die         Rehabilitation, 55(3), 191.

Generational Workplace Conflict


Problem Statement centers around Generational Workplace Conflict . Please let me know if you do not receive the attached documents. Thank you.

Sample paper

Generational Workplace Conflict

Statement of the Problem

This study examines the challenges that emerge in the current workplace characterized by a workforce that is increasingly becoming age and value diverse. The study notes that most managers are lacking relevant information or knowledge on how to manage a multigenerational workforce. This problem arises because of having employees with differing values, views, ambitions, skills, leadership styles, and even attitudes. This has led to wrangles and conflicts among the different generational groups owing to their uniqueness. According to Hillman (2014), numerous generational differences exist among the various groups of employees with regard to behaviors, personality traits, mental health, and attitudes. These differences have led to increased conflicts leading to reduced productivity.

Failure to resolve the growing conflicts among the different generational groups will lead to a decline in performance. This may hinder the organization from achieving its set production targets. Conflicts within an organization may reduce employee job satisfaction, leading to high employee turnover. This increases operational costs since it is expensive to hire and train new employees. Moreover, the organization may lose the best talent due to low job satisfaction. This may lead to negative consequences. Increased workplace conflicts will curtail the achievement of organizational goals. Conflicts may also lead to poor customer experience.

Four generational cohorts characterize the current workplace environment. These generational groups include the Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and the Millennials, the latter being the youngest generation cohort entering the job market. As Baby Boomers retire at an increasing rate, more Millennials are joining the workforce and taking their place (Lyons & Kuron, 2014). This has led to a dynamic shift in the workforce demographics cause by younger employees with different perspectives joining the workforce. There is need to examine ways in which managers can solve the multigenerational workplace conflicts. This research will provide evidence on the existence of conflicts resulting from generational differences and provide managers with ways of solving these conflicts.


Lyons, S., & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the           evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(S1),     S139-S157. doi:10.1002/job.1913

Hillman, D. R. (2014). Understanding multigenerational work-value conflict resolution. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 29(3), 240-257. doi:10.1080/15555240.2014.933961


Human Resource Management


Explain how a marketer delineates among durable goods, nondurable goods, and services when planning an appropriate market-mix strategy. Describe the strategies used for the different types of good and services. Provide two (2) example products for the consumer market and two (2) example products for the industrial market for each category (durable goods, nondurable goods, and services). 

Sample paper

Human Resource Management

Marketers consider durable goods as those that have longer usage & lifespan, those bought less often, and those that require a higher consumer investment during a purchase. The profit margins for each good are also important consideration in durable goods. This is what marketers use to delineate them from among other types of goods. Examples of durable goods include cars, refrigerators, Televisions, and other goods. When planning an appropriate market-mix strategy for durable goods, the marketer must consider approaches that allow close contact with consumers. As such, personal selling is the more preferable promotion method. Pricing is flexible and allows for a variety of options such as credit terms and discounts. The marketer earns large margins for every single sale.

Non-durable goods are those that have a shorter lifespan or are consumed in one go. They may last for a few uses before they become exhausted and the consumer have to make another purchase. Thus, the delineating factors that marketers use are the product’s lifespan or longevity, number of uses, frequency of purchase, and the margins expected from the sale of each product. Examples include soap, toiletries, food, and other goods. The marketer applies a wide market coverage strategy. In this strategy, a large number of convenient retail outlets help in moving the product to the consumer. The marketer makes small profit margins for every sale.

Services refer to the intangible activities that satisfy particular needs among consumers. Services are personal in nature. Examples include medical treatment, teaching, insurance, banking, and others. The personal nature of services enables the marketer to delineate services from the other types of goods. The market-mix strategy aims at building trust with the customer. The marketer aims at delivering the best services and at the most appropriate price.

Two examples of durable goods for the consumer market are refrigerators and cars. These goods should last for a relatively longer period. The consumer makes purchase less frequently while the marketer makes high profit margins for the sale of each item. Durable goods for the industrial market include computer systems, machinery, office furniture, and others. These are applied in the industrial market and should last for a long period. Nondurable goods for the consumer market include clothes and different type of foods. These are purchased frequently and have a shorter lifespan. Nondurable goods for the industrial market include raw materials such as gas, steel, timber, and others. Examples of services for the consumer market include teaching and insurance. On the other hand, examples of services for the industrial market include accounting and legal services, security and others.


Leadership of Richard Branson

Leadership of Richard Branson

Since the creation of businesses, organizations and businesses have invested much of their time and resources in search and identification of clues to help establish and select successful leaders. Besides, in the contemporary business environment, leadership has been identified as one of the essential and vital aspects of a business since it provides a sense of direction by laying down the foundations for all business operations. Studies have identified leadership as the ability and aptitude of the management of an organization or a company to set and attain challenging objectives, make quick and delicate operation decision, outperform rival firms and organizations as well as inspiring and motivating others (Burnes & By, 2011).  Notably, people with strong leadership knowledge and skills in the modern business environment often rise to top management positions. However, it is worth noting that there are different types of leadership styles that are substantially influenced by the kind of organization as well as the operations of a company. Besides, no single appropriate leadership style can fit all organizations at all time. Therefore, the management of an organization needs to analyze the current market, the performance of the business as well as the current trends before adopting a particular leadership style (Burnes & By, 2011). This study will attempt to identify and evaluate some of the leadership styles of Richard Branson that have enabled him to succeed at Virgin.

Question 1:

Richard Branson  leadership styles

Some of the notable elements of Sir Richard Branson leadership that have significantly contributed to the success of the organization can be applied in other organizations to cultivate an environment and an atmosphere that can lead to the success of these organizations. According to studies, Branson is not only an authority on entrepreneurialism, but he is also a good leader who knows how to handle his employees to ensure they remain objective to the goals and objectives of the company (Singh, Nadim, & Ezzedeen, 2012). Most studies have indicated that this great leader uses transformational leadership style to run operations and govern all the activities of the company and the employees.  Unlike other forms of leadership approaches, transformational leadership uses inspiration and motivation of employees to get things done. Therefore, these leaders often put into considerations the opinions and feelings of the lower level employees before formulating company policies, and this creates a sense of belonging and importance among all the employees of a company.  Therefore, it is safe to state that besides, being at the pinnacle of the leadership at the virgin company, Sir Richard Branson focuses on interacting with the ordinary employees to understand what they feel and think of the company and their views on how to improve the operations and success of the organization (Singh, Nadim, & Ezzedeen, 2012). Some of the essential elements of his leadership include:

  1. The ability to think differently – according to him, there exists no secret formula to become a great leader since all the great leaders do their thing different in their manner based on their knowledge and instincts.  Therefore, the ability to think differently helps to set great leaders apart and helps to achieve the goals and objectives of an organization irrespective of the style of leadership used. For example, while Sir Richard uses collaborative and democratic leadership, Steve Jobs used autocratic leadership, and both leaders have experienced high levels of success in their respective organizations.
  2. A positive culture – according to Sir Richard, the ability of a leader to create a positive organizational culture is another element that contributes to the success of a leader. Notably, having academic qualification is not enough to make a great leader considering that great leaders should have the ability to inspire and positively motivate their employees and followers. This inspiration helps to create a positive culture that is focused on the success of an organization by producing high-quality products and services that further the goals and objectives of an organization (Walumbwa, Morrison, & Christensen, 2012). Therefore, the personality of a leader counts a lot in making a good leader.

Related: Management at Google

Question 2

Suggest how the unique aspects of Richard Branson’s leadership style mesh successfully with the particular attributes of a multifaceted organization like Virgin.

The democratic and collaborative leadership used by Sir Richard is the key to success of the company irrespective of the fact that it has many facets. Transformational leadership style coupled with democracy helps him to establish an open environment where all the supervisors and managers of the different facets can interact and share while at the same time assisting one another to make the necessary strategies for the achievement of the overall objective of the company (Mitravich, 2015). Through the positive culture created by the company, Sir Richard is in a position to trust new entrants and demonstrate this trust by giving them enormous responsibilities. According to research, Branson can achieve this objective by sharing the goals and objectives of the company with all the company employees irrespective of their responsibility and duty in the organization as well as accepting their suggestions and views.  Notably, the employees of the company tend to remain focused on the success of the company when they know that the manager values their opinions and always has their backs.  Besides, the hiring of qualified individuals has significantly contributed to the success of the company irrespective of its facets. Eligible employees have a higher likelihood of focusing on the objectives of the company as opposed to unqualified employees (Mitravich, 2015).

Question 3

Determine two (2) key ways in which Richard Branson is likely to motivate employees to achieve his goals for the Virginia Group. Indicate whether or not his approach is expected to work in a different organizational setting. Provide support for your rationale.

Motivating employees is one of the essential responsibility of any leader considering that motivated employees tend to have higher output and perform better than unmotivated employees.  Employee motivation can be described as the degree of energy, commitment, and creativity that employees of a company bring to their jobs. One of the best ways that Sir Richard can motivate his employees is by regularly communicating the objectives, mission, and vision of the company. Employees need to be continually reminded of the reasons why the organization is doing what it is doing (Mitravich, 2015,). Besides, involving them in the creation of the vision and mission statement of the company helps to motivate them since they deeply understand what is expected of them.

Another way to ensure that the employees are wholly motivated by designing and developing appropriate compensation packages.  Irrespective of the fact that monetary compensation is not the only way of motivating employees, better compensation substantially inspires employees to give their best to the company. Therefore, Sir Richard should censure that employees are compensated by the work performed to ensure that they remain objective and work harder. Performance-based compensation encourages employees to perform better so that they can take home a hefty bonus (Singh, Nadim, & Ezzedeen, 2012).

Question 4

Assess the effectiveness of Richard Branson’s ability to articulate and communicate his vision for his company to employees and other stakeholders. Provide support for your rationale.

Effective communication remains one of the essential characteristics of a successful organization for the employees, and the employer can freely share information back and forth. Therefore, it is safe to state that by regularly communicating the organization’s vision statement to both employees and the stakeholders, Sir Richard is in a position to point out any changes that need to be implemented in the operations to ensure that the company remains in the right direction. Besides,  sharing of the vision of the company helps to inform all the stakeholders their duty and responsibility of ensuring that the goals and objectives of the organization (Walumbwa, Morrison, & Christensen, 2012). Effective communication and sharing of the vision of the company provide a sense of direction which is vital for the company.

Question 5

Assume that you have received a job offer to be a manager within the Virgin Group. Determine the criteria you would use to evaluate whether Richard Branson’s leadership style is a good fit for you as a manager and what conclusion you may draw about working with this type of leader.

To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the Sir Richard’s leadership, I need to establish whether his leadership style creates a shared vision for the entire organization and its stakeholders. A good leadership style should be in a position to create an everyday leadership style and rally all the employees behind the vision to attain the objectives and goals of the organization.  Notably, a good leadership style should help to establish a leadership style that builds a working culture to promote the execution of organizational processes and procedures. Another metric to use to measure the appropriateness of the leadership in the company is evaluating the determining the working climate in the company (Walumbwa, Morrison, & Christensen, 2012). A good leadership style should create a friendly environment where employees are free to interact and give all to the company.

Question 6

Take a position on whether or not you believe Richard Branson is a global leader. Justify your situation and provide support for your justification.

Based on the elements and attributes of his leadership style, it is safe to state that Richard Branson is a global leader who is admired and respected not only by his employees and colleagues but also by other global leaders. Apart from leading his organization to success, he substantially participates in finding comprehensive solutions to global problems such as global warming. For example, as the leader of the Virgin group, he has developed environmental policies that must be followed by all the employees to ensure that they conserve the environment and their activities do not degrade the environment. Such attributes make him a global leader (Mitravich, 2015).

Question 7

Predict Richard Branson’s success as a leader over the next five (5) years. Support your prediction.

Sir Richard is likely to continue his trend of success in the next five years since his management views are objectives are in line with the emerging issues in the contemporary business environment that substantially affect the global business environment.  For instance, as the leader of his company, he pays close attention to the current climate changes and significantly contributes to the formulation of these changes to ensure the furtherance of human life (Mitravich, 2015).  Besides, his integration with other global leaders provides an opportunity for him to learn new means of conducting business each day.


Burnes, B., & By, R. T. (2011). Leadership and Change: The Case for Greater Ethical Clarity. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 239-252. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-1088-2

Mitravich, C. (2015). The Virgin Way: Everything I Know about Leadership. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 20(1), 111-112. doi:10.9774/gleaf.3709.2015.ja.000010

Singh, P., Nadim, A., & Ezzedeen, S. R. (2012). Leadership styles and gender: An extension. Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(4), 6-19. doi:10.1002/jls.20239

Walumbwa, F. O., Morrison, E. W., & Christensen, A. L. (2012). Ethical leadership and group in-role performance: The mediating roles of group conscientiousness and group voice. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 953-964. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.06.004


Strategic Management For Marks & Spencer Company

Management at Google

Management at Google

Google is one of the most popular search engines. The company is headquartered in Mountain view, California. Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded the company in 1996, which was then providing search engine services to a growing number of internet users. In 1998, Google received its first financing from an investor, Andy Bechtolsheim. Over the same period, Google received millions in investments from interested individuals enabling the company’s top leadership to grow the business. In 2000, Google began listing advertisements based on search keywords. The sale of advertisements proved much productive by generating revenue for the company. In 2004, the company made its first initial public offering, generating enough capital to support its expansion strategies. This purpose of this paper is to examine Google’s management, operations, and the overall management’s impact to the company from inception to the current day.

Key Changes in Google’s Management Style

One of the key changes in Google’s management style was in 2001 when the founders appointed Eric Schmidt as the company’s chief executive. Eric played a critical role in transforming Google from a small little known company into a multinational corporation. Eric’s role has primarily been tailoring products for the global market. His role has been instrumental in scaling to a global level various products such as the Android mobile operating system. The structure under the reign of Eric Schmidt has been largely a flat organizational structure (Steiber & Alänge, 2013). In a flat organizational structure, there are few middle-level management positions coming between the junior employee and the top management. This ensures that employees can easily reach the top management. The management style has been largely laissez-fair. In this management style, the leaders are more of mentors. Google is quite different from other organizations in that employees are allowed to play games or engage in other social activities during work.

A key change in Google’s management style came in 2015, when the founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin announced a major restructuring. The restructuring aimed at creating a holding company, Alphabet Inc., which is a collection of companies, the largest being Google. The restructuring aimed at reducing the complexities of managing a large organization with multiple services and products in the market. Following the restructuring strategy, Google became leaner and focused on the core services. Other subsidiaries under Alphabet Inc. handle products and services that are not part of Google’s core operations (providing internet products), for instance, health services. Following the restructuring, Sundar Pichai became Google’s new chief executive. Under his reign, Google has largely operated based on a divisional structure (Price& Nudelman, 2016). Each division operates as a separate brand and handles unique products.

It is clear that Google has one of the best management structures. Since inception, Google has experienced high market growth and maintained a strong brand presence. It’s strong management has seen the company introduce a variety of products to consumers including Google Maps, Google+, Google Drive, Android mobile operating system, self-driving cars, YouTube, AdSense, and recently artificial intelligence and among other technologies. In addition, Google has continued to enjoy significant growth in its stock, indicating a strong performance in the industry. The company’s stock price has increased to $1,078 per share since the last stock split in mid-2015 (YAHOO FINANCE, 2018).

Senior Management’s Role in Preparing for Recent Change

The most recent change was the restructuring of the company to form the conglomerate firm, Alphabet Inc. The top management (Larry Page and Sergey Brin) and CEO Eric Schmidt played a critical role in preparing the company for a restructuring strategy. The top management focused on creating a leaner company that could be held more accountable for the decisions made. Larry Page and Sergey Brin focused on exploiting bigger opportunities that Google provides, while other executives focus on other segments (“Brad Green,” 2016). By restructuring the company, each division is able to pursue a unique product and service with the parent company providing the capital necessary for the success of each. According to Brad Green (2016), the restructuring would allow each subsidiary to have its own CEO, thus improving independence of each. Eric Schmidt was also key in planning the restructuring of the company.

Google’s top management executed a seamless transition in its restructuring drive. Following the restructuring, Google acquired a new chief executive, Sundar Pichai. Former Google’s Executive Chairman, Eric Schmidt, continued with his role at the newly formed Alphabet Inc. Larry Page became the new Chief Executive Officer at Alphabet Inc., a position he held prior to the hiring of CEO Eric Schmidt. Sergey Brin became Alphabet’s President. The transition was smooth since no managerial wrangles have emerged from the company since the restructuring in 2015. In his blog post, Larry Page asserted that they strongly believe that Sundar Pichai is the right CEO to steer the company to greater heights (Alphabet, n.d). Pichai’s vision reflects that of the co-founders in better ways.

Management’s Decision on its use of Vendors and Spokespersons

Google’s management relies on vendors for the supply of critical products to the company. Google relies on various third-party technology vendors to run products on its sites. In addition, Google employees can purchase various products or serves from listed vendors by the company. Google prefers to work with a small number of vendors, which enables the company to check on quality and to review the terms of trade with a few sellers. Google outsources certain services and products such as transportation and food. Google has developed a program dubbed Small Business Supplier diversity that helps in developing better relations with suppliers. The use of vendors allows the company to focus in areas where it has greatest strengths. Google also relies on spokespersons to improve on communication dynamics.

Spokespersons enable the company to fulfill its communication efforts. Spokespersons are relevant in communicating with external persons such as media and political entities. Management’s use of spokespersons for external communication helps in managing public relations. The spokespersons act as representatives in key external events such as providing briefings about projects to key stakeholders or government officials. Spokespersons are also relevant in fulfilling internal communication efforts, for instance, managing press briefings on new products. Spokespersons help in clearly communicating the company’s products to potential customers. Another role that spokespersons play in the company is advising employees or teams about the company’s culture.

Innovative Idea that could have a Positive Impact on Employees and Customers

An innovative idea that could have a positive impact on both employees and customers is encouraging innovation among employees to come up with solutions that directly address the needs of customers. Google should allow employees to take active roles in making critical decisions relating to their work areas. Allowing employees to make critical decisions without too much management interference is likely to boost innovativeness in the company. Companies that support their employees to express their ideas and to use their imagination in solving problems are likely to build innovation from the workforce. Google must focus on individual employees in order to harness their full innovativeness potential at the company. In implementing innovation among employees, it is important to create positive relations in order to improve knowledge sharing (Ullah et al., 2016). Through continued innovation, customers benefit through improved or cheaper products and services.

Google’s ability to Adapt to the Changing Needs of Customers

Google has a strong ability to adapt to the changing needs of the customers as well as the market environment. A look at the company’s operational history reveals that Google has been one of the trendsetter in the field of technology. Over the years, Google has pioneered the development of unique products and serves, which have significantly contributed to its growth and current market share in the field of technology. Google’s top innovations that have had a strong impact in its market share include autocomplete feature during searches, Google translations, Google +, Google Maps, universal search (consumers can search text, images, video, and applications), smart devices such as watches, voice search, knowledge graphs, and among other great innovations. In the current period, Google is pioneering the introduction and application of artificial intelligence. Open communication channels provide the basis for change in organizations. According to Men (2014), open communication channels facilitate sharing of ideas and development of a strong company culture in which change can occur.

In summary, Google is one of the most popular search engines. The flat organizational structure has been critical in encouraging innovation at the company. Google’s management style is laissez-faire, where organizational leaders play a supportive role to employees. The recent changes at the company, notably the coming of Eric Schmidt as the company’s CEO, and the subsequent restructuring in 2015, has largely been seamless and improved the company’s market position. Google’s outlook remains that of a competitive company owing to the high level of new product development.


Brad Green – Director, Engineering, Google Inc., Alphabet Inc. (2016). Boardroom Insiders         Profiles,

Men, L. R. (2014). Strategic internal communication: Transformational leadership,           communication channels, and employee satisfaction. Management Communication             Quarterly, 28(2), 264-284. doi:10.1177/0893318914524536

Page, L. (n.d). Alphabet. Retrieved from

Price, R. & Nudelman, M. (2016). Google’s parent company, Alphabet, explained in one chart.    Business Insider, Available at:    parent-company-infographic-x-gv-2016-1

Steiber, A., & Alänge, S. (2013). A corporate system for continuous innovation: The case of        google Inc. European Journal of Innovation Management, 16(2), 243-264.            doi:10.1108/14601061311324566

Ullah, I., Akhtar, K. M., Shahzadi, I., Farooq, M., & Yasmin, R. (2016). Encouraging knowledge             sharing behavior through team innovation climate, altruistic intention and organizational             culture. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 8(4), 628-645.

YAHOO FINANCE! (2018). Alphabet Inc. (Goog).


Strategic Management For Marks & Spencer Company

Strategic Management For Marks & Spencer Company


Marks & Spencer, also known as M & S is a company that was founded in 1884 and specializes in selling of home products, clothing and luxury food products. It is a major multinational retailer with its headquarters in London. The company has shown promising growth considering that it was the first ever British retailer to have over £ 1 billion in pre-tax profits. The company has established stores in different parts of the world with most being in the UK (852). It also has stores in India (52), Russia (37) and even France (14).

In the early 20th century, M &S made a name for itself when they created a policy of selling only British- made goods. The company also accepted return of unwanted items while giving a full refund as long as the customer produced a receipt. The return of items was accepted regardless of how long ago it had been purchased and this made their stores very popular since very few stores allowed such at that time. Over the years, M & S has continued to grow tremendously despite various challenges theta it has faced. In 2015, the company opened a supermarket in the most expensive shopping street in Amsterdam; Kalverstraat and a large clothing store in The Hague. In 2016, the company opened an even larger store in Amsterdam designed to have a direct underground connection to the new metro station. Its stores have increased in numbers in the international market and are expected to keep increasing (Grayson, 2011).

VRIN/ VRIO in Resources and Competence Analysis

The VRIN characteristics are used to determine the important features necessary for a resource to be deemed as strategically important (Bingham, 2008). These characteristics are:

  • Valuable- Resources should be able to bring value to the company in order for them to become a source of competitive advantage.
  • Rare- As much as a resource is of value, it must not also exist in competitor firms because it will not provide any competitive advantage. The resources have to be unique.
  • Inimitable- Resources will be a source of competitive advantage of competitor firms are unable to copy them hence cannot obtain them.
  • Non-substitutable- Resources should not be able to be replaced by others to implement the same strategy because then, they will not be a source of sustainable competitive advantage.

For the case of M&S, its VRIN can be analyzed using resources and competencies like human resources, technology development, infrastructure and marketing and sales among others.

Aspect V R I N Results
Human resources Yes Yes No No Temporary competitive advantage
Technology Yes No No No No competitive advantage
Inbound logistics Yes Yes No No Temporary competitive advantage
Outbound logistics Yes No No No No competitive advantage
Marketing and sales Yes Yes No No Temporary competitive advantage
Infrastructure Yes Yes Yes Yes Sustainable competitive advantage
Operations Yes Yes No Yes Temporary competitive advantage
Service Yes Yes Yes Yes Sustainable competitive advantage


Future Growth and Final Recommendation

M& S has a strong reputation together with a firmly founded brand history. These features together with its business model that is focused on its consumers is what can help the company keep growing. It is also in a stable financial condition which means it has the ability to expand its business to other new markets hence increasing its customer base. Some of the recommendations for growth include:

  1. Invest more in technology so as to expand its online business.
  2. Venture into new international markets and open up more stores.
  3. Continuously improve its products by keeping up with market trends.
  4. Invest in its marketing by adopting various tools in order to increase its sales.


Bingham, C. B. (2008). Position, leverage and opportunity: a typology of strategic logics linking resources with competitive advantage. Managerial and Decision Economics, 241-256.

Grayson, D. (2011). Embedding corporate responsibility and sustainability: Marks & Spencer. Journal of Management Development, 1017-1026.

Related paper:

Albatross Anchor Operations Management

Project Management


We held a fifa(Football game) tournament in a Student Union. The purpose for this event is to raise fund for charity. We are able to raised 50 pound. 8 participants had joined the tournament and the winner gets 10 pound and a coupon of big jar of beer sponsored by the student union. We had recorded videos and take photos of the event as evidence. We have all the equipment (xbox, joysticks).

Sample paper

Project Management

Project management refers to the process of initiating, executing and planning the work of a team with the aim of achieving specific objectives. Projects are temporary activities that are designed to produce specific results and have a defined beginning and end. The main challenge in project management is to ensure all the goals of the project are achieved within the constraints present (Munns, 1996). Some of the major constraints include time, scope, budget and quality. All these resources must be allocated effectively and integrated to meet pre-defined goals.

Our project; FIFA 17 Tournament was initiated with the goal of raising funds for charity. The tournament was held in the Student Union and raised 50 pounds. However, the project had some risks such as doubts regarding the motive of the project. For a project to succeed, risks must be managed. Doubts can make people fail to contribute if they think that it is not for a worthy cause and it may be difficult to gain people’s trust. In order to gain the trust of people, it is important to make the cause of the project very clear especially for the case of charities. People need to know exactly where or what their money is going into. That way, they will give willingly without doubts.

Another risk that came up in the FIFA tournament was the risk of poor results which would make all the invested funds go to waste. Initiating a project can be challenging because we cannot foretell the outcome but with the right planning we can expect good results. For our case, the project was a success considering we were able to raise 50 pounds. Taking up the FIFA tournament project meant we had to give up other options that possibly could have given 8us better results. That was a risk but it is not to say that the other options did not have their risks. It is important to analyze all options and alternatives, their benefits and risks before settling on one. This ensures that the decision arrived at is well thought out with minimal risks.

All projects require funds to initiate and manage them. Without proper planning, it is easy to run short of funds before the project is over. Cost planning involves allocation, estimation and controlling of costs in the project.  It is important to predict or estimate costs in order to reduce chances of over spending. Estimated costs are calculated during the planning process and approved before the project begins (Kerzner, 2013). It is important to document all expenses so that costs stay within the estimated budget. Once the project is complete, it is necessary to compare the estimated costs to the actual costs which can help with planning for any future projects.

In the case of FIFA tournament project, since the funds were meant for a charitable cause, the goal is to spend as little as possible on the project. To ensure the project was still successful, we used a venue that was free; the Student Union. In addition, the prize for the winner was not given from the money raised but was sponsored by the Student union. Since it was a game tournament, equipment were needed which they already had hence did not have to buy anything. To help with funding of the project, we even approached potential sponsors to help in order to ensure the event would not go over the budget.

There are various techniques used in project management depending on the type of project at hand. Every project is unique depending on the priorities, objectives, risks, resources available and the environment it operates in. One of the project management techniques include the waterfall model. The waterfall model is a design process that is sequential in nature where progress flows steadily downwards just like a waterfall which explains its name (Charvat, 2013). The techniques flows from the stage of conception to initiation and up to the implementation stage. This technique emphasizes that one should only move to the next phase after the previous one is done and verified. The FIFA tournament project used the waterfall technique. This technique suit the project because of its nature of unchanging requirements.

The waterfall technique was used by software developers where once one phase of a project had been completed, going back to make changes would be impractical and incredibly costly. The waterfall method allows for solving of any issues identified during the development phase before the design phase starts. That is how the project members were able to identify that they may need help from sponsors because they had an opportunity to review their plan after every stage. This method is also very efficient since it emphasizes on documentation which helps keep track of things at all times. Many teams are comfortable with this method due t its linear nature that makes it easy to use and understand.

Through this method, the FIFA 17 Tournament project was planned and implemented successfully. Their main objective for raising money for charity was achieved and they got the chance to take their mind off studying and have fun for a worthy cause. The project team of four members all fully participated considering they each had specific tasks assigned to them. Having an efficient project management technique along with working together ensured the project served its purpose to the fullest. All this was achieved at low cost due to proper planning and setting of realistic goals that were not out of students reach.


Charvat, J. (2013). Project management methodologies: selecting, implementing, and supporting methodologies and processes for projects. John Wiley & Sons.

Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Munns, A. K. (1996). The role of project management in achieving project success. International journal of project management, 81-87.



Individual report


I had an incredible time working on the FIFA 17 tournament with my fellow project members. The project made me feel like I was a part of something important. It gave me a chance to really exercise my critical thinking skills as I was making the project budget to determine what was really necessary.


I consider it an honor to work on the FIFA 17 tournament. It was amazing to use games to raise money for charity and I believe we gave our fellow students something to think about. It personally showed me that we are all bale to give even in our own little ways. The project members were fun and easy to work with.


This project gave me an opportunity to work on my interpersonal skills. It is not easy to convince people to put their money into something but I had to do that because it was part of my responsibility to find sponsors. I had a great time working with the project members.


I had fun working on the FIFA Tournament. I love games but never knew I could use them for something such as helping others. I would definitely want to be a part of another project in the future.

Burger King Case Analysis -BBA 3210, Business Law


Reasons why the organization needs to collect HR data


Your Organisation has a new HR Director.  You have been requested to review the organisation’s approach to collecting, storing and using HR data and produce a statement on your findings.

The HR Director has asked you to cover the following:

  • 2 reasons why the organisation needs to collect HR data
  • 2 types of data that is collected within the organisation and how each supports HR practices
  • A description of 2 methods of storing records and the benefits of each

2 essential items of legislation relating to the recording, storage and accessibility of HR data (You may refer to European law or your local law requirements.)


Reasons why the organization needs to collect HR data

            The organization must collect, store and ensure that HR data is kept safely. There are a number of reasons why the organization should collect HR data. First, legal requirements ensure that organizations collect HR data for record keeping (Ramsey, 2007). The organization is mandated to collect HR data in order to prove that its hiring practices conform to outlined employment laws and regulations in the country. The organization must keep certain data such as passports to show that the employees are eligible to work. The organization should ensure that HR data is kept confidentially to avoid misuse. Organizations must thus secure data in a safe manner to avoid misuse.

            The organization also needs to collect HR data for administration data. The organization must store data concerning the employees in order to effectively run the payroll system. For instance, data collected enables the organization to plan for replacement of employees leaving the organization. The organization is also able to plan for the total wage bill while having the right HR data. Other administrative issues include performance appraisals, transfers, and performance of various employees in the organization.

Types of data collected within the organization

            The type of data collected by the organization varies depending on the organization, its priorities and nature of the industry. The first type of data collected is absence data. This involves collecting data about the total number of days an employee has worked, and the total number of days the employee has been away. Absence data supports HR practices by informing the department about the number of employees working in the organization. It enables the HR function to plan for holidays, leave days, and other leave requests by the employees. For instance, thee HR function is able to avoid a backlog of leave request by employees, and at the same time plan for employee leave in such a way that the organization does not become understaffed by too many employees taking their leave at the same period (Wang, 2007).

            The second type of data collected is recruitment data. This involves collecting data about the number, qualifications and other relevant details concerning employees being hired. Recruitment data enables the HR function to establish the best channels which can be used to hire employees. It also enables the HR function to establish the employee retention rates and plan in advance for new recruits when a high number of employees leave the organization.

Methods of storing records

            There are two main methods of storing records in organizations; manual record keeping and electronic record keeping. Manual record keeping involves the use of paper files to manually store documents. Records are arranged in folders and safely locked in filing cabinets. Documents of this nature are often arranged in alphabetical order to facilitate easy retrieval. Some organizations run parallel systems whereby the information on documents is also recorded on computers. There are a number of benefits with this method of storing records. First, it is cheap to set up. Second, it is an easy process that does not require knowledge of any computer system. Third, the risk of data loss is significantly low. Lastly, the problem of duplicate copies of documents is avoided.

            Majority of organizations prefer storing records electronically. In this system, documents are scanned and kept in electronic form for future retrieval. Most of the work is carried out on the organizations’ computer system which automatically saves data in secure databases. The organization must ensure that only authorized persons can access the data (Wang, 2007). This is achieved by putting up physical barriers the computer systems and providing passwords. This method is highly efficient as it saves on time and space needed in storing transactions. It is possible to back up records and keep them in safe places where there is no risk of fire or water. Lastly, the method is automatic and hence easy and cost saving.

Essential items of legislation relating to recording, storage and accessibility of HR data

            Organizations are required to handle employee data carefully as per the legal requirements outlined by the European law. The Data Protection Act of 1998 outlines specific guidelines which employers must observe while handling client data. According to the act, organizations are required to use employee data in a responsible and accountable manner (Ramsey, 2007). Individual employee data should be kept confidential at all times. Second, employee data should only be accessed when there is a clearly outlined purpose for doing so. Even then, accessing the data should only be for the reasons established and not for any other purposes.


Ramsey, V. (2007). Construction law handbook. London: Thomas Telford.

Wang, J. (2007). Data warehousing and mining: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and        applications. Hershey: Igi Online.

Purposes of performance management and relationship to business objectives