Category Archives: Political Science



After carefully reading this module/week’s assigned materials related to federalism and the effects of federal agencies on public spending and budgeting, you will conduct your own research on federalism and draft a research paper analyzing the potential implications of federalism on the policies and politics of public budgeting. You are required to choose between producing a PowerPoint or video presentation or writing a research paper analyzing the concept of federalism as it applies to the politics and policy of public budgeting. Specifically, you will need to provide a nuanced analysis and explanation of

1) the role and/or impact of federalism in maintaining constitutionally limited federal government,

2) the potential impact of federalism on federal level public budgeting;

3) the impacts of federal agency spending on public budgeting; and

4) a Judeo-Christian analysis of the concepts of federalism in public budgeting.

Option 1: Research Paper

Write a research paper analyzing and evaluating the legal systems of the US, Israel, and a Middle East country of your choice as described above.

Sample paper


Different countries have different forms of government largely based on the type of constitution of the country. Federalism in the world today comprises of two forms of government where the central or the federal government in a country shares the power and authority with state and regional governments. In simple terms, federalism can be defined as that form of government where there is division of power and authority. Notably, there is a great difference between a federal government and confederation which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional governments in a country. Research shows that there is a close relationship between federal government and a limited government. A limited government is that form of government whose powers and authority are controlled and restricted by the constitution of the country. However, even though the powers of a limited government are based on the constitution of a country, it is worth noting that some people argue and believe that these types of governments are not limited enough as they sometimes violate the constitution (Srithongrung, 2017). Notably, a limited government cannot intervene and control the lives of the people in a country without violating the provisions of the constitution. A good example of a limited government in the world today is the united states of America.  According to history, the independence constitution of the united states, which was made back in the days was meant to control and limit the powers of the government to eliminate or reduce the likelihood of anarchy or misuse of power in the country. This assignment will attempt to identify and describe the impact and influence of federalism on a limited government.

Public budgeting is one of the many functions of the government as it attempts to improve the lives of the people in the nation through the provision of goods and services that are important to their lives. Therefore, the government has a responsibility of matching the revenues of the company to its expenses which in turn ensures that they prioritize the need for the people. However, the powers of the government to provide such services and products to the public entirely depend on the constitution of a country. This means that federalism of any country significantly affects the lives of the people both politically and economically (Lynch et al., 2009). There are different ways to which the powers of a government can be limited that include the bill of rights as well as federalism.  The division of power between the central and regional governments ensures that each party in the federation is restricted in its exercise of power by the existence of other units.  Research shows that the main exploitive power is the government. Therefore, the division of power and authority in a country ensures that those in powerful positions do not operate exploitatively and unfairly, but rather puts the needs and desires of all people in the country into consideration. Notably, the constitution of the country lays down the permissible field of power and a government. However, the same constitution lays a clear plan of what those in power can and cannot do through restrictions on the exercise of power in the country. The American constitution, which is widely regarded as one of the most democratic constitutions in the globe today, as well as amendments incorporating fundamental, provides such provisions and restrictions to ensure that the federal government of the country does not misuse its powers and authority to suit personal endeavors and interests. However, in the recent years, the American constitutions, as well as fundamental amendments incorporating the bill of rights, have come under criticism from different people and organizations because of the way the judiciary of the country interprets the amendments and the constitution (Smith, 2014). According to the opposing camp, the constitution, particularly the bill of rights contained substantial brakes on the power and authority of the government and the Congress, which have been devalued by the judiciary in its new interpretation of the constitution. As significantly mentioned in the first amendment and throughout the bill of rights, the United States government is banned from directly influencing particular areas of the lives of the people such as religion, speech, and freedom of association and expression.

Government expenditure has been one of the major sources of public goods and services in most countries. Government spending comprises of all government consumptions, investment, and transfer payments. According to economist all government acquisitions in the form of products and services for current use, to directly satisfy the individual and collective needs of the community is always classified as government spending (In Rubin, 2015). However, the government and those in power cannot be left on their own to decide a number of funds that the government can spend on the provision of goods and services to the nation. Therefore, all government spending must be included in the national budget, which in turn helps to distribute the scarce resources to achieve the goals and aims of an organization or a country. Public budgeting is often characterized by its approaches, function, formation and the type of budget adopted by the government. Notably, the constitution of the country through fiscal policies helps to limit and control government expenditure.  The primary emphasis on the rule-based fiscal rules in the country at the state level is meant to attain debt sustainability through the numerical ceiling on borrowing and the use of borrowed resources for public spending. Research shows that one of the primary functions of the united states congress is to prevent the executive arm of the government from taking over the control of all the country’s legislative activities, rules, and regulations Musick & United States, 2010). Therefore, the Congress has to ensure that all the government spending is within the stipulated system by the constitution for public spending directly affects the lives of ordinary Americans. Therefore, the congress posses the sole power and authority to draft and pass budget policies thus leaving the president with the power to signing the said laws.  Through this division of power and authority in the country, the constitution ensures that no one single individual can sway the direction in which the country is governed and ruled. Thus, it is correct to state that the Congress often acts as the oversight of all government spending considering that they must approve each government budget and expenditure to ensure that those in power stay in line. Additionally, the Congress helps to hold both state and federal governments accountable for all their spending by ensuring that they account for every single cent allocated to them Smith, 2014).

To assist in ensuring that they meet the needs and demands of all citizens in the country, the United States government often appoints agencies in various fields to provide the much-needed services to the people. Government agencies largely comprise of state-appointed commissions that are permanent or semi-permanent organizations that must oversee and control the operations and particular functions, for example, the intelligence agency. Notably, there are different types of agencies in the country that have different functions that help in improving the lives of the people in the country (WetFeet (Firm), 2008). Research shows that the United States expenditure consists of a number expenditure that includes fundamental expenditure such as Medicare and social security programs. Therefore, it is evident that federal agencies in the country can increase government expenditure considering that employees of these agencies and commissions have to be paid. However, their benefits to the society and the government, in general, cannot be compared to the cost incurred in sustaining these agencies. For example, the largest percentage of the United States public expenditure goes to health care and military.  With the military, which can be described as one of the largest government agencies, it provides security and intelligence that helps to keep people living and working in the United States safe from external attacks. On the other side, the Medicare programs in the country help in improving the health standards of the people in the country if not maintaining the standard requirements. Therefore, government agencies assist in ensuring that there are transparency and accountability in all government spending as well as ensuring that all the needs and demands of the common citizen are meant. Without these agencies, products and services provided through public spending may not reach the people in the villages and on the ground (Srithongrung, 2017).

Judeo-Christian is one of the major concepts in the world today that rules and influences most of the decisions and beliefs of the people particularly the Christians.  According to research Judeo-Christian reforms and replaces the traditional Judaism as it seeks to move away from the traditional beliefs of the Jews.  According to this worldview, all Christians should create budgets to allocate resources in their order of priority and needs to ensure that they meet their needs and improves the lives of the people.  According to this perspective, the piece of timeless, practical wisdom, planning and preparation are significant to the achievement of individual and organizational goals and objectives (Wimbush, 2008). According to them, plans, particularly financial planning are essential to the human life considering that it helps to allocate the scarce resource to serve the needs of the people as well as serving God through tithes and offerings. Jesus stressed on creating a plan to ensure that people complete what is expected of them on time and within the designated budget.

From the above-detailed study, it is evident that public spending and budgeting is one of the common practices in human life.  Notably, through the sharing of power and authority between the state and federal government as well as between the three arms of government, the American Constitution helps to limit and control public budgeting and maintains constitutionally limited government.  The Congress is known to control all government budgets as well as holding those in power responsible and accountable for public spending.  Moreover, Judeo-Christian believes that through planning and budgeting both individual and organizations or countries for that matter stand a better chance of achieving their goals on time and within the budget.  Therefore, public budgeting is important to the lives of ordinary citizens.


In Rubin, I. (2015). Public budgeting: Policy, process, and politics.

Lynch, E., Brink, L., Flores, C., Mittelstet, S. K., Dowe, D., Dallas County Community College District, & KERA Dallas/Ft. Worth (Television station). (2009). Federalism. Dallas: Dallas County Community College District.

Musick, N., & United States. (2010). Public spending on transportation and water infrastructure. Washington, D.C.: Congress of the U.S., Congressional Budget Office.

Smith, J. (2014). Federalism. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Srithongrung, A. (2017). Capital Budgeting and Management Practices: Smoothing Out Rough Spots in Government Outlays. Public Budgeting & Finance. doi:10.1111/pbaf.12167

WetFeet (Firm). (2008). Careers in nonprofit and government agencies. San Francisco, CA: WetFeet, Inc.

Wimbush, V. L. (2008). Theorizing Scriptures: New Critical Orientations to a Cultural Phenomenon. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.


Limited Government and Balanced Budget

Limited Government and Balanced Budget


All public budget policies and ideas ultimately arise from presumptive and foundational ideas related to the proper role and limits of government. After carefully reading this module/week’s reading assignments, you will conduct your own research and write a concise but thorough research paper examining the Constitutional limits on the federal government and the rationale employed by proponents of a balanced budget amendment to the United States Constitution.For this assignment you should

1) fully explain what is meant by “constitutionally limited government,”

2) provide an analysis of the general limits on government that should influence government spending/budgeting,

3) explain the relationship between constitutionally limited government and the rationale employed by proponents of a balanced budget amendment to the United States Constitution and

4) evaluate these issues in light of a Judeo-Christian worldview.

Sample paper

Limited Government and Balanced Budget

Budgeting and the creation of a financial plan are important to any organization considering that it gives the organization as well as the individual employees the sense of direction that is needed to succeed in the current volatile business. A financial budget gives an opportunity for an organization or a government to design and implement a financial plan based on their income and expenses. The budget often consists of the total funds allocated for a particular purpose and the summary of intended expenses along with proposals for how to meet them. The budgeting process comprises of all activities and actions undertaken by an organization or a government as they attempt to build a budget. A good budgeting process ensures that those responsible for adhering to it as well as implementing it are involved in every step to ensure that they understand what is expected of them (Haulman, 2016). This assignment will attempt to provide further research and information regarding limited government and balanced budget amendment.

Research shows that most Organization For Economic Cooperation And Development (OECD) nations are currently running substantial budget deficits as they attempt to move away from the effects of global recession. Therefore, the government of such countries directly influences the lives of the people by influencing their economic activities. In a limited government,  the powers and authority of the government to influence the lives and activities of the general public are limited by constitutional law, unlike the unlimited government. One of the notable countries that use limited government in the world today is the United States of America. Research shows that the united states constitution outlines a limited federal government.  The nation’s government is based on federalism with separation of powers and authority between the central government and the state governments (Wenzel, 2014).  Therefore, the United States government has only those powers that the people have specifically authorized and cannot go beyond those rules. Historians and politicians believe that limited government is ideologically opposite of the doctrines of absolutism and the divine rights of kings, which offers a single individual in a country unlimited sovereignty over the common citizens in the country.    Further research shows that the history of limited government started way back during the era of English Magna Carta back in 1512. Unlike those ancient times where the powers and authority of the king protected a few people, the current form of limited governments is based on the constitution of the country that helps limit the chances of anarchy and misuse of power in a country. The articles of confederation designed and implemented back in 1781 led to the introduction of a limited government. Unfortunately, the fact that these articles did not provide a way through which the united states government could raise money to finance its war, it led the country in financial chaos (Kruger, 2012).

Public expenditure is one of the important concepts of any government considering it influences the amount of money needed by the government to provide the much-needed products and services to its citizens. Public expenditure largely comprises of the value of products and services bought by a government and its articulations. Research shows that through public expenditure, the government has an opportunity of contributing to the current effective demand in a country, express a coordinated impulse on the economy as well as increasing public endowment of products for every citizen (Nishimura, Nourry, Seegmuller, & Venditti, 2013). However, in most governments and nations, particularly in cases where there is a limited government, the government budgeting and spending are often influenced by the constitution. The notion of limited government is one that was introduced by classic political liberalism and free market liberalism. Irrespective of the fact that politicians and economists differ on the determinants of a limited government, one thing is clear in that a limited government should protect the people by ensuring that they levy enough taxes to finance services related to these purposes.  Research shows that the political will of a limited government is one of the major determinants of the government budgeting. The priorities of a government, their desired state model as well as their interpretation of their powers and authority as well as current economic status influences their taxation policies. Notably, most of the government spending is financed by taxes levied on people and business. Therefore, the political will of the limited government influences the taxes on the people, which in turn influences budgeting and spending. Another major factor that substantially influences the spending of a limited government is the anti-cyclical broad control of the public expenditure. In such cases, the government employs automatic stabilizers and supporting schemes for unemployment to help improve the gross domestic product of a country which in turn calls for more spending (Stone, 2015). Finally, the state revenues are known to affect the level of spending in a country substantially. In cases where a country experiences unbalanced budget where there are higher or surplus revenues, the limited government is forced to spend more. However, in the case of the public deficit, fall in tax revenue or even recession, the government may be forced to cut its spending.

A balanced budget amendment is a constitutional requirement requiring that countries spend only what they can generate. Therefore, in the case of a limited government, the government cannot spend more than their income as the constitution prohibits the government from spending more than it can generate. In the current system in the united states, a balanced budget is one of the constitutional requirements, although it makes exceptions in the times of war, national emergency or recession. Notably, the constitution gives the Congress the power to suspend this clause in the constitution through supermajority rule.  For example, in the united states, all states have some form of the balanced budget except Vermont. However, the provisions of the constitution that govern the balanced budget of a country differs from nation to another or from, one state to another given the fact that different nations and states have a different level of income and expenditure. Therefore, the provisions of a constitution are the major determinants of government spending in most countries that have limited governments (Stone, 2015).

The concept of Judeo-Christian traditions are based on the Christian theory of suppression where the covenant between the Christians and God supersedes the Jewish one. According to judo-Christianism, Christians should respect those in power and authority, considering that public policies they design and implement are part of God’s image of the world.  As a result, those in power should respect the set principles and laws while the common citizens should respect and follow those in power (Harvey, n.d.,).

From the above discussion, it is easy to point out that limited government plays an important role in the creation and implementation of a balanced budget. However, the constitution of the country should be clear on how to handle different events and circumstances owing to the volatile and changing times.


Harvey, W. Z. (n.d.). 11. The Judeo-Christian Tradition’s Five Others. Is there a Judeo-Christian Tradition?. doi:10.1515/9783110416596-012

Haulman, C. A. (2016). Virginia and the panic of 1819: The first Great Depression and the Commonwealth. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Kruger, S. (2012). Governmental Fiscal Prudence, Writ Constitutionally. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1452062

Nishimura, K., Nourry, C., Seegmuller, T., & Venditti, A. (2013). Destabilizing balanced-budget consumption taxes in multi-sector economies. International Journal of Economic Theory, 9(1), 113-130. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7363.2013.12008.x

Stone, J. A. (2015). DO BALANCED-BUDGET RULES INCREASE GROWTH? Bulletin of Economic Research, 68(1), 79-89. doi:10.1111/boer.12038

Wenzel, N. G. (2014). Lessons from Constitutional Culture and the History of Constitutional Transfer: A Hope for Constitutionally Limited Government? International Advances in Economic Research, 20(2), 213-226. doi:10.1007/s11294-014-9462-3

Evaluative Criteria in Policy Making

Evaluative Criteria in Policy Making

Policymaking is a complex process. Various alternatives confront policymakers during the policymaking process. The evaluation criteria ordinarily depend on the combination of various values and facts available for a specific policy. The policymakers may look at the qualities or principles that the community holds as intrinsically valuable while making policy decisions. For instance, policymakers may settle on a particular policy based on its fairness to all individuals. The evaluation criteria outline the specific values that a particular policy should fulfill. Policymakers may rely on single evaluative criteria or opt for more than one depending on the circumstances. This paper examines the applicability of different evaluative criteria including economic costs, efficiency, policy effectiveness, and equity.

As earlier mentioned, policymakers may opt for a particular evaluative criteria depending on the context or circumstances surrounding the policy decision. As such, there is no ‘standard’ evaluation criterion to apply across all situations. Policymakers use a number of evaluative criteria to make justifications for the application of particular policies (Kraft & Furlong, 2012). The first evaluative criterion is efficiency. Efficiency is a measure that looks at the program goals vis-a-vis the costs. The measure aims at establishing whether the program benefits outweigh the costs. Efficiency aims at ensuring that scarce resources are allocated to their best uses. It measures how various inputs such as time, equipment, funds, expertise, and others are utilized.

The second evaluative criterion is policy effectiveness. This criterion examines the extent to which a particular intervention’s objectives are achieved (Kraft & Furlong, 2012). In other words, effectiveness measures the achievement of goals and objectives of the project. Every project or policy aims to achieve specific objectives. Policymakers may opt to scrap a particular policy or project basing on its effectiveness. If the policy is unable to achieve its effectiveness, then there are higher chances it may face elimination. Policymakers may also measure whether there is a possibility of achieving certain goals and objectives through implementation of particular policies in future. If the probability is low, such policies may be dismissed in the earlier stages.


Another important evaluative criterion is equity. Equity refers to fairness or justice of the particular processes or the outcomes of particular decisions (Kraft & Furlong, 2012). Equity ensures that all subgroups share equally the benefits and any costs arising from a particular policy intervention. From Chapter 6, equity has two dimensions in the policymaking process. The first dimension involves ensuring that the decision making process is fair among all participants. The second dimension examines the fairness of the results of the decisions made. Equity is important because it ensures that all policy interventions affect all subgroups or particular populations in a fair way. It ensures that all subgroups experience fair treatment and that none is disadvantaged through enactment of new policy interventions.

Another important criterion is social acceptability. This refers to the extent to which the public supports a particular policy intervention (Kraft & Furlong, 2012). Public support is critical because most of public policy interventions affect the citizens. As such, their opinions or support of the policy is critical. Another important criterion is sustainability. Sustainability refers to the possibility of continuing the policy intervention even after the key development assistance ceases. Financial sustainability is of great significance to any policy intervention. Sustainability is the ability of various stakeholders to maintain the intervention benefits. Other evaluative criteria include impact, relevance, technical feasibility, administrative feasibility, political feasibility, liberty, and among others.

It is true that some criteria are more important for certain kings of policy questions than for others. From Chapter 6, it is clear that policy analysts are interested in identifying whether one alternative is better than another in addressing a particular policy question. Policy analysts prefer using a criterion that is line with a set of given circumstances and that align to a policy area. For instance, policy analysts are more likely to apply efficiency as an evaluation criterion in developing of regulatory policies and evaluation of market-based approaches. Equity as an evaluative criterion would best fit policy questions relating to civil rights, access to education, access to health services, equality in taxation, and disability rights. Social acceptability as an evaluative criterion would best fit enactment of controversial policies that touch on the lives of all citizens, such as crime control measures, right to abort, and among others. It might not make sense to evaluate a controversial policy that touches on the lives of all citizens in a community basing on efficiency. Similarly, it might not make sense to evaluate the decision to apply taxes basing on political feasibility.

To conclude, evaluative criteria in policy making are critical in helping analyze the suitability of a particular policy intervention. There are different evaluative criteria depending on the set of circumstances and the policy area under consideration. Common evaluative criteria include equity, efficiency, policy effectiveness, sustainability, social acceptability, and among others. Policy analysts must weigh the different criteria and settle on the logical criterion.


Chapter 6

Kraft, M. E., Furlong, S. R., (2012). 5th Ed. Public policy: Politics, analysis, and alternatives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Liberalism, conservatism, socialism, fascism

Public Policy

Public Policy

Question 1

The policy commitments do make the quality of the analysis suspect. The quality of the policy making process vary remarkably. In one instance, the quality may be high while in another, the policy developers can overlook fundamental issues or processes. It is worth noting that analysis occurs in think tanks and interest groups pushing for the specific policy issues. The interest groups and think tanks may fail to conduct a thorough analysis of the issues in the proposed policies. Another critical issue to note is that the purpose and objectivity of policy development could be different from what people expect (Kraft & Furlong, 2015). It is not entirely impossible for the interest groups and think tanks to push or lobby for a particular public policy that promotes their interests or that of particular groups.

It is important to be aware that during policy analysis and development, there could be certain inherent issues that are overlooked. For instance, the interest groups and think tanks may make wide assumptions about a proposed policy. These assumptions could be wrong, thus making the quality of the analysis wrong. There is also the possibility of using wrong methods in evaluating the quality of the proposed policy. Applying the wrong methods could erode the quality of the process and thus making the quality of the analysis suspect. Individuals at different levels of the policymaking process should be alert to ensure that policy development is sound. Engagement in the policy development process and a good understanding of the contemporary issues affecting individuals can help in the development of sound policies.

Question 2

The influence of interest groups and/or think tanks can drive cynicism about the legal and policy process. One way these groups can drive cynicism is through overburdening the policymaking process with numerous push for new policy or with evidence concerning a particular policy (Holman & Luneburg, 2012). Interest groups and think tanks are vulnerable to accountability problems and corruption. As such, it is possible to influence them in one way or another. The power to influence interest groups or think tanks means that organizations can control them to champion for their own interests. This creates a form of distrust towards the interest groups and think tanks. Further, interest groups may be selective in championing for the interests of the public. For instance, they may opt to champion those policies that create high publicity for their own gain.

Leadership of organizations may not participate in the legal and policy process. Instead, the legal and policy process are the preserve of the interest groups and think tanks. The interest groups and think tanks have immense wealth, access to information, political contacts, and well-planned lobbying operations that they can use to their advantage. In addition, it is worth noting that majority of the interest group members play a small or are passive members. Only a few members in the interest groups’ upper hierarchy actively participate in bringing change. Although the leadership may not participate directly, it may still influence the process through providing funds. This is not a bad thing considering that fact that the organization’s image may be affected when the top management engages in some actions.

The Bible asserts that Christians should participate fully in the political process. According to the Scriptures, politics is about making decisions about how resources are shared. As such, it would be risky to leave such a critical task to the nonbelievers who may be led by greed. The Bible calls upon citizenship in the nation. Luke 20:25 says “Then give to the emperor the things that are the emperor’s, and to God the things that are God’s.’ This indicates that politics and servanthood are two distinct processes, yet none is wrong. The Bible calls upon all Christians to pray for leaders or those in high positions that they may bring peace. This is in 1st Timothy 2:1-2. The Bible encourages leaders to adopt ideals that promote peace and prosperity among individuals.

The Scriptures encourage individuals to obey the leadership. Christians should live as law-abiding citizens. They should preserve order in the society and promote the welfare of every member. 1st Peter 2: 13-14 says, ““For the Lord’s sake accept the authority of every human institution, whether of the emperor as supreme, or of governors, as sent by him to punish those who do wrong and to praise those who do right.” The Bible asserts that one of the key roles of the governing authority is to ensure that Christians have personal as well as religious freedoms. This is well captured in Galatians 5:1, which says, “As servants of God, live as free people…”


Holman, C., & Luneburg, W. (2012). Lobbying and transparency: A comparative analysis of regulatory reform. Interest Groups & Advocacy, 1(1), 75-104. doi:10.1057/iga.2012.4

Kraft, M. E., & Furlong, S. R. (2015). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives. Los Angeles: Sage/CQ Press.

Liberalism, conservatism, socialism, fascism

Reflection Paper- The growth of US Government

Reflection Paper

The concepts learnt from this week’s materials

1. The growth of US Government

I have learned that the US government has grown to the level where it can influence the lives of all people. The government can enact laws and regulations that directly impacts on the lives of the citizens. Despite the growth in the government, citizens are still divided into two groups. One group supports most of the actions of the government while the other disagrees with most of the undertakings of the government. This division materialized in 2013 when there was a total shutdown of the government due to highly divergent views. There are various factors that have contributed to the growth of government. They include; physical expansion of the US as well as the growth of the population.

2. Federalism

The government structure is based on this principle. This principle allows various units to share power. The citizens of United States are subjected to city laws, county laws, state laws and government laws. The power in the United States has been divided between the federal government and the non-federal government. This mode of governance was framed in the constitution after noticing that the state had too much power. The Constitution of the United States gives broad powers to the federal government but not to the state governments. However, the constitution emphasizes what the states can’t do.

3. Policy making process influencers

The government: The government can sponsor bills to parliament to be debated and adopted. The government can also develop executive laws and regulations to help govern the country. There are so many regulations and regulation bodies that have been created by the federal government.

The public: The opinion of the public is always required in the process of policy making. The public can participate in the discussions surrounding policies being developed. The input of the public is often considered when developing policies. There are instances where the policies being made must go through a referendum.

Interest groups: These may include the specific people who the policy will affect. The interested parties may also be private companies, non-governmental organizations, professionals (like doctors, teachers, nurses, etc.), civil rights groups, religious groups, and special needs groups among others.

4. Lobbying

Lobbying is also another concept that was covered. This entails promotion of policy agenda. The concerned stakeholders are brought on board to support certain policies. For instance, the health care practitioners can be lobbied to propose various policies that can be used to develop or improve healthcare conditions. Lobbying entails hiring qualified professionals to argue specific clauses in decision-making forums like the Congress. This technique is usually controversial and has often been challenged by citizens. Lobbying is present in all levels of government of United States. When correctly executed, it can have positive influence on the policy-making process.

The most important concept introduced, and why

Federalism was the most important concept introduced. All the other concepts revolve around federalism concept. For instance, it is through federalism principle that different parties have been empowered to contribute to the policy-making process. It is through power sharing that the public as well as interested parties get involved in the policy-making process. Another reason is that the growth of the government of the United States can be associated with the principle of federalism. These are just a few other concepts that stem out of the main concept of federalism.

How the legal concept/principle affect the organizational leadership environment?

Just like in the governance of the country, the principle of federalism has influenced how the leaderships of various organizations are structured. In most organizations, the leadership I divided into different classes. Just like in federalism where there is the top federal government, other organizations are also lead by top management. Most organizations have been departmentalized. For instance, in business organizations, the overall head may be the CEO, but there are other departmental heads like the Marketing Executive, the Chief Financial officer, human resource manager, and administration among others.

Was there a topic discussed that you did not understand?

The topics were comprehensively covered and I have no issue with any of them. Additionally, the notes given assisted in improving my understanding of the topics covered last week.

Week 2 ORG578 Discussion Board

  1. Heidi Wilson against Citicorp service center

Heidi got promoted to the level of manager at Citicorp service center in 2009, but she did not get any bonuses or a pay rise, she got upset because it was evident that her male predecessor was making more than she did. Heidi was bypassed for a premium and pay increase in 2011 for the second time, so she requested for a market analysis in the company, but her supervisor refused to authorize it. Heidi later was fired in March 2011 without severance pay, and she decided to file a lawsuit against the enterprise.

The court concluded that the evaluations made by Heidi’s supervisor were too subjective. Citicorp also used the weak economy as justification for paying Heidi less than her male counterparts pay. The court later ruled for Heidi, and the decision sent a crucial message to other large organizations and employers that the law is clear on gender equality in workplaces. People should note that there is a law against discrimination, the Equal pay act of 1963, but there is still discrimination against female executive in most institutions (Richardson, 2000).

  1. Samantha Elauf against Abercrombie & Fitch

Recently, the United States Supreme Court revived a lawsuit on discrimination filed by Samantha against Abercrombie, a company that had declined to hire Samantha because she wore a headscarf. The company managers claimed that they could not hire Samantha since her attire clashed with the organization’s official dress code, described as classic East Coast collegiate style.

The organization had at least, suspected that the applicant was a Muslim and that maybe he wore a head scarf for religious reasons. The organization’s decision to decline her application, as Justice Scalia said, was driven by the hiring manager’s desire to avoid accommodation her religious practice, the judge said that that was enough reason for Samantha to sue the company under a federal employment discrimination rule. A jury had earlier awarded Samantha 20000 dollars, but the appeal court overturned the award claiming the Samantha should have first informed the company that she wore head scarf before applying for the post (Kraft & Furlong, 2012).

The court ruled for Samantha, a decision that got applauded by groups that represent religious minorities in the United States. The group leaders said that the ruling would assist a lot in protecting the minority religions against discrimination in workplaces and other social settings. The decision also affirmed the fundamental right of all Americans to practice their faith freely without the fear of getting denied major career opportunities. After the trial, Samantha said that her experience with Abercrombie made her feel inferior in the society because the company disrespected her religious beliefs. The complainant added that she was born in American just like any other person of a different faith; therefore she expected to be treated just like anyone else.

  1. There was no religious principle in the case because all the decisions got cited from the United States law regarding equal pay and religious discrimination. Equal pay for equal work is one of the most important principles learned from the lesson. When two people of different races or sex perform duties that are equally difficult, they deserve the same amount of compensation because it is their work that matters, not their condition. The principle grounded in the European Union law.


Kraft, M. E., & Furlong, S. R. (2012). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives. Sage.

Richardson, J. (2000). Government, interest groups and policy change. Political Studies, 48(5), 1006-1025.

Case study : Conflict Resolution

Reflection Paper

Reflection Paper

  1. Briefly identify the concepts that you learned from this week’s materials.

This week I learned a number of key concepts from the textbook, lecture, video, presentations, and discussion boards. From the textbook, I learnt a lot about what constitutes public policy, why government is involved in policy development, how the government develops public policy, and the various contexts of public policy. I learnt that public policy refers to the actions (or lack of actions) by government officials towards particular problems affecting the citizens. A number of factors or contexts affect the development of public policy. These include social context, political context, economic context, cultural context, and governing context. The government may get involved in public policy development due to various reasons. Some of the key reasons identified include ethical reasons, to avert market failure, and for political reasons. The government effects public policy through a number of tools such as introducing market incentives, regulation, education, taxes, and through other means (Kraft & Furlong, 2012).

The video presentation provides an overview of what to expect in this course. From the video presentation, I learned that there exists a close connection between public policy and the law. I have learned a lot about how policymakers develop or influence laws, and thus the close connection between policymaking and development of law. The lectures, presentations and discussion boards have enhanced my understanding of public policy and the law. With regard to law, I have learned about various sources of law in the US. Some of the sources include the US Constitution, statutes, administrative law, common law, state laws, executive orders, and among others. I have also gained a better understanding of the public policy making process. Lastly, I have learned a lot about the citizens’ influence in policy decisions. The key thing is that citizens have the ability to influence policy decisions. The study of public policy attempts to increase individuals’ awareness of policy development and the role they play.

  1. What was the most important concept introduced, and why do you deem that concept to be the most important concept of that week’s materials?

The most important concept introduced is that it is possible to remove unnecessary and unclear laws or policies. Once the government introduces policies, it is possible to revise these policies if they are unfavourable or when they have unforeseen consequences. Citizens have the ability to influence not only policy making but also to influence the nature of existing policies. There are different approaches applied in evaluating proposed policies. For instance, concerned individuals can measure the effectiveness of proposed policies in order to understand how helpful they are to the society. It is also possible to evaluate the technical feasibility of the new policies. Technical feasibility relates to the operability of the proposed policies (Kraft & Furlong, 2012). Another major aspect is the political feasibility of the new policy.

This concept is the most important because it helps explain the steps that citizens can take in case an unnecessary and unclear law becomes effective. It is worth noting that during the development of policies, some individuals may be driven by selfish interests to pass laws that do not cater to the interests of the larger public. Further, this concept enables one to learn about the various ways of making improvements to policies introduced by the government. It is important to learn how to improve on public policy in order to reflect on the changing needs or perspectives in the community. The public policy improvement process involves three key stages. The first stage involves development of initiatives that increase public awareness about particular policy or law through availing statistics or micro data. In the second stage, the public understands the information given and mobilization efforts begin. This leads to the development of better policy in the final stage.

  1. In your opinion, how does this legal concept/principle affect the organizational leadership environment?

This legal concept has a critical impact to the organizational leadership environment. The ability to amend policies helps in developing positive relationships at different organizational levels. Organizations experience changes in the environment as time elapses. Changes within their environment often call for changes in organizations within such environments in order to survive the competition. Change is vital for organizations that seek at surviving in volatile and complex environments. Some changes may be simple, requiring the organization to reorganize a few aspects. On the other hand, some changes may be complex and necessitate the organization to undergo restructuring. In some situations, the organization may find that the existing laws does not allow it to implement change effectively.

  1. Was there a topic discussed that you did not understand? If so, identify the nature of your question about the aspect of the material.

The topic I did not understand concerns government transparency. There are strong debates in the public sector concerning government transparency in the making of public policy. Governments enhance their transparency by increasing the amount of information they provide to the public. However, governments do not share all information with the public. The current government maintains some information as classified, meaning not all is provided to the public. In the recent period, there has been increased concerns over the need to improve government transparency. This is due to the need for accountability in the public sector. According to Grimmelikhuijsen and Meijer (2014), revealing the effectiveness of government policies to the public through performance indicators can improve the level of trust to the government. This is according to transparency optimists.

On the other hand, transparency pessimists hold contrary opinion. According to transparency pessimists, showing the public the effectiveness of government policies does not improve public trust (Grimmelikhuijsen & Meijer, 2014). This group argues that increase government transparency will likely contribute to politics of scandal. Another possible consequence of high transparency is the de-legitimization of the government. The pessimists argue that the public policy making is a complex process. As such, the government should commit itself to communicating every aspect of the public policy process to the public. This brings me to the nature of the question about the aspect of the material. Can we trust our current government with transparency during the policy making process?


Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G., and Meijer, A.J. (2014). The effects of transparency on the perceived trustworthiness of a government organization: evidence from an online experiment. Journal of Public Administration Theory and Research, 24(1), 137-157.

Kraft, M. E., Furlong, S. R., (2012). 5th Ed. Public policy: Politics, analysis, and alternatives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN-10: 1483345785

Case study : Conflict Resolution

Case: Engaging in Supportive Confrontation

What are the problems, and who owns them based on the window on behavior?

The problem in this scenario is that Joe has realized a growing distance between him and Kim Kahn, the assistant manager for the Tools and Hardware. On several occasions, Joe has realized that the relationship between him and Kim is diminishing. According to him, Kim is pushing him away through his words and actions. He feels that Kim makes sarcastic and offensive comments during management meetings that are targeted towards him. In this case, Joe owns the problem since he is the one bothered by Kim’s actions and comments. He is upset that he has to keep working with Kim while enduring his behavior. This is a brewing conflict that should be solved as soon as possible. Joe and Kim are workmates and therefore it is important to resolve the conflict before it gets out of control. Failure to find a solution will affect their productivity and hence impact the business (, 2017).

What research and reflection should Joe do to test his assumptions and perceptions? What are the facts?

The first thing that Joe should do is conduct some organized research concerning the situation in order to get clarity. This step will allow him to see the situation as it is and it will help him avoid getting to a worse situation with Kim. Research will enable him to clear his perceptions and assumptions and get the facts. Joe should establish whether his problem is imaginary or real. This is because the problem could actually be in his mind and not real. In addition, he should find out whether Kim is the real cause of the problem or not. If he established that Joe is the cause of the problem, he will have the confidence to confront him. As part of his research, Joe should find out the underlying reasons why Kim behaves the way he does and what motivates him to act in that manner. Joe needs to determine whether Kim’s actions are driven by personal issues he may have with him or they are driven by his personality. It would not be appropriate to confront him before he can establish whether Kim acts the same way with other people or just him. It has been indicated that Kim is gruff by nature and is not really a people person. Determining what could able the actual cause of his behavior will inform Joe’s next step.

In addition, he should state any assumptions he has made about Kim and find out if they are true. It is also important to find out if there is anything he does not know about the situation. Could he be misjudging Kim? Could there be something that Kim is withholding from him like he is doing him? These are some of the questions that Joe should answer before taking another step. Additionally, he should find out whether Kim knows his actions could be affecting people (Griffith and Goodwin, 2012).

Through self reflection, Joe has an opportunity to think critically. This will help him to analyze his thought process and gain insight on his reasoning and personal mental processes. Just like looking in a mirror and drawing a line on what is acceptable and what is not, Joe can find some answers to the questions that this situation raise. Joe should look into his views, beliefs and attitudes to establish whether they influence how he reacts to the problem. Secondly, he should reflect on his emotional state of mind in line with this conflict. He should be able to know how this situation makes him feel. Is he angry, hurt, worried, disappointed or confused and what could be the reasons behind these feelings? Thirdly, reflection will help him establish if he has any responsibility to take in the conflict. There could be a chance that he has also contributed towards the conflict knowingly or unknowingly. Finally, he should be able to understand the outcome he desires for the situation.

The fact of this situation is that there is a conflict that needs to be resolved as soon as possible. Conflicts are not easy to avoid at the workplace and hence measures of resolving conflict should be invested in. the situation is making Joe uncomfortable and he understands and is willing to address it. This is the reason why he approached Jim Talent. Joe and Kim should work in a friendly environment and it cannot be easy to have one unless the conflict is resolved.

Does Joe have legitimate reasons to feel as he does?

Joe is justified to feel the way he does. He has realized that there is a distance growing between him and Kim. Having worked together in the past, there must be a reason why their relationship is strained. In the course of their duties, the two have to interact frequently, since Joe’s team perform many tasks for the Tool and Hardware department in which Kim is the assistant manager. In order to eliminate the tension that is developing, Joe understands that a solution is needed. Some of Kim’s actions and sentiments have been hurtful to Joe. It is therefore important for the two parties to address it so that their past relationship can be restored. If the problem is not addressed as soon as possible, it will impact Joe’s work. Kim could be totally unaware of how his behavior affects Joe and thus the more reason to resolve the conflict.


Should Joe seek to change his attitude, change his environment, or confront Kim regarding Kim’s behavior?

There are three alternatives that Joe can consider in resolving this conflict. He can change his attitude, change his environment or confront Kim about his behavior. If he chooses to change his attitude, he has to take a psychological move of taking the unacceptable behavior from his window into the acceptable area so that he no longer has a problem with Kim. Thus, the only option he has is to ignore the problem. Alternatively, he can change his environment. The only way he can achieve this is if his moves to another department where he has no direct contact with Kim. None of these approaches can be effective in solving this problem. It is impossible for Joe to ignore the problem and assume that it will not bother him anymore. In addition, changing the environment will not be a good move for a conflict that would be solved easily by talking with Kim. Both Joe and Kim hold managerial positions and changing departments could affect the business. This leaves him with the option of confronting Kim about his behavior.

The only viable method of addressing the issue is to talk to Kim about his behavior. He should let him know how his actions are affecting their working relationship. Having a face to face conversation with Kim will enable him to know if Kim has any issues with him. When Joe approached Jim seeking help about the issue, he was advised to talk with Kim about it. This will give the two parties a chance to get to the root cause of the problem. For people who have worked together in that past and who will be working together in the future, it is a better idea if they get to solve the issue themselves. The confrontation is not to pick a fight; rather, the goal is to motivate Kim to create a better working environment for both of them as well as other employees. This is an attempt to persuade Kim in order for him to change his behavior so that they can relate as they used to in the past. Joe should also offer support to Kim and help if he needs any help.


Griffith, D. B., & Goodwin, C. (2012). Conflict Survival Kit; Tools for Resolving Conflicting at Work. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.,. (2017). Conflict Resolution: Using “Interest-Based Relational” Approach. Retrieved 4 April 2017, from

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Interest Groups

Question 7

An interest group is made up of members of an organization who share common concerns and aims at influencing the government to follow policies that address those concerns. The three main interest groups include sectoral groups, promotional groups and institutional groups. All these groups are different in relation to their members and their concerns. Just like the name suggests, sectoral groups represent a particular sector within the economy. Examples of such groups include corporations and unions. The sectoral groups are mostly aimed at achieving economic goals with each sector fighting for policies that affect them personally such as lowering taxes in the case of corporations

On the other hand, promotional groups are identified for their strong representation of particular ideologies. Quite often, the members of this group do not seek to directly profit from the changes in policies that they advocate for. Examples of these groups include the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) that advocated for environmental issues and the Human Right Watch that is well known for advocating for global human rights. When it comes to institutional groups, apart from engaging in political activities, they are mainly driven by their interests which is what they defend most. Examples include media and military institutions.

I believe sectoral groups have the most influence over U.S politics. This is because this particular group has significant economic power which they use as leverage in order to have their policies passed. Since politicians are the lawmakers, using the economy to put pressure on them can have significant effects. In additions, amount of political donations, lobbying expenditures and outside spending of trade groups, labor unions and corporations in the U.S shows just how much power and influence they have not to mention the number of lawmakers who have invested in them.

Question 8

Social movements refer to group actions whose main focus is on social or political issues. The group action is normally carried out to either resist, undo or carry out a social change. In the recent years, social movements have become more widespread especially due to the democratic system that is applied by most governments. Democracy has allowed people to peacefully take matters into their hands to change what they feel needs to be changed. People are able to air out their concerns freely as long as they do not use violence which would result in equal force being used against them. At first when the movement started, all its members were comprised of black Americans since the issue of black discrimination affected them personally. However, over time, the movement received worldwide recognition and support which helped change things a great deal. Black Americans living in America are able to enjoy the same rights like any other American citizen without feeling discriminated for their race.

Another reason that has made social movements more widespread is the use of the tactic of gaining participation in the policy process. This tactic has made more people engage in social movements because it has being quite successful since it has being identified that authorities have become more willing to offer individuals inclusion in policy changing processes than accepting demands for policy changes. A good example is the movement to control hazardous wastes whereby environmentalists have succeeded by being included in policy making. They are now able to contribute to significant changes as a result of gaining participation in implementation and regulatory decisions that have seen the level of pollution caused by hazardous wastes reduce significantly.

Social movements have also become more popular because they can be used to advocate for more personal issues that people consider private such who they can marry or not marry. This can best be described by the most recent movement of its kind; the gay-lesbian movement. Coming out of the closet is a very important step in the lives of homosexual and the fact that society considers their sexuality a taboo makes it even harder. This movement allowed this group to come out freely and express themselves as well as help society to do away with homosexual stereotype. Through the movement, gay marriage was legalized hence giving this group the freedom to legally recognize their relationships without any discrimination.

I believe the most compelling reason why social movements have become more popular is its ability to bring change through masses of people. Most social movements and their progress are usually tracked through social media which provides a big opportunity for people all over the world to see, know and join on the cause being fought for. There is great strength in numbers which has seen movements such as Black Lives Matter and the Civil Rights Movement have the opportunity to see their issues heard and addressed hence leading to a better society with happy people. The change that comes with social movements may take long to happen especially if it is not well designed to provide sufficient popularity. However, if well executed, it can have long-lasting results that will see some of the most chronic issues in society addressed.

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Political Science Assessment

There are four characteristic attitudes and behaviors of political culture within democratic societies. Explain each of the four characteristics. How does the U.S. measure up to these four key characteristics?

  1. Tolerance- the concept of tolerance is very essential for the success of a democratic political system. Tolerance means the legitimacy or acceptance of people of different religion race, ethnicity or those different political and social standing. Political tolerance studies have proved that there is a relationship between political intolerance and threats. Thus, in order to maintain peace, democratic societies are guided by tolerance as an important virtue. The United States has people of different social, political, economic and religion perspective. The United States is one country where tolerance is highly practiced (Arwine, & Mayer, 2012).
  2. Active participation- this allows citizens to do much more than just listen. Active participation allows private citizens to support or influence politics. Citizens can take part in electoral processes, speak out, associate, vie for office and be involved in public affairs. United States citizens are very active in political and government affairs.
  3. High level of interest and information- as much as citizens are free to participate, they cannot present their genuine opinions and effect change if they do not know what is happening. The level of interest and circulation of important information in the United States is satisfactory.
  4. Varying support for the state, the regime and the government- the other three characteristics are necessary for the people to hold the government accountable and vice versa. They are important regardless of the regime and government people support. This can be quite challenging considering that people in the United States rarely have faith in the government.

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Distinguish between military, one-party states, monarchies, and theocratic forms of authoritarian regimes. What are the central characteristics of each? Provide an example of each form of government. Are authoritarian regimes more effective at providing material goods to their citizens than democratic regimes? Explain

Military regime

The military regime is a type of government where all political power resides in the military. Being the most powerful force, the military gathers, holds and concentrates legitimate and political power. Military administrations are not delegated governments controlled by the military because they have military structure. Although civil servants and legislators are involved in the legislature, the military’s say is final. The vicinity of regular citizens in this form of government shows that military elites do not always comprise military administrators. Considering all things, a military officer, dynamic or resigned, with the support of military foundation, represents a military administration. Military officers have a huge impact on political arrangements in this type of government. The most conspicuous elements leading to their decrease when they were vigorous are lack of power to govern effectively and lack of global authenticity.

The breakdown of the Soviet Union and the end of Cold War made it so hard for military administrators to use socialism to defend their activities. In any case, military administrations are responsible for keeping the world at peace. Towards the start of the 21st century, military administrations were actively involved in nations such as Fiji, Mauritania and Thailand. Military powers that rose to fame in the 1960s in Myanmar and Libya are still doing well. Finally, although the number of military administrations around the world is diminishing significantly, it is not likely that they will be wiped out completely at any one point (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017).

One party state regime

This type of authoritarian rule has become very common and they have become more stable and they are growing faster than other regimes. The one party state regime is a single party state system where an administration is shaped by a single political force. Other parties are thus prohibited or allowed to participate in controlled or restricted activities. Sometime a single gathering state portrays a prevailing gathering framework that is different from single party state in that multiparty decisions and majority rule are permitted. The first single gathering state was started by the True Whig Party in Liberia. The party was very influential in commanding Liberian legislative issues for more than a century since 1878.

Monarchy regime

A monarchy is a form of a government where the leader of government of chosen based on birthright. Monarchies are not so common in the 21st century and those that still exist are symbolic with the king or queen being the head of state. The monarch represents their country but do not have much impact on policy. The power of the monarch is exercised in organization, equity, charges and outside strategy. Just as most political systems, monarchies are not equal. Rather, they are subject to the country’s political climate, culture and social mores. In the 21st century, the existing monarchies are constitutional. This means that the constitution limits their power and thus it has higher authority than the monarch (Grover, 2017).

Theoretic regime

In such a regime, God or a divine being is perceived as the leader of the administration. The laws that God has instituted in regards to that religion are the only laws that govern the area. As a result, the state progressive and religious systems are the same. Most theocratic regimes have a person acting as their natural leader of the religion. The leader stands in for God and thus he is the genuine leader for the state and religion. Some of the current theoretic nations include Afghanistan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Mauritania and Iran.

Authoritarian governments can be more effective than democratic governments because they often lead to social, political, and economic stability, fast accomplishments of societal goals, and better decision making.


Grover, S. (2017). What Are the Characteristics of a Monarchy?. Our Everyday Life. Retrieved 26 March 2017, from

Encyclopedia Britannica,. (2017). military rule | political regime. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 March 2017, from

Arwine, A., & Mayer, L. (2012). The Impact of Tolerance on Political Behavior. Retrieved 26 March 2017, from

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Political Science-questions


Political Science

Question 1

The creation of modern nation-state territories that help to identify and group people based on their cultural identities such as language or religion follows a particular process and procedure that must be observed and respected. However, there are certain conditions and constraints that must be fulfilled before the creation of states policies and include:

  1. Establishing clearly defined borders between states – before the formulation of any state policies, there is the need to identify and agree upon the political borders and territories that make up a state or a nation.

  2. Each government in each state should have sovereignty – each government in each state should have the right, power, and authority to do whatever it wants within its territory which means that the government should be highest ranking political and law institution that should govern a state (Rudman, 2015,).

  3. Governments should be the only institutions that have the legitimate power to use force or violence – to control the activities and actions of the members of the public force and violence are necessary. At such moments, the government should be the only institution given the mandate to use them.

  4. Foreign governments should not interfere with matters of a state – there should be only a single government in a state with the power and authority to control decision-making processes and implementation of important laws, rules, and regulation. Therefore, foreign governments should keep off affairs of other states.

  5. Each government should have the power and authority to control the activities and actions of the members of that state. It should treat its people the way it feels fit and exercises authority to minimize if not eliminate mistreatment and segregation of one part of the state from another. It should practice equality (Roskin, 2017).


The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act–Obamacare (Public Policy & Public Administration)

Question 2

The creation and development of states date ways back to the evolution of human being where he was organized in groups based on kinship as well as tribal relations. The primary reason for the formation of these groups was to govern their activities and protect them from outside attacks. However, with time these administrative groups and expanded to include more than one clan to form kingdoms and empires. Some of the famous and notable kingdoms in history that can be compared to states include the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Despite the fact that in this century there are no more empires and kingdoms, people have created states and designated the power and authority of making important decisions to few elected leaders. The modern forms of state began in 1648 with the formation and signing of the peace of Westphalia agreement that oversaw the creation of boundaries in Europe that separate one country or state from another (Roskin, 2017). After the successful implementation of this peace treaty that leads to peace in European region that had witnessed conflicts among individuals for decades, there was the formation of countries with political boundaries where a government was in charge of its own states. However, as citizens cross from one state to another, they should observe rules and regulations of that host country and should be punishable by the rules set in place in the case of breaking any laws.

The modern states are far much better and represent new creations compared to the early states. The formation and development of the new modern states began with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia treaty back in 1648 which led to an end of conflicts that were inhibiting Europe at the time. The need and desire to develop economically has acted as a catalyst for increasing the need and desire for people to form states and form governments that will provide economic goods and service to the citizens which in turn would lead to economic development and rise in standards of living. Therefore, it is worth noting that industrialization has played an important role in the formation of nations and states as the roles and responsibilities of the state within the society is expanding each and every single day (Rudman, 2015,). The rise of income for the state which is widely collected through taxation the people within the state expects the state to do more for them and increase accessibility to important services such as healthcare, education, and improvements of infrastructures such as roads. Moreover, the growth and development of democracy in various countries has increased the incentives that the government is offering to its citizens to improve their lives and make their live simpler. The increase of political parties in the nations and countries has led to the increase in economic incentives. States have a responsibility to their citizens despite facing challenges such as increased population, reduction of wealth in a country and the structure of the government (“Political Science Journals,” n.d.,). However, there is n one single government structure that works best in all situations, and each state should find the right structure that serves her people.


Political Science Journals. (n.d.). The Encyclopedia of Political Science. doi:10.4135/9781608712434.n1205

Roskin, M. G. (2017). Political science: An introduction.

Rudman, J. (2015). Political science. Place of publication not identified: Natl Learning Corp.


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