Category Archives: Psychology homework help

Juvenile Court

Question

Assignment 3: Juvenile Court

In this assignment, you will focus on evaluations typically conducted for juvenile courts. Some specific purposes of these evaluations include informing the courts of the juvenile’s competency and treatment needs and aiding the courts in adjudication decisions. These evaluations also might help the courts determine appropriate sentences for juveniles charged with crimes. The evaluator has the challenging responsibility of presenting the evaluation results for these intended purposes.

Tasks:

Write a 3- to 4-page paper, including the following points:

A forensic psychology professional may be asked to conduct different types of juvenile court evaluations. Using the Argosy University online library resources and the Internet, research professional literature available on these evaluations. Professional literature may include relevant textbooks, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites created by professional organizations, agencies, or institutions (.edu, .org, and .gov).

Identify and discuss the forensic psychology professional’s role in juvenile courts.

Compare and contrast three different types of evaluations the forensic psychology professional is asked to perform in juvenile courts.

Your paper should rely upon at least three sources from additional professional literature; the sources must be cited in APA format. Professional literature may include relevant textbooks, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites created by professional organizations, agencies, or institutions (.edu, .org, and .gov).

Identified and explained the forensic psychology professional’s role in juvenile courts.

Identified and described the criminal and civil evaluations the forensic psychology professional is asked to perform in juvenile courts.

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Sample paper

Juvenile Court

Any court system of any country is designed to punish the offender and keep all the citizens secured from attacks and harassment from their neighbors as they go about their daily chores. Hover, due to the age difference of the offenders, there is the need to design and develop a juvenile justice system which is formed with a sole purpose of taking care of the needs and desires of the youths who can be deprived basic needs of development and can be harassed if taken to the adult prisons. The juvenile court system is the primary system used to address and handle youth cases, especially those caught and convicted of crimes (Knoll, 2012). This system helps to intervene in delinquent behavior through police, court, and correctional involvement and is largely punitive. This assignment will largely focus on shedding more light on the role and responsibilities of forensic psychologists in juvenile courts.

Question 1

Psychologists have been heavily involved in the juvenile justice system for decades to provide both treatment and evaluation services for some psychological questions. Forensic psychologists in the juvenile courts account for the special needs and concerns of the youths involved with the legal system. Some of the important duties of these forensic psychologists include:

  1. They have the role of assisting judges and attorneys who make important decisions about the minors involved in the juvenile justice system. Their forensic evaluations provide case workers with important information about the youth emotional, behavioral and cognitive functioning. Emotional evaluations provide more information on the reactions and emotional responses to various events, occurrences, and circumstances. Additionally, behavioral evaluation helps to provide insight into the behaviors of youths convicted in this system both past and present to determine whether they need future follow-ups(Hockenberry, 2015).
  2. Forensic psychologists also have a duty to provide treatment and other interventions to juveniles and their families. The major purpose of this important intervention is bringing about an overall improvement in emotional and behavioral adjustment and functioning while decreasing the likelihood that the youths will reoffend.
  3. Determination of child custody – no matter the final decision of the youth, the forensic psychologist has to ensure that the decision made is in the best interest of the youth.
  4. Evaluation of parental capacity – this is a comprehensive evaluation of the parents’ risk of neglect and abuse to the child.
  5. Termination of parental rights – the forensic psychologist has a duty to suggest, support and oppose the end of the legal parent-child relationship.

Question 2

Termination of parental rights

Often, the thought of the parents losing their children to the system pushes them to work hard and to work on his or her situation for the child in question. However, on other occasions and to other parents, the thought of termination of the parent’s rights brings relief to them. The termination of the parental rights can be regarded as one of the strongest legal mechanisms available to protect children in need. Some of the major grounds through which a parent can lose his or her rights over their children include:

  1. Severe or chronic physical abuse of the child
  2. Any sexual abuse of the child that can result in the criminal behavior of the child
  3. Child neglect by failing to provide shelter, food or other needed care as is required by parental obligations.
  4. Long-term alcohol or drug induced incapacity of the parent as well as long-term mental illness of the parent.

Parenting capacity evaluation

This series of evaluation comprises of the specific and extensive interview, psych testing, records review and other data as necessary into a concise and complete of valuation to determine the emotional, behavior and cognitive functioning of both the parent and the child. Possible recommendation from the forensic psychologist includes visitations, treatment, and placement (Roche, 2013). The forensic psychologist through this evaluation helps to determine how well is the parent able to respond flexibly, what are these parents reflective capacities, both in begin attuned to their experiences and internal world And the experience and internal world of their child/others. Finally, the psychologist has to determine the risks or benefits of terminating the parent-child relationship.

Determining child custody

A forensic psychologist is tasked with the role and responsibility of determining, among the parents of the child who is convicted who has the right and ability to take the full custody of the child or whether it will be a shared custody. As a result, the psychologists have to conduct an evaluation of the parents to determine their suitability to have the child. Some of the bases through which he or she can base their arguments include:

  1. The parent’s ability to agree, communicate and corporate in matters relating to the child.
  2. The parent’s willingness to accept custody and any history of unwillingness to allow visitation that is not based upon the substantiated abuse.
  3. The interaction and relationship of the child with his or her parents and sibling
  4. The safety of the child and the safety of either of the parent from physical abuse from either of the parent
  5. The preference of the child where the age of the child becomes one of the main factors to determine who should take custody of the child
  6. Despite the slight differences of the evaluation series, they are all aimed at finding the best and suitable ground for the youth to thrive in and to prevent future occurrences of the same behavior.

References

Hockenberry, S. &. (2015). Juvenile court statistics 2013.

Knoll, C. &. (2012). Delinquency cases in juvenile court, 2009. Drugs, 17, , 18.

Roche, J. L. (2013). First Annual Juvenile Law Thematic Journal Pepperdine Law Review:                      Introduction. . Pepperdine Law Review, 4(3), , 1.

Related:

Clinical and Forensic Assessment

Clinical and Forensic Assessment

Question

Assignment 2: Clinical and Forensic Assessment

Tasks:

Using resources from professional literature, explore the concepts of clinical and forensic assessments (professional literature may include relevant textbooks, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites created by professional organizations, agencies, or institutions [.edu, .org, and .gov]):

In a minimum of 200 words, respond to the following:

The major differences in the purpose of each type of assessment, with particular emphasis on the referral question, goals for the results of the assessment, and the intended audience

The differences and similarities in the required qualifications of the person conducting each type of assessment

The differences and similarities in reliance on clinical observation and empirical research when interpreting assessment results

.The differences and similarities in informed consent

Sample paper

Clinical and Forensic Assessment

Question 1

Therapeutic assessment widely focuses on the patient seeking the services of a psychologist to obtain relief from a mental health problem such as depression, schizophrenia or a personality disorder. On the other hand, forensic assessment is conducted either at the request of an attorney or by court order to determine the facts under question in a legal matter like a lawsuit or a criminal case (Gacono, 2015). As a result, the major audiences of therapeutic assessments are the patients while those of the forensic assessment are the plaintiff and the accused in a case in a court.

Question 2

An individual to qualify as a therapeutic expert, they have to obtain a masters degree in psychology, education, education therapy, social work, counseling and formal training in the ethical administration. On the other hand, an individual willing to conduct a forensic assessment must have a degree in law to have a strong base on legal issues. Moreover, he or she must be a good communicator to be in a position to express them to the attorney accordingly besides having a degree in psychology.

Question 3

Forensic assessment completely relies on the clinical results obtained in the lab to provide a way forward while therapeutic assessment does not entirely depend on the empirical research considering that each case is different and should be examined independently. However, forensic assessment is influenced by empirical research when interpreting the results (Gacono, 2015).

Question 4

The judge and the jury entirely use the results of the assessment to make and deliver their verdicts and nothing can change after the results of the forensic assessment are out. On the other hand, the doctor may not necessarily use the results of his assessment considering that the situation may change with time.

References

Gacono, C. B. (2015). The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: a practitioner’s                      guide. Routledge.

Related:

LASA Research Proposal

LASA Research Proposal

Question

Assignment 2: LASA: Research Proposal

States the research question in operational terms that make the question measurable, but neglects to articulate the primary hypothesis and the null hypothesis in operational terms or the relationship between them.

Addresses the importance of the research with limited examples of appropriate scholarly support.

Mentions the theoretical but only superficially developed.

Presents a comprehensive literature review in support of the proposed research question.

Presents and defines the research design.

Presents limited scholarly research to support the selected research design.

Identify and define all relevant variables (e.g., participants).

Present procedures for obtaining informed consent.

States most appropriate variables with the appropriate statistical research questions for each variable.

Provides a general description of informed consent.

Present a systematic description of the methodology to be used in the proposed research.

States the type of data being collected.

Partially defines how that data would be collected.

Addresses some limitations, but neglected others.

Identify and discuss the assessment instruments to be administered and rationale. Present the empirical support for the assessments you have suggested.

Stated tests or assessment procedures proposed to address forensic issues are accurate based on the information provided in the vignette and empirically supported, but underdeveloped.

Accurate but incomplete description of how these tests would be used.

Vague reference to cultural and forensic issues that may affect evaluation.

Anticipated conclusions have some inconsistencies with the information provided in the vignette or the forensic assessments described.

Identify the potential ethical issues that might affect the proposed research. Propose a resolution plan for these issues

Responses either do not articulate respect for the rights of others or neglect aspects of his/her professional code of ethics (ACA/APA) and local state law.

States a few relevant ethical codes, general information about applicable laws and regulations, general times when he/she would seek consultation, and reasonable courses of action.

Academic Writing

Writing is generally clear and in an organized manner. It demonstrates ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and generally displays accurate spelling, grammar, punctuation. Errors are few, isolated, and do not interfere with reader’s comprehension.

Sample paper

LASA Research Proposal

Establishing the Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Mental Disorders among Juvenile Delinquents

Introduction

Juvenile delinquency is one of the serious problems that most states are facing. Majority of youths, especially adolescents, are at increased risk of committing various forms of crimes such as burglary, assault, drug and substance abuse, and among others. Nonetheless, a smaller number of young individuals are likely to start engaging in crime during childhood. The juvenile justice system aims at rehabilitating juvenile offenders and reintegrating them back to the community. It is worth noting that the efficacy of the juvenile justice system in reintegrating juvenile offenders to the community depends on the effectiveness of the treatment programs for juvenile offenders. Failure to implement proper treatment procedures on identified juvenile offenders increases the risk that juveniles will transition into adulthood and continue with the same behaviors. Moreover, there is increased risk of recidivism among juveniles who leave detention. Owing to the above factors, there is need to establish robust treatment procedures that can effectively help juveniles to drop undesirable behaviors.

Research indicates that individuals with mental health problems are at an increased risk of engaging in various forms of crimes. More still, these individuals are more likely to recede into criminal behavior on leaving detention centers. Offender rehabilitation aims at restoring offenders to normal and acceptable behaviors by the community. Various offender rehabilitation programs exist within the criminal justice institutions. However, the efficacy of these treatment programs has been the subject of great debate over time. Cognitive behavioral group therapy is one of the treatment programs commonly used in the juvenile justice system. The cognitive behavioral approach has been hailed as an effective treatment methodology for juvenile offenders with severe mental disorders. This study aims at establishing the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy in the treatment of juvenile offenders with severe mental disorders and in reducing the risk of recidivism.

Cognitive behavioral paradigm is based on the assumption that it is possible to change the cognitive distortions present in juvenile offenders through conditioned learning (Morgan et al., 2012). The goal of the cognitive behavioral therapy is to change erratic patterns of behavior that lead increase the likelihood of engaging in crime. This study seeks to address the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy in reducing the risk of recidivism among juvenile offenders with severe mental disorders. This study will address the question: What is the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral group therapy in treatment of juvenile offenders with severe mental disorders and in reducing their risk of recidivism? In exploring the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral approach, the study makes a number of hypotheses. The null hypothesis (H0) states that cognitive behavioral group therapy does not improve the treatment outcomes of juvenile offenders with severe mental disorders. Consistent with available literature, this study also hypothesizes that cognitive behavioral therapy significantly improves the treatment outcomes of juvenile offenders with severe mental health issues. This is the alternative hypothesis (H1). It is further hypothesized that cognitive behavioral approach reduces the risk of recidivism based on the positive outcomes (H2).

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a treatment model that focuses on the manner in which people process information. The theory assumes that people suffering from various mental disorders process information in biased ways, causing distortions during the process of constructing experiences (Skodlar, Henriksen, Sass, Nelson, & Parnas, 2013). The distortions comprise of three elements: dysfunctional beliefs, cognitive biases in construction of reality, and persistent maladaptive cognitive structures, also known as schemas. The cognitive biases/errors and schemas are stored representations of reality. The schemas are any form of repetitive patterns associated with the process of coding, screening, and classifying stimuli (Skodlar et al., 2013). The schemas determine the manner in which specific thought processes develop. An individual who is faced by the three forms of distortion (dysfunctional beliefs, schema, and errors) experiences characteristic that become a form of a mental disorder.

This study uses cognitive behavioral therapy to refer to treatment approaches that focus on the mental processes as well as information processing among individuals. Juvenile offenders are the persons below the age of 18 who commit various felonies that contravene the written law. The study defines mental disorders as any form of mental incapacitation that impairs judgement. Cognition refers to the psychological result of learning, reasoning and perception.

Literature Review

Vast volumes of literature exist regarding the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of various mental disorders. Most researchers have focused on establishing the efficacy of cognitive behavioral approaches in general, but few of these have focused on examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group therapy in treatment of severe mental disorders. Cognitive behavioral group therapy is a treatment program that focuses on a group rather than individuals. This approach is considered effective comparing to a personal approach.

Brazao et al. (2015) examines the efficacy of cognitive behavioral approach in eliminating schemas and cognitive distortions among a population of prison inmates. Specifically, the study examines the efficacy of structured multimodal programs in helping young and adult offenders to undergo rehabilitation successfully and in reducing the risk of recidivism. The findings indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy that targets the improvement of cognitive correlates (schemas, cognitive products, & cognitive distortions) is effective in helping offenders drop their antisocial behaviors. In an effort to establish the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral approach known as the Reasoning and Rehabilitation program, Yip et al. (2013) conduct an investigation using a sample of 59 prison inmates. Of these, 30 inmates received group treatment while 29 inmates received normal treatment. The findings indicate that the group-based approach had a higher completion rate and was more effective in helping prisoners achieve a positive outcome.

A number of researchers have examined the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy in treatment of specific mental health issues. Matusiewicz, Hopwood, Banducci, and Lejuez (2010) investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. The study provides further support that cognitive behavioral therapy is of the effective approaches that can help criminals change their erratic behavior. White, Ollendick, Scahill, Oswald, and Albano (2009) examine the efficacy of combined group and individual treatment models among youths with autism spectrum disorders. This study does not find conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of a combination of group and individual cognitive behavioral approach in treatment of mental health issues among juveniles.

There is growing evidence linking the origins of mental disorders with biological basis. Much of the mental health disorders are associated with neurobiological issues, and as such require a cognitive behavioral approach in treatment. A common stress disorder associated with increased risk of criminal behavior is posttraumatic stress disorder. Makinson and Young investigate the efficacy of individual and group behavioral therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder using a meta-analytic approach. The duo finds that group therapy is more effective comparing to individual counseling programs. Gavita, David, Bujoreanu, Tiba, and Ionutiu (2012) examines how the cognitive behavioral group therapy can be used in the treatment of externalizing behavioral disorders. The authors conduct a randomized controlled trial on a group of 97 Romanian parents involved in the care of foster children. The study finds that an enhanced-behavioral parent program is effective curbing externalizing behavior among foster children.

A number of researchers examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy with other common treatment options for mental health disorders. Inger, Birgitta, Anita, Lars and Kent-inge (2015) examine the effectiveness of self-care groups versus the cognitive behavioral group therapy treatment. The research focuses on employees who have taken sick leave due to mental health issues. Employing an experimental approach, the researchers found that cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective comparing to treatment using the methods based treatment options. Hedman et al. (2013) examines the effectiveness of the individual cognitive behavioral approach versus the cognitive behavioral group therapy in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The researchers draw data from 94 respondents who either receive individual cognitive therapy of underwent group therapy. The study findings contradict majority of available studies – findings indicate that the individual cognitive therapy was more effective in reducing social anxiety disorder comparing to the cognitive behavioral group therapy.

Blanco et al. (2010) conducts a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy in treatment of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that cognitive behavioral group therapy is more effective in treatment of social anxiety disorder compared to placebo interventions such as use of pills and other psychological measures. Nevertheless, the study does not discredit the efficacy of individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Merom et al (2007) examines the efficacy of brisk walking as a form of an enhancement to the cognitive behavioral group therapy in treatment of a range of anxiety disorders. The participants were a group of anxiety patients from an outpatient clinic. The findings indicate that there is need for further research in the area, as conclusive results could not be established. Moreover, the study notes the paucity of research that exists in this area as requiring attention or further studies.

Some studies have examined the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group model in assisting individuals with alcohol and substance abuse problem, which is a major contributor to juvenile delinquency. Osilla, Hepner, Ricardo, Munoz, woo, and Watkins (2009) employs a cognitive behavioral group approach in treatment of people suffering depression and alcohol and substance abuse. The authors conduct investigations using focus groups and interview method. The findings indicate that cognitive behavioral group approach is effective in the treatment of individuals with co-occurring disorders. Those with co-occurring disorders were identified as having increased risks of substance abuse problems.

Methodology

Introduction

This study aims at establishing the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy Group therapy in the treatment of severe mental health disorders among Juvenile Delinquents. The treatment model includes cognitive behavioral therapy experts (they will determine whether the cognitive theory is applied in the right way), clinician stakeholders in juvenile incarceration facilities, and the team of researchers. The researchers will document observable changes between juvenile offenders who successfully undergo cognitive behavioral group therapy (experimental group) and those who do not undergo group therapy (the control group). Current data suggests that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective to individual therapy in treatment of severe mental health disorders. This study will aim at examining the accuracy of study findings concerning group therapy models.

Research design

This study seeks to utilize a randomized controlled trial in the examination of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group therapy in treatment of severe mental health disorders. In randomized controlled trial, participants will be randomly assigned to either the control group or experimental group (Taylor, 2010). Those in the experimental group will receive close monitoring for a period of one year following exposure to the cognitive behavioral group therapy program. The program will run for a period of three months or as per the recommendations of the psychologists. The cognitive behavioral program will comprise of 12 sessions that will be implemented in stages.

Participants

The participants will be selected from a juvenile incarceration facility for males. Participants will range between 13 and 18 years. The selection criteria will consider a number of factors besides age. First, participants must be having a proven mental health disorder at the time of incarceration. The range of mental health disorders to be included in the study range includes depression, social anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, drug & substance abuse, and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Second, the participants must have been handed a sentence of more than three months in a juvenile detention facility. Lastly, the participants must participate throughout the cognitive behavioral therapy program. A sample of 100 participants will be enrolled in the study. The participants will be randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups.

Instruments

The history of offenses committed as well a nature of the mental health issue will be collected from the available clinical files at the beginning of the study. Psychological tests will be used to examine the mental health aspects of the juvenile delinquents. Psychological tests are more accurate since they eliminate misreporting, which is common with self-reporting such as in the questionnaire method. The psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale (PSYRATS) is one of the instruments to be used in analyzing the psychotic symptoms among participants (Mash & Barkley, 2012). The Disruptive Behavior and Social Problem Scale (DBSP) will be used to assess the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral approach in eliminating antisocial behavior (Veiga, 2008).

Procedures

Participants who will meet criteria will be referred by a qualified psychologist and through evaluation of available records. Since the treatment program is not mandatory, the juvenile delinquents will choose whether to participate in the study or not. The participants will be divided into three groups. Allocation to groups will follow randomized approaches to avoid bias. On obtaining informed consent from relevant authorities, participants will complete self-report measure, while the researchers, throughout the course of the study, will complete others. The researcher or a psychologist will complete the DBSP measure. A trained professional will conduct the cognitive behavioral group therapy program.

Data analysis

Data analysis will be completed in accordance to the Treatment Received principle. As per the principle, outcomes involving the juvenile delinquents in the experimental group will measured and compared with the results of the control group. The experimental group and the control group will compared at baseline, using appropriate statistical tests. The statistical method to be used is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). ANCOVA method will help in examining the differences in the mean responses in difference treatment levels. Within-group t-tests will be conducted to examine the difference between samples. Analysis of covariance will be used on each of the dependent variables. Adjusted mean scores and also standard deviations will be used to in examining ANCOVA and t-test.

Limitations of the study (i.e., threats to validity)

This study faces a number of limitations. The sample used in the study is small. As such, it may be difficult to generalize the findings across a larger population. This study does not address all variables that contribute to antisocial behavior. The study, for instance, does not address variables such as anger, paranoia, and shame. The study partly relies on self-reporting of experiences by juvenile offenders. The data obtained from self-reporting may not be accurate since the respondents may give false information intentionally or unintentionally. It may be difficult for the researcher to verify the validity of such information.

Ethical issues

A number of ethical issues were involved in the study. An ethical issue present in this study relates to confidentiality. There is no identification of participants in the study in order to protect their privacy. Approval of the study will be sought from relevant authorities. Another ethical issue in the study relates to harm of the participants. The study will be conducted in accordance to established guidelines, and this avoid harming participants in any way.

Dissemination strategy

The dissemination strategy will ensure that the research findings reach the appropriate audience. Media coverage can be an important way to disseminate the study findings to a large audience. Local newspapers, radio, and television can be good ways of disseminating the study findings to a large audience. Another important strategy is to share the research findings with collaborators or community partners. These are important especially since the community partners can provide valuable feedback that one can use to improve the report before the final publishing (“Yale Center for Clinical Investigation,” n.d). Another method of disseminating the findings is be creating flyers and posters. These are especially effective for the local school community

Summary

This study investigates the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group therapy in treatment of mental health disorders among juvenile offenders. The study utilizes an experimental approach in assessing the efficacy of the cognitive behavioral approach. The study adds to the growing body of evidence on the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group approach in the treatment of mental health issues. The study will be important to clinicians and psychologists involved in child rehabilitation and enforcing behavior change among minors.

References

Blanco, R.G. Heimberg, F.R. Schneier, D.M. Fresco, H. Chen, C.L. Turk, et al. (2010).    A placebo-controlled trial of phenelzine, cognitive behavioral group therapy, and their           combination for social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(3): pp. 286–   295.

Brazao, N., Motta, C., Rijo, D., Seelvador, M., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Ramos, J. (2015). Clinical    change in cognitive distortions and core schemas after a cognitive-behavioral group intervention: preliminary findings from a randomized trial with male prison inmates.    Cognitive Therapy Research, 39: 578 – 589.

Gavita, O. A., David, D., Bujoreanu, S., Tiba, A., Ionutiu, D. R. (2012). The efficacy of a short    cognitive–behavioral parent program in the treatment of externalizing behavior disorders       in Romanian foster care children: Building parental emotion-regulation through        unconditional self- and child-acceptance strategies. Children and Youth Services Review,       34(7): 12990-1297.

Hedman, E., Mortberg, E., Hesser, H., Clark, D. M., Lekander, M., Andersson, E., & Ljotsson,    B. (2013). Mediators in psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: individual            cognitive therapy compared to cognitive behavioral group therapy. Behavior Research   and Therapy, 51(10): 696-705.

Jansson, I., Gunnarsson, A. B., Björklund, A., Brudin, L., & Perseius, K. (2015). Problem-based self-care groups versus cognitive behavioural therapy for persons on sick leave due to         common mental disorders: A randomised controlled study. Journal of Occupational     Rehabilitation, 25(1), 127-140.

Makinson, R. A., & Young, S. (2012). Cognitive behavioral therapy and the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: where counseling and neuroscience meet. Journal of         Counseling and Development, 90(2): 131 – 140.

Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (2012). Assessment of childhood disorders, fourth edition.   Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=P98F1-            1rqfwC&dq=psychotic+symptoms+rating+scale&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Matusiewicz, A. K., Hopwood, C. J., Banducci, A. N., & Lejuez, C. W. (2010). The          Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Personality Disorders. The Psychiatric   Clinics of North America33(3), 657–685. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.007

Merom, D., Phongsavan, P., Wagner, R. et al. (2007). Promoting walking as an adjunct    intervention to group cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders—A pilot group    randomized trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(6): 959-968.

Morgan, R. D., Flora, D. B., Kroner, D. G., Mills, J. F., Varghese, F., & Steffan, J. S. (2012).       Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis. Law and Human       Behavior36(1), 37–50. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0093964

Skodlar, B., Henriksen, M. G., Sass, L. A., Nelson, B., & Parnas, J. (2013). Cognitive-      Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Critical Evaluation of Its Theoretical   Framework from a Clinical-Phenomenological Perspective. Psychopathology, 46: 249-         265.

Taylor, C. B. (2010). How to practice evidence-based psychiatry: Basic principles and case         studies. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.

Veiga, F. H. (2008). Disruptive behavior scale professed by students (DBS-PS): development      and validation. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8(2):             203-216.

White, S. W., Ollendick, T., Scahill, L., Oswald, D., & Albano, A. M. (2009). Preliminary           efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for anxious youth with autism       spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord, 39: 1652 – 1662.

Yale Center for Clinical Investigation. (n.d). Beyond scientific publication: strategies for disseminating research findings. Retrieved from             https://ctsacorus.org/resources/252/download/CARE_Dissemination_Strategies_FINAL_            eversion_2.pdf

Yip, V. C., Gudjonsson, G. H., Perkins, D., Doidge, A., Hopkin, G., Young, S. (2013). A non-     randomised controlled trial of the R&R2MHP cognitive skills program in high risk male          offenders with severe mental illness. BMC Psychiatry, 13: 267-280.

Methodical Review

Question

Assignment 1: A Methodical Review

Using the Argosy University online library resources, locate a research study related to forensic psychology. Present an analysis of the article by addressing the following points:

Provide a brief overview of the problem being studied, the research design, and the participants being used for the study and the general findings of the study.

Identify the research question, independent variable, and dependent variable.

If you were the researcher conducting this study and found that you were not familiar with the particular research population, what steps would you take to prepare yourself to conduct the research with this population?

Was any deception used in this study? If so, why was this deception necessary? If not, do you think that the study would have benefited from any kind of deception?

What steps did the researcher take to protect his or her participants?

What are the limitations of the study’s design and/or implementation?

If you were the researcher, would you have conducted this study the same way in relation to ethics and protection of the participants? If not, what changes would you make?

Sample paper

Methodical Review

Mulder, Brand, Bullens, and van Marle (2011) examine the risk factors associated with increased likelihood of recidivism among juvenile offenders with serious crimes. The study also analyzes the degree of recidivism each of the risk factors may induce among serious juvenile offenders. This study is a retrospective cohort study of the factors that increase the risk of recidivism among juvenile offende. The researchers explore a cohort of juvenile offenders between 1995 and 2004. The participants ranged between 12 – 22 years. However, all participants were minors at the time of committing the offence. The findings indicate that overall recidivism rate is about 80%. In addition, the study finds that the nature of the family in terms of criminal activities, the ability of the juvenile offender to cope with challenges, and adherence to treatment were the major factors determining the degree of recidivism.

The research question seeks to identify the range of risk factors that increase the likelihood of recidivism among juvenile offenders who complete their sentence. The dependent variable in the study is the degree of recidivism among juvenile offenders. The study seeks to analyze the impact of various risk factors on the degree of recidivism that may occur. A number of independent variables were also identified in the study. These include poor parenting skills, lack of victim empathy, the number of past offenses, lack of coping strategies, history of criminal behavior in the family, and among others.

If I were not familiar with the particular research population, it would be prudent to conduct a literature review of existing studies detailing the particular prison population. A literature review can enable a researcher identify key issues that he/she is likely to encounter in the study of the particular population. For instance, the researcher can be able to learn about the various limitations encountered by previous researchers. The researcher can thus plan in order to avoid such limitations.

The study did not involve any form of deception. The study could not have benefited from deception because the responses required from participants could not be used to incriminate any of them. The participants were basically required to score an instrument without having to answer serious questions such as other form of crimes they have committed. In order to protect participants, the researchers sought the approval of Medical Ethical Commission of Erasmus University Medical Center to conduct the study. The university medical center provided guidelines for conducting the research. In addition, the researchers maintain confidentiality by not revealing any information that may reveal the true identify of the participants.

The study utilized a retrospective design. The information obtained from the study was obtained from official records or files. A major limitation of this type of study is that information was obtained only from files. Obtaining information from other sources such as parents could provide robust data. If I were the researcher, I would most likely conduct the study in the same way, especially with regard to ethics and protection of participants. This is because the researchers in the study seek the approval of relevant body in order to conduct the research. The researchers also follow the outlined guidelines in conducting the study.

Reference

Mulder, E., Brand, E., Bullens, R., & van Marle, H. (2011). Risk factors for overall recidivism     and severity of recidivism in serious juvenile offenders. International Journal of Offender        Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(1), 118-135. Retrieved from             http://ijo.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/02/24/0306624X09356683

Related:

Methodology

Methodology

Question

Assignment 2: Methodology

In your final paper for this course, you will need to write a Methods section that is about 3–4 pages long where you will assess and evaluate the methods and analysis of your proposed research.

In preparation for this particular section, answer the following questions thoroughly and provide justification/support. The more complete and detailed your answers for these questions, the better prepared you are to successfully write your final paper:

What is the problem being addressed by your research study?

State the refined research question and hypothesis (null and alternative).

What are your independent and dependent variables? What are their operational definitions?

Who will be included in your sample (i.e., inclusion and exclusion characteristics)?

How many participants will you have in your sample?

How will you recruit your sample?

Identify the type of measurement instrument to be used to collect the raw numeric data to be statistically analyzed and the type of measurement data the instrument produces.

What issues will you cover in the informed consent?

If there is potential risk or harm, how will you ensure the safety of all participants?

Name any possible threats to validity and steps that can be taken to minimize these threats.

What type of parametric or nonparametric inferential statistical process (correlation, difference, or effect) will you use in your proposed research? Why is this statistical test the best fit?

State an acceptable behavioral research alpha level you would use to fail to accept or fail to reject the stated null hypothesis and explain your choice.

This paper may be written in question-and-answer format rather than a flowing paper. Write your response in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

Maximum Points

Stated the problem being addressed.

Stated the refined research question and hypothesis (null and alternative).

Stated the independent and dependent variables and provided the operational definitions.

Discussed sample characteristics and size.

Discussed a sample recruitment strategy.

Identified the type of measurement instrument to be used and the type of measurement data the instrument produces.

Discussed the informed consent and potential risk and protection factors.

Named the possible threats to validity and steps that can be taken to minimize these threats.

Discussed the type of parametric or nonparametric inferential statistical process that will be used and why it is a best fit.

Stated an acceptable behavioral research alpha level for analyzing the data.

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Sample paper

Methodology

The research study addresses the problem of whether the United States criminal justice system should employ the death sentence to punish offenders. Proponents argue that the death sentence may provide closure to co-victims, help to decongest the prisons, and eliminate repeat murders in case a prisoner escapes from prison. On the other hand, opponents argue that the death sentence is an inhuman form of punishment, it can lead to emotional strain on victim’s family, the accused person may be willing, and most importantly that it is costly compared to other forms of sentences. This article aims at investigating the relative costs of the death sentence in the U.S. criminal justice system and comparing the same to costs in other forms of payment.

The refined question of the study relates to the high costs of the death sentence in the U.S. This paper thus seeks to answer the following question: should the death penalty be used in the United States criminal justice system considering its apparent costs? The null hypothesis (H0) states that the death sentence is not costly compared to a life sentence. The alternative hypothesis states the death sentence is more costly compared to a life sentence. The first hypothesis assumes that there is no significant difference in costs between the death sentence and life sentence. The second hypothesis (alternative) assumes that there is a significant difference in costs between the death penalty and the life sentence.

The dependent variable for analysis is the time taken to resolution of a capital offense case. For the purposes of this research, time-to-resolution is defined as the total number of calendar days it takes to conclude a case from the filing date to the last date when the sentence is issued. Time-to-resolution is used because it is easier to assess comparing to examining actual financial data, which in most cases is unavailable. The longer time it takes to resolve a capital case, the higher the costs involved. The dependent variables in the study are type of capital case (special circumstance or no special circumstance filing), characteristics of the defendant such as race, personal history such as previous crimes, & alcohol abuse, the offense characteristics, and specific statutory aggravators.

This research aims at comparing costs incurred in prosecuting a capital offense leading to a death sentence to the costs incurred in prosecuting other sentences which does not lead to a death sentence. The sample of this study involves capital offense cases recorded in the U.S. criminal justice system between 2000 and 2010. The total costs involved in processing each of the identified cases is estimated by looking at the time taken to resolution and estimating the average costs of such a case per day. The cost breakdown yields a number of key process areas in prosecution of capital cases. These include litigation costs, cost of jurors, adjudication process costs, and incarceration costs. Capital cases that do not proceed to trial will not be included in the sample. The sample will include all capital cases in which a death sentence was sought from the initial stages.

One thousand cases will be identified involving capital offenses prosecuted between 2000 and 2010. Observations will be made from court records following approval by the relevant authorities. Price data concerning the trail cases will be derived from publicly available sources. The dependent variable requires that all cases must have complete details such as the date of prosecution to sentencing date. A public records request from respective District Attorney’s office of various states will provide the required data regarding capital offense cases. District Attorney Offices are the largest prosecutorial bodies in the country and thus may provide all the relevant data required for this research. The sample will be recruited from select states having high cases of death penalty convictions. For instance, Los Angeles County records the highest number of death convictions in the United States (Petersen & Lynch, 2012). This will provide robust data for the research.

Observation forms will be used in collecting the raw numeric data for statistical analysis. The researcher collecting data through reading of documents will fill observation forms, providing critical information of the observations made. The type of measurement data that this instrument produces is interval data. This type of data is the simplest form. It involves arbitrarily assigning numerical values.

Informed consent will pertain to the legal permission to conduct an investigation with the District Attorney’s office in various states. As such, the researcher must adhere to all the prescribed rules and regulations by various law enforcement departments. Informed consent will also involve disclosing to the relevant authorities the nature of the study as well as the consequences of not adhering to the guidelines given by the department. The potential risk or harm associated with this research involves the issue of confidentiality or privacy of information obtained. To eliminate this, the research will not identify the names of individuals involved in capital offense cases nor those on death row. Pseudonyms will be used to identify inmates and various cases.

One of the possible threats to validity is the restricted geographical coverage of the study. Restricting the study to a smaller geographical region may lower the external validity of the results. This threat can be minimized by expanding the research to more areas or states. Another threat to the validity of the results is a small sample size. When the sample size is small, the results may not be generalizable. In order to minimize this threat, the researcher can increase the sample size.

The statistical process to be used in the research is regression analysis. Regression models can help determine the nature of the relationships between the dependent and the independent variables (Gordon, 2015). A regression model is the best fit in this case because it helps indicate whether the independent variables have a strong relationship with the dependent variable. The regression model enables the researcher to assess the relative strengths of various independent variables on the dependent variable. The significance level for the null hypothesis is 0.05. This gives a higher chance of making errors since the type of research is not extremely sensitive to accuracy of results.

References

Gordon, R. A. (2015). Regression analysis for the social sciences. United Kingdom, UK: Routledge.

Petersen, N., & Lynch, M. (2012). Prosecutorial discretion, hidden costs, and the death penalty:   the case of Los Angeles County. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(4):   1233-1244.

Related:

Computing Descriptive Statistics

Computing Descriptive Statistics

Question

Assignment 1: Descriptive Statistical Processes

Can descriptive statistical processes be used in determining relationships, differences, or effects in your research question and testable null hypothesis? Why or why not? Also, address the value of descriptive statistics for the forensic psychology research problem that you have identified for your course project.

Click here to read an article for additional information on descriptive statistics and pictorial data presentations.

Post your response in a minimum of 300 words.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

While responding to classmates, offer suggestions, ideas, and evaluative comments.

Sample paper

Computing Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistical processes cannot be used in determining relationships, differences, or effects in the research question and testable null hypothesis. Common descriptive statistical processes include the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, range, and measures of variability. Descriptive statistical processes are concerned with collection of data that describes particular events, and the organization and tabulation of the data (Dietz & Kalof, 2009). Descriptive statistics provide the researcher with the basic features of the data gathered. They help the researcher understand basic premises of what the data portrays. In other words, descriptive statistical processes simply help the researcher understand what is going on in the data collected. Another important aspect of descriptive statistics is that they enable a researcher to summarize data in a simple and easily comprehensible way (Dietz & Kalof, 2009). In order to draw references, the researcher must go beyond the descriptive stages of data. Inferential statistics can enable the researcher to make conclusions and even make generalizations regarding a particular group of data.

Descriptive statistics are invaluable to the forensic research problem under consideration, which involves examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group therapy in the treatment of severe mental disorders among inmates. A major use of descriptive statistics in the above research problem is in summarizing raw data obtained from the field. When the researcher makes observations or conducts an investigation, large volumes of data are obtained. Descriptive statistical processes enable the researcher to organize data into simpler forms (Dietz & Kalof, 2009). For instance, the researcher may obtain the average of several sets of data rather than taking all variables into consideration, which may prove cumbersome. In analyzing the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group therapy, the researcher may be interested in identifying the ages of all respondents who have achieved full recovery. This data can be summarized by making a distribution table that gives a particular age bracket or range and the percent of individuals having the particular characteristics.

The descriptive statistics will help analyze dispersion. Dispersion is the spread of values around some measure of central tendency (Dietz & Kalof, 2009). A common measure of dispersion is the standard deviation, which is an accurate measure of how far values fall from the mean. In addressing the forensic psychology problem, the researcher may develop a scale that describes the severity of the mental disorder. The researcher may be interested in knowing how other values compare or how they are dispersed. In this case, standard deviation can help in examining the dispersion or the way in which the scores in the scale are spread. Another important measure in descriptive statistics is the mode. The researcher can find the mode in order to establishing the most frequently occurring score of the distribution.

References

Dietz, T., & Kalof, L. (2009). Introduction to social statistics: The logic of statistical reasoning. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved from:       https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=k086E0pT0RwC&pg=PA116&dq=descriptive+stati            stics&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=descriptive%20statistics&f=false

Related:

RA: Annotated Bibliography

RA: Annotated Bibliography

Question

Assignment 2: RA: Annotated Bibliography

The foundation of a research study comes from an understanding of the theory and from knowledge that is set forth by the literature in the field. Before a researcher can develop a sound and needed research design, he or she must first determine what is already known, how the topic has previously been studied, and where there are gaps in the knowledge and/or techniques that have been used to study the research problem.

In this module, you will further explore the research topic that you chose in M1 Assignment 2. Additionally, this will be the time to make any needed changes to your research question before you submit your proposal in M5 Assignment 2 RA 2. For this assignment, you will create a 3- to 4-page document following the directions given below.

Sample paper

RA: Annotated Bibliography

Falco, D. L., & Freiburger, T. L. (2011). Public opinion and the death penalty: A qualitative             approach. The Qualitative Report, 16(3), 830-847.

The duo examines the cost impacts of the death penalty with regard to its use across various states. Specifically, the study examines the public’s opinions concerning the suitability of the death penalty in the criminal justice system. The duo asserts that a strong public opinion in support of the death penalty is the main reason why some states continue to hand a death sentence to murder convicts. The study utilizes a qualitative approach in examining the public support for death penalty in the United States. The study utilizes focus groups as the primary strategy for data collection. Six focus groups were conducted in an effort to examine their attitudes and opinions concerning the death penalty. Participants in the focus groups were required to state their basic concerns about the death penalty, respond to past studies concerning the issue, and to analyze particular scenarios identified by the researchers. The research employs factor analysis as the key data analysis tool. Factor analysis is commonly used where there are multiple items in the data collected. The findings indicate that majority of participants identified cost and lengthy appeal process as the greatest flaws with the death penalty. The research also identifies complexities regarding the issue of whether the death penalty should continue or not. In particular, opinions given greatly varied basing on the nature of the offense or the offender characteristics. This article supports my proposed study by highlighting the impact of various individual characteristics such as ethnicity, sex, employment, and religion to the attitudes regarding the death penalty.

Jolie, M. (2014). The price of justice: interest-convergence, cost, and the anti-death penalty          movement. Northwestern University Law Review, 108(2) 675-710.

This study examines the death penalty debate from a legal viewpoint. The study looks at the historical development of the death sentence, and cross-examines this with modern policies regarding to death penalty across various states. The rationale of the study is to establish why the anti-death penalty advocates have largely gained prominence and much success in the modern period. This study adopts a theoretical approach in examining the success of the anti-death penalty movement across various states in the United States. The study adopts the “interest-convergence” theory as the key to establishing the success of the anti-death penalty movement. The interest-convergence theory stipulates that the abolishment of the death penalty in majority states is the result of the convergence the interests of white policymakers and those of African Americans. The study employs document analysis as the main strategy for data collection. The study draws data from General Assembly Office, field polls, and from a number of organizations. Data analysis was conducted through extensive sifting, coding, and sorting of data collected from a variety of sources. The findings support other studies that indicate high costs associated with the death penalty. The findings also indicate that anti-death penalty movements have been able to garner much support through pushing the interest-convergence story. The anti-death penalty advocates highlight the high costs of death penalty as the greatest factor to consider. In addition, they argue that the death penalty creates great inefficiencies that lawmakers ought to consider. This study is important since it introduces a theoretical approach to the death penalty debate. Specifically, the study helps in identifying the reasons for the increased popularity of anti-death penalty laws in various states.

 

 

Kevin, B., Mario, D., Ross, S. P., (2008). Racial different in public support for the death penalty:             can the racist sentiment and core values explain the racial divide? American Journal of           Criminal Justice, 33(2): 151-165.

Kevin, Mario, and Ross (2008) assess the racial differences that exist with regard to public opinion of the death penalty. The major goal of this study is to analyze the specific processes that contribute to differences in attitudes among various racial groups. The study also explores the values of patriotism, authoritarianism, individualism, and egalitarianism and their impacts on racial sentiments among individuals. This article notes that a number of past studies have identified a racial divide that exists, but fail to investigate the specific processes or factors contributing to the racial divide. The study utilizes quantitative as well as qualitative approaches to investigate the various issues relating to the racial divide and death penalty. The primary data collection method was the survey method. Data was obtained from the analysis of National Election Study held in 2004. The survey included respondents of African and White descent. The study utilizes regression models as the main method of data analysis. Regression model helps in analyzing the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables in research. The dependent variable in the research is support for death penalty. A number of independent variables were also established. The regression models indicate that there is a strong link between race and an individual’s attitude towards the death penalty. This research is important since it will assist me in assessing how races and other factors affect one’s attitude towards the death penalty.

Petersen, N., & Lynch, M. (2012). Prosecutorial discretion, hidden costs, and the death penalty:   the case of Los Angeles County. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(4):   1233-1244.

This study examines the time-costs involved in processing of murder cases in the county of Los Angeles 1996 and 2008, and evaluates the manner in which prosecutorial discretion is applied in homicide cases. The study explores the possibility of capital filings and the time it takes to resolve such filings, noting the costs associated in such. The study notes that capital filings with various special circumstances are likely to take a significantly longer period compared to capital filings with only a single special circumstance. The duo investigates the research problem by utilizing a quantitative approach. A document review was used as the primary data collection strategy. Review of criminal records provides robust insights into the costs associated with the death penalty. The study employs regression analysis as the key data analysis tool. Regression analysis involves assessing whether one variable, the predictor variable, prescribes the outcome of another variable. The study uses a logistic regression model to analyze capital-filing notices among all cases involving the death penalty. The dependent variable used in the study is the time taken for a capital filing to be resolved. A number of independent variables were also selected for the study. The main independent variables were capital cases and special circumstance case. The findings from the first model used indicate that prosecutors are highly likely to push for death notices in cases with high volume of circumstance allegations. The findings also indicate that capital cases take significantly longer time to solve, hence leading to high costs in the criminal justice system. This study supports my hypothesis concerning the high costs of the death penalty. In addition, the study sheds light on special circumstance filings and their true nature.

Roman, J. K., Chalfin, A. J., & Knight, C. R. (2009). Reassessing the cost of the death penalty     using quasi-experimental methods: evidence from Maryland. American Law and          Economics Review, 11(2): 530-574.

The trio examines the cost of the death penalty in the State of Maryland. The article argues that existing literature is skewed in that it fails to input adequate statistical controls or that it contains inherent limitations to the sampling frame. The study utilizes data drawn from the State of Maryland and involving capital offenses to identify any extra costs incurred in filing for a death notice. The study employs multivariate models to check on the capital offense case selections and hidden costs that may be involved in the process. A quantitative approach is used to examine the costs of the death penalty. Specifically, the study utilizes quasi-experimental methods, which lack the aspect of random assignment of the subjects. Data collection involved document reviews of records detailing first-degree and second-degree murders from 1978 to 1999 and committed in the state of Maryland. A total 1311 cases were identified for the study. Of these cases, 1227 cases were identified as a suitable subsample for the study. The data analysis tool used in the study is multiple regression analysis. This tool enables the researcher to examine several variables with regard to a particular outcome. The article finds overwhelming evidence concerning the high costs of the death penalty. For any single death notice filed in Maryland, there is an addition $1 million in costs. This article helps support my hypothesis that higher costs are involved in the death penalty compared to a life sentence. The article is particularly useful since it controls for a number key competing costs that other researches fail to take into consideration.

Worthen, M. F., Rodgers, F. R., & Sharp, S. F. (2014). Expanding the spectrum of attitudes         toward the death penalty: how nondichotomous response options affect our      understandings of death penalty attitudes. Criminal Justice Review, 39(2): 160-181.

Worthen, Rodgers, and Sharp (2014) examine individual attitudes towards the death penalty in the United States. It is worth noting that the attitude held by the public greatly helps in shaping public policy towards the death penalty sentence. This study aims at developing an in-depth analysis of the attitudes that majority of Americans hold towards the death penalty. The study goes beyond what majority of available studies examine by investigating response patters. Majority of studies available seek for yes/no responses, which provides fewer details. The trio employs a qualitative approach in examining people’s attitude towards the death penalty in the U.S. The data collection strategy employed is the use of surveys. Paper-and-pencil surveys were conducted on a group of college students pursuing a degree in sociology. Those involved in the survey voluntarily participated in the research. The study utilizes a number of data analysis tools including analysis of variance, t-test, and regression analysis. T-tests were used to make comparisons among four death penalty groups that were part of the study. Variance helped in examining the religiousness of the respondents. Regression analysis was used to establish the probability of an individual belonging to any one group in the study. The findings indicate that conservative political beliefs have a strong impact in influencing an individual’s perceptions concerning the death penalty. The findings also indicate that knowledge of the Bible among individuals have little impact on the attitude that one holds towards the death penalty, contrary to earlier studies. This study is important since it will help in identifying the major factors that influence individual attitudes towards the death penalty in the United States.

Related:

Quantitative vs Qualitative Research

Quantitative vs Qualitative Research

Question

Assignment 1: Quantitative vs Qualitative Research

The qualitative approach to research involves the collection of extensive amounts of narrative and written data in order to gain insight into an event, occurrence, strategy, or phenomenon. Quantitative research involves the collection of numerical measurement data in order to explain, predict, or control the interest area of research.

Under what conditions would a person choose the qualitative approach over the quantitative or vice versa when investigating a forensic behavioral science situation? When would a mixed-methods design be the best option? Through your research provide examples and support for the points you are making.

Review the points of others and add additional examples, challenging a response or drawing conclusions from the response.

Sample paper

Quantitative vs Qualitative Research

In quantitative studies, the researcher gathers data using particular instruments, for instance, through conducting a survey. Quantitative research may either be in form of correlational studies or causal-comparative studies (Creswell, 2014). An investigator may opt for the quantitative approach depending on the nature of the investigation that he/she wishes to conduct. For instance, if the investigator requires identifying the different factors that affect an outcome, then it would be necessary to use a quantitative approach. The investigator may be interested in establishing the factor(s) that best predict an outcome. In this case, a quantitative approach would be the best alternative. A quantitative approach is also applicable in situations where the investigator aims at identifying the utility of a particular intervention to the research outcomes. A quantitative approach is also best applicable when the investigator wishes to test an explanation or existing theory (Creswell, 2014). This is because the investigator is able to collect data and subject it to numerical analysis.

Qualitative research design involves the investigator examining different sets of narratives in order to draw conclusions. The qualitative approach may take two forms, which include narrative research or phenomenological research (Creswell, 2014). An investigator may choose to use a qualitative approach when there is little research available concerning the problem under investigation. The investigator may also opt for a qualitative approach when the research variables are not clear. This allows the researcher to search for a wide range of issues that can help understand the research problem. A qualitative approach is also best where the phenomenon under investigation is new or there are no theories or discussions concerning the problem (Creswell, 2014). An investigator may also opt for the qualitative approach if the existing theories do not address the topic or phenomenon under investigation.

The mixed-methods design strategy involves integrating both the qualitative as well as the quantitative approaches into an investigation. A mixed-methods design would be the best option in situations where either the quantitative or the qualitative approaches are inadequate to examine thoroughly the research problem. As such, the investigator finds it prudent to integrate both methods in the research work. For instance, an investigator may initially conduct a qualitative research involving a particular issue of concern. After examining the major themes identified through the qualitative research, the investigator may go for a quantitative approach in order to examine in detail the correlation between various themes. The mixed methods design provides the investigator with the opportunity to capitalize on the inherent weaknesses found on each method, and to counteract the effect of any biases that manifests through the application of each method (Harwell, n.d).

References

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods      approaches. SAGE Publications Inc.

Harwell, M. R. (n.d). Research design in qualitative/quantitative/mixed methods. Retrieved from             http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/41165_10.pdf

Related:

Evaluating Quantitative Design

Evaluating Quantitative Design

Question

Assignment 2: Evaluating Quantitative Design

A researcher must be knowledgeable of the different quantitative research designs and be able to effectively apply the best design as dictated by the research question. For this assignment, you will create a 3- to 4-page document following the directions below.

Part I

Compare Methods

Compare and contrast two research methods. Give an example of a situation (related to forensic counseling) in which each of the two chosen methods can be applied.

Experimental

Quasi-experimental

Correlational

Survey

Developmental

Part II

Answer Questions

In reference to one of the two example research scenarios that you discussed above in Part I, further explore by answering the following questions (apply these questions to your own research project):

Determine a suitable research goal.

Discuss what type of sampling could be used for this study.

Identify which types of research designs above (from Part I) would be most appropriate to use.

State your hypothesis of the expected results for this proposed study.

Your final product will be in a Microsoft Word document and be approximately 3–4 pages in length and utilize 2–3 scholarly sources in your research. Your paper should be written in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria

Maximum Points

Compare and contrast two research methods. Give an example of a situation (related to forensic psychology) in which each of the two chosen methods can be applied.

Determine a suitable research goal.

Discuss what type of sampling could be used for this study.

Identify which types of research designs above (from Part I) would be most appropriate to use.

State hypothesis for the outcome of proposed study.

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation

Sample paper

Evaluating Quantitative Design

The two research methods chosen are experimental and survey method. Experimental research is a scientific and systematic method of research whereby the investigator manipulates one or more of the research variables, while assessing the changes to other variables (Creswell, 2008). The experimental method is especially effective in testing hypotheses relating to cause-and-effect relationships. On the other hand, survey research is a method of inquiry where the researcher makes queries from respondents. In survey research, data is collected from the responses given by individuals. In both methods, recruiting participants may involve random selection or the investigator choosing participants (Creswell, 2008). Data collection in surveys may utilize various tools such as case studies, observation, interviews, or questionnaires. On the other hand, data collection in experimental research occurs by taking readings obtained from the experiment. Surveys utilized large samples while experiments utilize relatively smaller samples.

An example in which both experimental approach and survey approaches can be applied is in establishing the efficacy of cognitive behavioral group therapy in the treatment of severe mental disorders among inmates. While utilizing an experimental approach, the researcher recruits a group of participants using an identified exclusion criteria. For instance, the participants should be above a particular age limit and suffering from a severe mental disorder. The researcher may establish a number of hypotheses in the study. For instance, the main hypothesis (H0) could state that cognitive behavioral group therapy significantly helps in treatment of severe mental health disorders. In applying a survey approach, the researcher may interview behavioral therapists about the outcomes of the various methods, or observe the outcomes for a period of time. The observations would provide critical data about the effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral group therapy. In addition, the researcher can be able to gain insights into other issues affecting treatment outcomes.

Research goal

The major goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy approaches in reducing symptoms of severe mental disorders among inmates. Cognitive behavioral therapy is recognized as an effective approach in treatment of mental disorders. In particular, group therapy is more effective compared to personalized cognitive therapy treatments.

Type of sampling

There are different techniques of sampling that can be applied to this research. There are two main approaches to sampling, which include probability sampling and non-probability sampling. The various probability-sampling techniques include random sampling, cluster random sampling, stratified sampling, multi-stage random sampling, and systematic sampling (Houser, 1998). Likewise, there are various types of non-probability sampling techniques. These include expert sampling, accidental sampling, modal instance sampling, snowball sampling, diversity sampling, purposive sampling, and proportional quota sampling (Houser, 1998). The sampling techniques applicable to the case study are in the category of probability-sampling techniques, specifically, random sampling.

In random sampling, every member bears an equal chance of participating in the experiment. In simple random sampling, every member in a population has an equal chance of a selection. In addition, each selection made is independent of any other subsequent selections made (Houser, 1998). It is possible to obtain a random sample using a variety of ways. For instance, a random numbers table that is computer generated can enable the researcher to draw random samples of the population. Alternatively, the researcher can assign each individual special numbers, which are then drawn randomly. Each number selected represents the sample to be used in the study. Another approach is the systematic random sampling. This approach is commonly used in situations where there are a finite number of subjects from which to choose from. In this method, the researcher assigns all individuals in the population a number and then chooses the nth number from the population (Houser, 1998). For instance, the researcher may choose every 10th person from a population of 1000 individuals.

Research Design

The most appropriate research design in this study is an experimental study. An experimental research design enables the researcher to control the extraneous variables that may alter the experiment results in one way or another (Creswell, 2014). This gives the researcher the ability to predict the outcomes of the experiment. Experimental research applies where a time priority exists in the causal relationship between two items. For instance, a particular effect supersedes a cause. Another important faction to consider is consistency with regard to the causal relationship. For example, a particular cause should be attributed to a similar effect, with a strong correlation magnitude. In the research study, the cause is the cognitive behavioral group therapy, while the effect is the treatment outcomes of the therapeutic approach. In experimental studies, researcher identifies a control group as well as the experimental group (Creswell, 2014). The researcher administers the independent variable to the experimental group, while the control group remains free of any influence. The researcher examines the experimental group and the control group on the same line of dependent variable.

A correlational research design would also be appropriate. A correlational research design is a quantitative research method in which the researcher aims at establishing the nature of the relationship among various variables in the study (Creswell, 2014). The major aim of the researcher in this case is to establish whether there is a relationship and the nature of the relationship. For instance, the variables may show positive correlation while others may show negative correlation. Any two variables may have a correlation, which the researcher investigates through quantitative analysis. A correlational study is conducted when the researcher has reason to believe that there exists a particular relationship among variables. The hypothesis in this case describes the nature of the relationship basing on the researcher’s opinion as to the nature of the relationship. The researcher attempts to prove the hypothesis through statistical analysis.

This study hypothesizes that cognitive behavioral group therapy significantly helps in treatment of severe mental health disorders among inmate populations.

References

Creswell, J. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative      and qualitative research. New Jersey: Pearson: Merrill Prentice Hall

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods     approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Houser, R. (1998). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage Publications.

Related:

Review of the Literature

Review of the Literature

Question

Submit an annotated bibliography of 6 peer-reviewed articles from the Argosy University online library resources and locate articles related to the topic of your research in the following categories:

2 quantitative studies

2 qualitative studies

1 mixed-methods study

1 theoretical or research design of your choice

A strong literature review not only plays a foundational role for setting up a research proposal and/or dissertation but also plays an important role in the results and discussion section that is presented after the data has been collected and analyzed.

Why is the literature review a needed piece of a research proposal? How can a weak literature review diminish a research proposal?

Once the data has been collected and you are moving into the completion of the research report, how will you continue to pull from your literature review in the results and discussion section of your report?

What search strategies did you use to locate articles from the Argosy University online library resources for your upcoming RAs?

Review the points of others and add additional examples, challenging a response or drawing conclusions from the response.

Sample paper

Review of the Literature

Voluminous qualitative studies exist on the impact of the death penalty in the criminal justice system. Falco & Freiburger (2011) conduct a qualitative study to examine the public opinion on the death penalty in the U.S. The duo employs focus groups as the main data collection method. Respondents were drawn from Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Interested participants in the study were recruited via local media advertisements that sought individuals above the age of 18. The focus groups lasted for duration of four months. The mean age of the participants was 30 years, and a range of 19 to 65 years. Participants were to comment on costs, wrongful convictions, and deterrence associated with death penalty. The findings indicate that majority of participants identified cost and lengthy appeal process as the greatest flaws with the death penalty. The limitations of this study revolve around the lack of analysis of various conditions that could affect the respondents’ opinions.

Ehrhard (2008) examines plea bargaining and cost of the death penalty in the criminal justice system. The article examines the role attorneys, defendants, and prosecutors play in plea-bargaining especially in murder trials that involve a death sentence. The research indicates that a conviction leading to death penalty is more costly and may take a long time to solve. The research draws data from defense attorneys and prosecutors. In-depth interviews totaling 27 were conducted with the defense attorneys and 15 with prosecutors. The study provides robust findings due to the relatively larger number of participants and the random methods of recruiting them used.

Sethuraju, Sole, and Oliver (2016) conduct a quantitative study to examine college students’ rationale concerning the death penalty. The study utilizes data drawn from 11,000 college students. Non-random samples were used to recruit students from criminal justice classes in 2014. The study identified the dependent variables as the students’ reasons for either supporting or not supporting the death penalty. The independent variables were age, major, political affiliation, race, gender and fear or victimization. The major limitation of this study is that results may not be generalizable across populations since participants were drawn from the same institution.

Worthen, Rodgers, and Sharp (2014) conducts a quantitative study to examine the Americans’ attitude towards the death penalty sentence. The article indicates that there is a strong correlation between death penalty policies and the public opinion. In other words, public opinion shapes the death penalty policies made by the Supreme Court. The study utilizes a survey method to collect data from a sample of undergraduate students pursuing sociological studies. The dependent variable measured whether students were in favor of or against the death penalty. The independent variable was the particular belief systems of the students.

Eaton and Christensen (2014) examine the negative impacts of the death penalty using a mixed-methods approach. The duo utilizes quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate how co-victims react when they witness the death of an individual attributed to killing their close ones. The study analyzes all executions that have occurred in the U.S. in a span of 11 years from 2000 to 2011. The duo attempts to establish the impact of the death penalty to friends and family members of the deceased. The article attempts to establish whether the death penalty may provide closure to friends and family members. The findings indicate that friends and family members do not find closure through handing of the death sentence. The limitations of the study are that samples were self-selected, which may result to biased opinions in various ways.

Various theoretical studies exist concerning the administration of the death penalty in the U.S. Walker (2006) conducts a theoretical study to examine how the negative influence of the death penalty in the U.S. criminal justice system. The author asserts that capital punishment in the U.S. has critical defects that should undergo serious reforms. According to Walker (2006), capital punishment exerts enormous strain on the criminal justice system. The strain comes in the form of high costs and congestion in prisons since capital prosecutions may take a long period to solve. Moreover, the article highlights the fact that in capital prosecutions, there is a relatively higher risk of charging innocent individuals compared to other lighter form of crimes.

References

Eaton, J., & Christensen, T. (2014). Closure and its myths: victims’ families, the death penalty,    and the closure argument. International Review of Victimology, 20(3): 327-343.

Ehrhard, S. (2008). Plea Bargaining and the Death Penalty: An Exploratory Study. The Justice     System Journal, 29(3), 313-325.

Falco, D. L., & Freiburger, T. L. (2011). Public opinion and the death penalty: A qualitative             approach. The Qualitative Report, 16(3), 830-847.

Sethuraju, R., Sole, J., & Oliver, B. E. (2016). Understanding death penalty support and   opposition among criminal justice and law enforcement. SAGE Open, 3(1): 1-15.

Walker, R. N. (2006). How the malfunctioning death penalty challenges the criminal justice             system. Judicature, 89(5), 265-269.

Worthen, M. G., Rodgers, F. R., & Sharp, S. F. (2014). Expanding the spectrum of attitudes         toward the death penalty: how nondichotomous response options affect our      understandings of death penalty attitudes. Criminal Justice Review, 39(2): 160-181.

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Psychopathology and Criminality