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Theory and Practice

Theory and Practice

Part 1

Views on Relationship between Theory and Practice

There exists a strong relationship between theory and application or practice. A theory represents an organization of knowledge in a systematic and logical method. This knowledge helps in solving real life problems. In the last century, there has been a considerable gap between theory and application. According to Kessels and Korthagen (1996), the major reason behind the widening gap between theory and practice is an overemphasis on developing general knowledge at the expense of application or practice. For instance, many theories explain how an educator may develop cordial relationships with students. Some of these include interpersonal theories, behavioral theories, motivational theories, and others. However, an educator may not be able to transform the knowledge presented by these theories into practice. The educator may lack the know-how on applying the findings made by a theory in a particular classroom situation. According to Kessels and Korthagen (1996), this marks a gap between theory and application.

The teacher educator should find ways of applying the theory to practice. Nonetheless, educators often fail to apply the knowledge learned from theory. Failure, in this case, is not the result of propositions made by the theory; rather, this is a failure of application or practice. The basic premise is that individuals may have the scientific understanding or episteme of a theory by lack the practical wisdom or phronesis (Kessels & Korthagen, 1996). An element of scientific knowledge is universality; that is, it generally applies everywhere. It is worth noting that things involving practical prudence are not universal like knowledge, but vary with the situation. Thus, having theoretical knowledge is not enough for an individual, there is need to learn how to apply this knowledge. The biggest problem in the conceptualization of theory and practice is that people emphasize much on understanding rather than developing practical wisdom.

Billig (2014) evaluates classical leadership studies by Kurt Lewin. Lewin’s major assertion is that “there is nothing as practical as a good theory” (p. 1). Kurt Lewin is one of the most influential social psychologists. His theories are the mirror to what a good theory ought to be – uniting theory and application. Lewin asserts that Aristotelian concepts are bad in light of a lack of practicality, while the Galileian concepts are good due to their practicality. Concerning this, good theorists are those who write in technical ways. For the theory to be useful, however, it should be written in a way that non-specialists in the subject could understand (Billig, 2014). This is what constitutes practicality of a theory. Lewin’s theories sought to inform all type of audiences including non-specialists. Writing in technical ways did not promote practicality since only a few individuals in that particular field could understand and relate the meaning of the theory.

In his leadership theories, Lewin applied ordinary language that non-specialists could understand. Lewin popularized the terms “democracy” and “autocracy” instead of using technical terms in their studies (Billig, 2014). The use of ordinary language ensures that the majority can read the theoretical underpinnings and make use of the knowledge they learn in practice. Lewin propounds the idea that the use of ordinary language promotes the practical application of theory. In his study about different leadership styles, Lewin summarized the results using ordinary language and meant for the general audience (Billig, 2014). This is perhaps the reason why his leadership theories generated a lot of interest and wide readership. While writing to the scientific community, one should employ technical language.

How Theory can Guide or Inform Practice

Theory guides or informs practice in various ways. A theory provokes deeper investigation in any field of study. A theory forms the foundation for further inquiry in a particular field of knowledge (Gay & Weaver, 2011). Through the development of a theory, researchers acquire a platform for further development of the field of knowledge. A theory also provides the general framework for analyzing a particular problem further. Moreover, researchers gain a deeper understanding of a particular field of knowledge by developing theories. The theory acts as a platform that enables researchers to learn more about the particular field and expand their inquiry. According to Lincoln and Lynham (2011), theory provides researchers with a comprehensive view or understanding of the practical world. This is because once a theory emerges researchers are able to develop measurable aspects, drawing on relevant data, in order to determine its accuracy and applicability into practice.

Theory lacks a universal meaning or standard. It is in light of this that researchers are able to explore a theory in different dimensions, thus expanding knowledge in a particular area. According to Gay and Weaver (2011), theory enables researchers to develop laws or constructs that help in the understanding of particular phenomena. Theories are subject to rigorous testing and assessments to determine whether it holds. During this period, new insights are developed through reframing ideas or building upon the existing ideas. Testing of a theory is a critical part of its development. Often, researchers employ case studies in testing the applicability of theories. Once a theory is tested, practitioners can choose to apply the theory basing on the perceived benefits. The quality of a theory determines the ability of users to apply it into practice. A theory provides the general direction for action in research. A theory also helps in developing a rationale for decision-making. This is because it acts as a guide to researchers when investigating on various topics.

Translating Theory into Practice

There are issues involved in translating theory to practice in the medical field as well as other fields. Olswang and Prelock (2015) identify the existing gap between research a practice as emanating from the lag between the development of a theory and its actual application. The research pipeline involved in the development of a theory is unnecessarily long. In the medical field, for instance, a theory must undergo a lengthy period before the actual application of the knowledge in clinical situations to prevent harm to patients. Once a theory develops, it undergoes rigorous testing both in a select population and to the general population. The entire process may take over a decade before the application of the research findings to patient care. Moreover, during the continuum of transforming theory to practice, there is knowledge leakage, which affects the strength of the theory findings. For instance, during publication and enactment of practice guidelines, loss of knowledge may occur.

Another problem in translating theory into practice relates to the means of disseminating the research findings. According to Olswang and Prelock (2015), relying on journals to disseminate research findings is problematic in that it places greater responsibility on individuals to read, understand, interpret, and apply the findings in their workplace. Practitioners face many challenges in trying to apply findings to research (Olswang & Prelock, 2015). Some of these challenges relate to the willingness of the organizational structure to embrace the new findings and support their application into practice. The administration may not be willing to support the new changes due to either costs or other issues. Another challenge is the relevance of the theory to practice (Olswang & Prelock, 2015). This may make it difficult for practitioners to implement theory into practice. Personal factors may also influence the translation of theory into practice. For instance, the practitioner could be unmotivated to abandon the current practices. They practitioner could also fail to understand the key underpinnings of the theory.

A major challenge involving the application of theory into practice is the relevance of the theory and perceived benefits from the theory. If there are no perceived benefits, it may be difficult for practitioners to translate theory into practice. The benefits of applying theory into practice should surpass the cost of implementing the theory. Skepticism among practitioners regarding the application of a theory may also hinder translation of theory into practice (Olswang & Prelock, 2015). In the recent period, implementation research has emerged with the aim of bridging theory and practice. Implementation science aims at improving the application of proven clinical practices, management interventions, and other aspects of research findings (Olswang & Prelock, 2015). Implementation science aims at bridging the gap between research and application in the medical field. Implementation science eliminates the lengthy period involved before translating research into practice. The overall impact is a closer relationship between research and practice.

Part 2

Theory of current interest

Hertzberg Two Factor theory is applicable in examining how organizations can improve job satisfaction among employees with diverse needs determined by the generational differences. The theory assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are aspects that do not belong to the same direction. In other words, job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not opposites (Hur, 2017). The opposite of job satisfaction is therefore “no satisfaction”, while the opposite of job dissatisfaction is “no dissatisfaction”. Hertzberg identifies factors known as motivators that contribute towards job satisfaction, and a set of other factors known as hygiene factors whose absence in the workplace can lead to dissatisfaction. The motivational factors relate to the work itself and lead to job satisfaction. They include opportunities for development, recognition, achievement, responsibility, work meaningfulness, and other factors. The hygiene factors, if absent leads to dissatisfaction (Son, Lu, & Kim, 2015). They include wages and salaries, status, job security, physical work conditions, interpersonal relations, fringe benefits, and others.

The motivational factors closely relate to the intrinsic factors of motivation. When present, these factors promote satisfaction and motivation levels but when absent they do not contribute to dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors relate to the extrinsic issues in the environment such as job security. These factors do not increase job satisfaction even when present (Bohm, 2012). However, they can lead to job dissatisfaction when absent. Their absence can also lead to lower motivation. The parallel between hygiene factors and the motivational factors indicates that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are on two different dimensions. In addition, this indicates that one factor may solely relate to either the hygiene factors or the motivation factors. Hertzberg’s two-factor theory has successfully been applied in a number of industries including healthcare, manufacturing, banking, insurance, and among others. This highlights its importance as a theory of motivation in the organization.

Hertzberg’s theory asserts that the hygiene factors and the motivation factors are critical in improving job satisfaction among employees. There exists a positive correlation between job satisfaction and employee motivation levels in the organization. The higher the job satisfaction the higher the motivation levels and vice versa. If there are need deficiencies affecting the employees, they may not perform work optimally (Son, Lu, & Kim, 2015). This may contribute to poor performance among the employees as well as the entire organization. Hertzberg’s two-factor theory can help leaders in determining ways in which they can improve job satisfaction while taking note of the diverse employee needs resulting from their different generational cohorts.

Most of the research literature available on job satisfaction and motivation emphasizes on organizational predictors while disregarding the impact of individual differences. Employees within an organization may perceive motivational factors differently. In addition, employees have different work attitudes even though the tasks performed are similar. The different work attitudes or perceptions toward work are partly occasioned by generational differences. A current view of the theory relates to its application in evaluation of customer satisfaction while using internet or online services. According to Minhee, chunhao, and Moon-Yong (2015), the factors that lead to dissatisfaction are related to the operational aspects and functional performance in the organization. The study also propounds that the different attributes involved in service provision vary greatly in their potential to imbue satisfaction or dissatisfaction upon an individual.

In the last two decades, generational differences in the workplace have generated immense interest among scholars. As such, numerous studies have focused on the subject in an effort to shed more light on the subject. Managers can gain a better understanding of their employees by learning about their generational differences (Lyons & Kuron, 2014). This can increase workforce retention, communication, conflict resolution practices, better employee engagement, and improvement in other aspects of organizational management. Despite the overwhelming body of research available, controversy still exists owing to different theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches concerning generations. It is worth noting that employees within an organization were born in different social-cultural and historical contexts (Hillman, 2014). These groups of people share similar values and attitudes because of the mutual experiences. The shared experiences significantly determine each group’s attitudes and behaviors in the workplace.

Although different generational groups may share experiences, they respond in unique ways due to differences in age. As such, leaders must utilize a variety of approaches in order to ensure that all employees achieve high motivation and job satisfaction. Two major perspectives underpin generational differences in the workplace – the social forces and the cohort perspective (Lyons & Kuron, 2014). The social forces perspective propounds the idea that generations comprise of interrelated social groups that respond to the historical contexts of their time. On the other hand, the cohort perspective views generations as simply groups of individuals born within a particular period. The social forces perspective is the most popular since it takes into consideration the social factors as well as biological factors involved in aging (Lyons & Kuron, 2014). A generation acquires its unique identity when members reach adulthood. This is the period when their shared experiences develop into concrete behaviors and attitudes.

Part 3

Hertzberg Two Factor Theory has been widely applied in examining the concept of satisfaction and motivation in a range of situations. Pandza, Deri, Galambos, and Galambos (2015) examine how Hertzberg’s theory can improve employee motivation and satisfaction at Postal Traffic Department, Novi Sad. The authors assert that motivation is a personal matter. As such, it is impossible to generalize the concept of motivation across all employees within an organization. Pandza et al. (2015) evaluate the factors that motivate employees in the workplace leading to high levels of performance and service quality. These include achievement, advancement, the work itself, awards, and development. The study also examines hygiene factors including company policy, colleagues, safety at work, relationship with superiors, salary, and work conditions.

The findings of the study by Pandza et al. (2015) indicate that employees are motivated to attain better results, something which can be derive from the high means recorded of between 3.3 and 3.9. The work itself and achievement were the most important motivators for the employees in the company respectively, with means of 3.6 and 3.5 respectively. The various factors under achievement were contributing towards the positive reputation of the company, job satisfaction leading to fulfilment, and recognition of one’s achievements. The most important factor under work itself was qualification for the job done. Two of the most important hygiene factors are colleagues with a mean of 4.4 and safety at work with a mean of 3.7 (Pandza et al., 2015). This study helps in linking theory and application by expounding about the key motivational and hygiene factors that leaders should take into consideration. Thus while trying to improve satisfaction and reduce dissatisfaction, leaders must take note of factors under the work itself for motivation and relations among colleagues for satisfaction.

Vast literature available applies the two-factor theory in examining employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Nonetheless, other authors have successfully applied the theory to different contexts. Park and Ryoo (2013) investigate end users’ switching behavior toward cloud computing using a two-factor theory approach. Switching behavior of end users to cloud services reflect their decisions to adopt new technologies. In this study, the duo applies two-factor theory in analyzing the influence of enabling and inhibiting factors during decision-making on whether to make a switch. The study establishes the essence of switching as collaboration support, while the inhibiting factors relate to satisfaction of a user with current technology. Other factors such as switching costs, personal innovativeness, social influence, and others may also come into play.

The findings of the study indicate that availability of cloud services and user support are the most important factors in determining consumer behavior to switch or retain legacy system. While switching costs inhibit users to move to cloud services, switching benefits encourage users to do so (Park & Ryoo, 2013). Factors such as personal innovativeness also encourage users to switch. The duo successfully applies the two-factor model in examining the competing factors that influence consumer-switching behavior. This research goes beyond the usual claims by the theory to show that it may apply in other contexts not necessarily involving the satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors identified by Hertzberg.

The two-factor theory has been extensively applied in evaluating how healthcare leaders can improve motivation among physicians and Registered Nurses (RNs) for improved patient outcomes. Hunt et al. (2012) apply the two-factor theory in evaluating the strategies that nursing homes can use to improve nurse retention. Statistics indicate that as the population above age 65 continues to rise, there is undue pressure on nursing homes due to shortage of RNs to cater for the elderly. High staff turnover in these facilities can detrimentally affect patient care outcomes. The findings by Hunt et al. (2012) indicate that most of the retention programs offered by nursing homes do not have any significant impact on RN retention rates.

The findings by Hunt et al. (2012) show that nursing homes experiencing poor RN retention can reverse the trend by providing opportunities for advancement such as rewarding satisfactory attendance and offering career ladders. This is one of the intrinsic factors identified by Hertzberg. Enriching the benefit packages can also help in RN retention. This application is premised upon an accurate application of the theory. Through research, the authors are able to identify the particular methods that nursing homes can utilize to improve RN retention. This is a good application of the two-factor theory by Hertzberg.

Alfayad and Arif (2017) examine the link between job satisfaction and employee voice from a two-factor theory perspective. The aim of this study is to analyze how employee voice can contribute towards high job satisfaction levels in the Jordan region. There exists a positive correlation between communication openness and job satisfaction in the organization. Communication openness enables employees to raise their concerns about contentious matters affecting them. Once the management reacts to these problems, there is high job satisfaction. The study indicates that employee voice is a critical factor in ensuring job satisfaction (Alfayad & Arif, 2017). Hertzberg’s two-factor theory considers employee voice as a motivational factor. The application of the theory is accurate as it presents practical ways in which the management may improve job satisfaction. For instance, the human resource must develop open communication strategies that encourage joint consultations with the employees to avoid strikes.

Lo, Lin and Hsu (2014) apply the two-factor model in the context of online impulse buying. Their aim is to investigate how business owners can utilize hygiene and motivational factors to trigger a buying impulse. The motivator factors (intrinsic) include the sales promotion initiatives by online retailers such as limited time sales, buy one-get one free promotions, gifts accompanying purchases, and others. The hygiene factors relate to the store design factors such as member confidentiality, product categorization, order tracking, and others (Lo, Lin & Hsu, 2014). The study concludes that the motivation and hygiene factors that influence online purchase behavior are distinct.

This research is premised upon an accurate understanding of the theory. This is because it integrates Hertzberg’s two-factor theory in determining how various factors may influence online purchasing behavior. The application goes beyond the boundaries established by the theory in examining online purchasing behavior. This is because the traditional theory focuses on employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction within the organization.


Alfayad, Z., & Lily Suriani Mohd Arif. (2017). Employee voice and job satisfaction: An application of herzberg two-factor theory. International Review of Management and        Marketing, 7(1)

Billig, M. (2014). Kurt Lewin’s leadership studies and his legacy to social psychology: is             there             nothing as practical as a good theory? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour,            45(4): 441-460. DOI: 10.1111/jtsb.12074

Bohm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory – at the intersection of health care management and patient    satisfaction. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR, 4, 277.             doi:10.2147/CEOR.S29347

Gay, B., & Weaver, S. (2011). Theory building and paradigms: A primer on the nuances of          theory construction. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 1(2),     24-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1469 – 5812.2007.00349.xs

Hillman, D. R. (2014). Understanding multigenerational work-value conflict resolution. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 29(3), 240-257. doi:10.1080/15555240.2014.933961

Hillman, D. R. (2014). Understanding multigenerational work-value conflict resolution. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 29(3), 240-257. doi:10.1080/15555240.2014.933961

Hunt, S. R., Probst, J. C., Haddock, K. S., Moran, R., Baker, S. L., Anderson, R. A., &     Corazzini, K. (2012). Registered nurse retention strategies in nursing homes: A two-       factor perspective. Health Care Management Review, 37(3), 246-256.            doi:10.1097/HMR.0b013e3182352425

Hur, Y. (2017). Testing Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation in the public sector: Is it        applicable to public managers? Public Organization Review, doi:10.1007/s11115-017-   0379-1

Kessels, J. P., & kuronKorthagen, F. A. (1996). The relationship between theory and practice: back to the classics. Educational Researcher, 25(3): 17-22.

Lincoln, Y.S., & Lynham, S.A. (2011). Criteria for assessing theory in human resource     development from an interpretive perspective. Human Resource Development International, 14(1), 3-22. Doi: 10.1080/ 13678868.2011.542895

Lo, L. Y., Lin, S., & Hsu, L. (2016). Motivation for online impulse buying: A two-factor theory             perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 36(5), 759-772.             doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2016.04.012

Lyons, S., & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the           evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(S1),     S139-S157. doi:10.1002/job.1913

Lyons, S., & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the           evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(S1),     S139-S157. doi:10.1002/job.1913

Olswang, L. B., & Prelock, P. A. (2015). bridging the gap between research and practice:             implementation science. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58: 1818-  1826.

Pandža, J., Đeri, L., Galamboš, A., & Galamboš, T. (2015). Two-factor analysis of employee       motivation at “postal traffic – department in Novi sad”. European Journal of Economic           Studies, 12(2), 101-111. doi:10.13187/es.2015.12.101

Park, S. C., & Ryoo, S. Y. (2013). An empirical investigation of end-users’ switching toward       cloud computing: A two factor theory perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1),          160-170. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.07.032

Son, M., Lu, C., & Kim, M. (2015). Determinants of post-purchase attitude for social commerce users purchasing food service: A two-factor theory perspective. International Information         Institute (Tokyo). Information, 18(1), 149.


Management Challenges

Management Challenges


• Conduct a 30-minute, semi-structured interview with a manager
• Identify common challenges and issues that arise in the workplace
• Evaluate strategies for addressing these challenges
• Integrate your findings with evidence-based literature from journal articles, textbook, and additional scholarly sources.

Sample paper

Management Challenges



  1. What are some of the common problems that you have experienced with employees?
  2. How have you responded to the problems?
  3. What solutions has worked out for your organization and which ones failed?
  4. What is the practicality level of the strategies such as regarding cost and are they short term or long term strategies?

The paper is designed to attempt and identify corporate problems faced by managers in their day to day roles such maintaining positive relationships with employees, evaluating employee performance and credibility and the recruitment of employees. Consequently, several challenges are embedded on such tasks, and it is crucial for cooperation’s and stakeholders to find relevant resolutions to the occurrences. The paper will also examine the efficacy and practicality of the solutions from the perspective of research in organizational psychology.

The interview began with a brief summary of what exactly management entails. The interviewee gave a description of what his role in the organization is, from his perspective, management entails the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently through a channel of other people (Ledlow, 2014). Three crucial management roles dictating the day to day activities include interpersonal role, decisional role, and informational role. Subsequently, challenges are mostly attached in decisional role concerning the firm’s operation. Some of the determining factors that shape the effectiveness of the manager include the size of the organization and the level of the organization. For my specific case study, I am the senior manager at Belt constructions and my main responsibility is to act as a spokesperson for the business. In relation, management concepts can be accessed as similar but diverse regarding culture. The same explains management practices are not the same across the world.

Problems and solutions

As a general manager some of the key challenges that may be perceived simply from an outlook include:

Managing Internal Stakeholders and Politics   

The same is a common challenge for most managers. In this situation, the head leader is faced with the challenge of managing politics, stakeholders and the image of the company. The leader will also be faced with the challenge of gaining the support from the managers and managing up. In this case, managers can try out delegating more; this is because it has worked well for our firm. For the leaders to solve some of the problems intertwined in the same, allocation of work to various employees can empower the employees. The effect of a delegation of will make the workers in the organization more productive (Williams, 2012). Another relevant solution to the same includes organizing for a clear vision and mission of the organization. This mission and vision describe what the organization is determined to achieve. For the organization to attain certain achievement and progress the leaders and the stakeholders must share a common view, and that is the vision and mission of the organization (Anderson, 2013). This vision and mission are to guide all the stakeholders, managers, supervisors and the laborers in the organization as all of them are working to achieve a common goal.

Developing Managerial Effectiveness

The leaders face the challenge of developing relevant skills for the organization’s employees that may help in the prioritization, time management, decision making, strategic thinking, and to be more effective at work. Leadership in the modern organization is not easy; the head manager has the mandate to lead and motivate people with a diversified culture and background. Consequently, this is an overwhelming task hence requires outstanding efforts. Furthermore, the leader needs to work across organization boundaries, improve organizational efficiency and bring growth to the organization. A manager faces some external factors that when not handled carefully can lead to the downfall of the organization (Ackerman & Anderson, 2010). These external factors include the management of government requirements, meeting the expectation of other stakeholders and keeping relevant especially in the midst of competitors. With this globalized environment, leaders are also facing the challenge of many cultural considerations hence finding an adequate balance for all this diversity complicates the probability of the potentiality of the organization. The leader will have to work across various cultural boundaries, and on many occasions, they are to work hand to hand with some people with a totally different culture with the different way of ensuring the completion of the jobs. This is the most difficult challenges that the most managers face and most of them are not always aware that this is a crucial challenge for the organization.

The perspective of I/O psychology

From a general outlook, an individual difference is a concept that should be carefully analyzed by those in managerial position to upgrade the productivity of employees. In relation, research shows that for organizations that cater for cultural diversification amongst its workers, productivity is most likely to be enhanced by 50% as compared to the firms that do not take this into accountability. Though it is a long-term strategy, the effort should be inclined towards streamlining a more culturally mixed cooperation. Just as employees need to prioritize, it is crucial to inculcate a culture that is customer oriented but still goal directed.

For most of the organization challenges to be addressed, the organization needs to focus on the values instead of the methodology. Most of the organization are known to articulate their methodology forgetting about their value. For example, the company may advertise itself as the best producer of a certain commodity. Forgetting that what is needed is to determine the effect of that commodity on the clients. By concentrating on the methodology, the organization only focuses on the quality and quantity of the commodity. This is the determination on increasing the amount of the commodity in the market (McCarthy, & Milner, 2013). The direction that the organization should follow is by giving the client the priority. The organization should be focusing on how to attract more clients to buying the commodity by understanding what value addition does the commodity add to the clients. This will build the confidence of the client in the commodity. Focusing on the value will result in creativity, greater opportunity, and innovation in the organization


Ackerman-Anderson, L. S., & Anderson, D. (2010). The change leader’s roadmap how to navigate your organization’s transformation. San Francisco, CA, Pfeiffer.

Anderson, V. (2013). A Trojan horse? The implications of managerial coaching for leadership theory. Human Resource Development International, 16(3), 251-266.

Gentry, W. A., Eckert, R. H., & Stawiski, S. A. (2014). The Challenges Leaders Face Around the World More Similar than Different. Center for Creative Leadership White Paper. Retrieved January, 6, 2015.

Ledlow, G. R., Coppola, M. N., Birtcher, k., & O’donnell, M. (2014). Leadership for health professionals: theory, skills, and applications.

McCarthy, G., & Milner, J. (2013). Managerial coaching: challenges, opportunities and training. Journal of Management Development, 32(7), 768-779.

Williams, C. (2012). Effective management: a multimedia approach. Mason, OH, South-Western/Cengage Learning.


DSM-5 Disorder Matches

DSM-5 Disorder Matches

  1. Which DSM-5 disorder matches the symptoms Abby is reporting?

General anxiety disorder

  1. Which theoretical model does the homework assigned by Dr. Smith match?

Self-reporting analytical model

  1. If Dr. Smith recommended medications only, which theoretical model would this match?

The Medical Model

  1. If Dr. Smith recommended medications in addition to therapy, which theoretical model would this match?

Integrated medical therapy

  1. If Dr. Smith completed a free association exercise with Abby, which theoretical model would this match?

The theoretical model is psychoanalytic therapy.

  1. If Dr. Smith used unconditional positive regard in the treatment, which theoretical model would this match?

The meta-cognitive theory would apply.

Question 7

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Question 8

Major depressive disorder

Question 9

Bipolar disorder

Question 10

Paranoid personality disorder

Question 11

Severe alcohol use disorder

Question 12


Question 13

Separation anxiety disorder

Question 14

Major neurocognitive disorder

Question 15



Acceptance by patient

Learning and Behavior Models

Learning and Behavior Models

Maura is a 28-year-old female who is visiting a therapist because she is concerned about a repeating pattern of behavior that she has been engaging in during the past 10 years. Maura seems to get involved romantically with partners who have very stable careers but appear to be unable to make a romantic commitment to her. Maura will often date these partners for years. When she asks for a greater commitment, much drama and hurt feelings ensue. She reports that she does not remember much of what happens right after the relationship ends, and shortly after a break up, she finds herself dating someone new. The pattern repeats itself and all of the bad memories from the previous breakups come flooding back.
After reading the case, address the following issues:
Select two of the learning models you have studied thus far and compare/contrast them as you analyze the case of Maura. How does each explain the learning and behavior occurring? Which model do you find explains the behavior most fully and why?
Which model(s) explains why Maura does not remember the negative events until much time has passed?
Focusing on the model you feel best explains the behavior, design a basic modification program to help the client engage in more desirable behavior.
Describe the ethical considerations that should occur when designing your modification plan

Sample paper

Learning and Behavior Models

In most cases, individuals are at the risk of repeating their previous actions or behaviors willingly or unwillingly due to the psychology of habits.  The psychology of habits helps individuals to know the reasons behind their repeated behaviors over time. Psychology comprises of the study of behavior and mind appreciating and embracing all aspects, activities and actions of both the conscious and unconscious part of the human brain. To many therapists and psychologists, psychology is an academic discipline and part of applied science that aids in understanding persons and group of individuals through the establishment of general principles, rules and regulations that comprise of researching specific cases of human behavior. On the other hand, Psychology of habit is part and parcel of the larger and broader field of psychology that helps therapists and psychologists to analyze an individual behavior to establish patterns and trends in their actions, activities and mind. Thus, a habit forms a repeated pattern of behavior that can be conditioned and could be carried out for years. However, the longer a behavior lasts, the stronger the behavior becomes to an individual. This study seeks to provide detailed information about Maura’s case who is a 28- years old female who has a habit of dating and breaking up with partners who have a stable career for over ten years now.

Question 1

A human being can be explained and referred to as a learning being that learns different things and behaviors each and every single day through the surrounding environment, emotions and other people.  With time, psychologists have developed learning models that are used to explain the different methods and ways that an individual can use to learn different survival tactics and behaviors.  Learning models present a conceptual framework that helps in describing a systematic and chronological procedure and process in organizing learning experiences to attain and achieve various learning objectives (Wang, 2011).  Some of the most appropriate learning models that can be applied in Maura’s case include:

  1. Behaviorism
  2. Behaviorist learning theory is an approach adopted by psychologists and is widely based on the propositions that human behavior can be easily researched scientifically without recourse or causing any internal harm to mental states of the subjects. It is considered as one of the pillars of psychological treatment and therapy. Most of the psychologists who have adopted this approach state that free will are an illusion which does not exist in human behavior and as a result, all human behaviors can be associated and attributed to the environment surrounding an individual or an animal either through reinforcement or association. Psychologists believe that observation of an individual behavior is the best and most convenient method of investigating and studying psychological and mental processes of individuals. Behaviorism widely functions and operates on the principle and the rule of stimulus response. Thus every human action, activity, and behavior are not out of free will but rather as a reaction to a stimulus that is associated with the environment. As a result, it is easy to explain all human behaviors without the need of putting into consideration the internal mental states or consciousness. This model was developed by Ivan Pavlov and B. F. Skinner.
  • Operant conditioning

  1. Operant conditioning is a learning model that was developed by B. F. Skinner and is widely based on the paramount concept that all human and animal habits and behaviors that are triggered either by internal or external factor will tend to continue for longer periods of time than expected but behaviors that are constantly punished will definitely come to an end after some times. Operant conditioning is known to attempt to modify and influence behavior through the use of both positive and negative outcome. Thus, animals and individuals are able to associate a certain outcome to a certain behavior which can be taken and referred to as the stimulus. Individuals and animals are thus attracted to engage in behaviors and activities that will result in the positive outcome rather than activities and behaviors resulting in negative effects and outcome. The father of this learning model, skinner, believed that an individual should put more emphasis on the external observable causes of certain human behaviors.  The operant conditioning contains five basic processes that are vital in ensuring that an individual or the subject in that matter learns at the end of the process. These basic steps include: positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, response cost and extinction weaken behavior.

I find behaviorist learning as the most satisfying learning model that explains the conduction and situation at hand. In our case, Maura experiences a repeating pattern of getting involved romantically with individuals who have stable careers but at the end of the day do not make a commitment to her. According to behaviorist learning, free will is an illusion that does not exist and it is evident in this situation. Maura’s behavior of engaging with various partners is widely influenced by the stable career of the partners (Sallis, 2008). Her behavior of engaging from one man to another can be taken as the response to the previous relationships that do not end in her way. Thus, as a way to console her emotions and attempt to succeed in settling in a meaningful relationship, she has to jump from one man to another. Moreover, her behavior can be analyzed through observation even without making mental investigations considering that she has already formed a habit that immediately she breaks-up she finds a new partner without taking some time off. The desire to settle down and succeed triggers her behavior for the past ten years.

Question 2

In our case, the 28 years old Maura does not remember right what happens after each relationship and after sometimes she finds herself dating a new person. Surprisingly, the pattern repeats itself and all the bad memories from the previous breakups come flooding back at a later date. The best learning model to explain this condition and habit is operate conditioning that attempts to modify the behavior of the victim, in this case, Maura through the use of positive and negative reinforcements.  The bad memories that Maura experiences can be categorized as negative reinforces that are typically characterized by the removal of unpleasant results after the desired behavior. In our study, the desired behavior is more or less related to Maura’s behavior of hooking up with stable career partners immediately after breaking up forgetting all the bad memories and all the hurting she had to go through after the breakup.  The goal of the negative reinforcement is to increase the behavior of an individual. In additional, the operant conditioning has both the positive and negative punishments that result from an individual’s behavior. On the contrary, punishment occurs when there is an increase of undesirable events in an attempt to reduce or decrease the behavior that follows. Positive punishments are meant to weaken the response from the subject or an individual while a negative punishment occurs when a favorable event is totally removed after an undesirable behavior occurs.

The bad memories of the past breakups can be regarded as the positive punishment that is meant to weaken the behavior of the victim, in this case, Maura. Maura usually reacts to breakups through engaging in another relationship that usually do not end as per expectations and to console herself she immediately gets into another relationship. However, the bad memories occur at the end of every breakup in an attempt to reduce her behavior of getting involved in another relationship without taking some time to think about the repercussions of her behavior (Niggemann, 2012). Thus, it is correct to categories the occurrence of the bad memories far much later as a positive punishment that attempts to curb and reduce Maura’s behavior of getting into relationships.

 Question 3

Behavior modification process is one of the complex processes that can ever be created and developed by therapists and psychologists in the attempt to help victims to change their behaviors for better. For an individual to successfully develop an appropriate behavior modification program, he needs to start by describing the target behavior where he looks for patterns in the behavior by finding answers to questions such as where does the behavior occur and when the behavior occurs? Moreover, the individual needs to avoid mistakes such as confusing motivation and behavior when describing the behavior,  measure the behavior to get the precise data and finally, he needs to identify a baseline for the behavior. The paramount principle of behavior modification comprises of changing of the environmental events that are related to an individual’s behavior.

As a result, developing a basic modification program for Maura, a therapist needs to describe the target behavior which is constantly getting into a relationship with career stable partners who fails to commit to her. The therapist needs to identify where the engagement or rather the relationship occurs, in the workplace, in church or at home. Moreover, he needs to identify the intense of behavior and the frequency of the behavior (Sallis, 2008). Thus, the primary modification factor comprises of include reinforcing the desired behavior while at the same time ignoring the undesired results. Below is Maura’s behavior shaping process:


  1. Maura will Change her workplace.
  2. Maura will change her residential location.
  • Maura will change her work schedule to ensure that she is busy most of the times.
  1. Maura will try to change her inner friends who support her behavior.
  2. Maura will be seeing a therapist once a week for help.

As Maura masters each and every step, she should move to the next step of deciding to change by committing to the program and the process. For the modification to provide positive results, all significant parties need to put their efforts together, have particular and clear behavioral goals as well as have consideration of the total context of the behavior.

Question 4

Most of the human activities are widely influenced and guided by ethics. In most cases, ethics helps in giving reasons for acting in a particular manner or refraining an individual from acting the way they do, for approving or not approving various codes of conducts. Ethical issues and considerations are applicable to both individuals and groups in the society. Considering that a human being is a social being, activities of an individual can affect another person or the society at large and as a result, ethics are paramount in ensuring that individuals behave in a professional and acceptable manner.  Some of the most important ethical issues that would result in Maura’s modification plans include:

  1. Privacy – confidentiality of the information provided by the patient in this case Maura to her therapist is paramount. Maura has total belief and confidence in her therapist and as a result, the therapist should not disclose the patient information to other patients or another therapist of which is a basic requirement for all medical practitioners.
  2. Operant conditioning – operant conditioning g is one of the current trends in ethical considerations in behavior modification that is solely aimed at changing the behavior of individuals. Conditioning the patient to certain changes should be carefully evaluated to ensure that the conditioning does not have negative implications on the victims’ life and those around them(Niggemann, 2012). Personal life and other behaviors should not be affected by the operant conditioning.


In conclusion, after a detailed research, we can say that understanding an individual behavior right from the root causes is paramount in ensuring that there is a positive change.  Additionally, seeking psychological help can aid a victim from leaving his behavior for better and ensuring that there is a change in behavior. By following the above-created modification process Maura can change her behavior.


Niggemann, O. S. (2012). Learning Behavior Models for Hybrid Timed Systems. . In AAAI (Vol. 2, pp. 1083-1090).

Sallis, J. F. (2008). Ecological models of health behavior. . Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice, 4,, 465-486.

Wang, Y. Z. (2011). Combining building and behavior models for evacuation planning. . IEEE computer graphics and applications, 31(3),, 42-55.

Personality and Culture

Racial Bias and Law Enforcement

Slide 2

My career field is law enforcement. Law enforcement primarily involves deterring crime, arresting offenders, rehabilitation, and prescribing punishments for those who break the laws of the country. Law enforcement involves equal and unbiased application of laws to all individuals irrespective of their rank or ethnic background. Law enforcement officers too are expected to abide by the laws provided by the Constitution as well as department rules and obligations. In the recent past, cases of ethnic profiling involving law enforcement officers has been on the increase. Majority of these cases involve the fatal shootings of unarmed black men, sparking protests against law enforcement officers. The incidences has also increased racial tension in the U.S., and threated to destroy the cordial relationship between law enforcement officers and the black community.

Slide 3

The article selected explores the concept of racial bias and law enforcement with regard to the recent killings of unarmed black men in the U.S. The article examines the generalized racial bias that exists among various groups in the U.S. and the particular attributes that relate to law enforcement. The article looks at the common forms of negative stereotyping that relate to Black Men.

Slide 4

In 2014, a number of Black civilian deaths were witnessed at the hands of law enforcement officers. Hall, Erika & Perry (2016) examines the root causes of the killings by law enforcement officers. The three also describe how the nature of law enforcement may attract individuals with unique characteristics that increase their susceptibility to develop prejudicial thoughts towards Black males. The article utilizes media reports to gather evidence on the clash between law enforcement officers and Black males. The article utilizes empirical research drawn from industrial, social, and organizational psychology.

Slide 5

Two critical and distinct factors come into play in matters involving ethnically motivated police killings. These include racial bias (which includes stereotyping processes) and the core characteristics of law enforcement officers such as social dominance (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). The article examines each of the factors in its entirety in order to establish the motives behind police killings of Black men. By analyzing the factors that motivate police killings, the article hopes to provide solutions that can help reduce police killings of unarmed African American civilians.

Slide 6

The research relates to the field of law enforcement in a variety of ways. First, the research explores the concept of negative stereotyping, which impacts majority of the law enforcement officers (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). The research explores the various negative stereotypes towards Black males that exist in the larger society. Negative stereotyping is one of the major forces contributing excessive use of force by law enforcement officers against the Blacks. The research then identifies the various mechanisms under which negative stereotyping interact  with specific aspects of law enforcement and lead to excessive use of force by law enforcement officers. The research makes recommendations that can help improve police-civilian relationships and law enforcement in general.

Slide 7

The research explores the nature of racial bias in society, noting the two distinct ways in which it occurs. These include: implicit bias and explicit bias. Implicit bias is when the perpetrator lacks self awareness of his/her own biases. On the other hand, explicit bias occurs when the perpetrator can introspectively recognize own biases towards others (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). Explicit bias may arise due to direct perceived threats in the environment. Implicit bias occurs below the conscious levels of individuals. Those who exhibit implicit bias have no intentional control over their biases. The manifestation of implicit biases depends on the environment as well as the perceiver’s motives (Blair, 2002). Law enforcement officers exhibit these type of biases. Implicit bias may develop out of personal experiences. Social learning experiences also play a critical role in development of implicit bias among individuals.

Slide 8

The research identifies the common type of biases in law enforcement. The three include Black youth having adult-like features, the notion of Blacks as being both subhuman and superhuman, and the notion that Blacks are inherently violent (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). A number of studies indicate that Black youths are perceived as relatively older compared to their real age. This notion leads to excessive use of force, whereby police officers employ more force like they would in case of an adult. This means that law enforcement officers should be keen not to make wrong judgments about the age of Black suspects. In the past, shootings of minors have occurred where police thought they were older.  The second type of bias involves dehumanizing Blacks. Historically, Blacks have experienced dehumanizing treatment in the U.S., dating back to slavery period. On the other hand, some individuals hold the notion that Blacks have a higher pain threshold compared to whites (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). Lastly, the research explores the negative stereotype that Blacks are violent and criminal in nature.

Slide 9

The research is of great importance to law enforcement agencies. First, the research identifies the various factors contributing to racial bias and the various types of negative stereotypes that develop. It is important for law enforcement officers to identify the negative stereotypes they hold against particular communities. This can assist in developing mechanisms that can be applied by law enforcement officers to deal with the negative stereotypes. By learning about the factors contributing towards racial bias, law enforcement agencies can be able to develop specific training or educational programs to address the factors. This can lead to a decline in incidences of ethnically motivated police shootings (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016).

Slide 10

The research examines the nature of law enforcement by analyzing characteristics of law enforcement officers and how these characteristics impact their judgment. For instance, majority of police officers are individuals who appreciate order in the society, are keen on socialization, and uphold social hierarchy. Law enforcement officers have exhibit unique strong bonds that hold them together. For instance, law enforcement officers are more likely to hold demonstrations in unanimity for an injustice experienced by one of their own. This leads to the development of the “us vs. them” mentality among law enforcement officers (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). Law enforcement officers hold similar values such as solidarity, honor, duty, and power. With regard to power, this means that law enforcement officers are likely to act in particular ways to enforce the concept of power in situations they perceive threats from civilians, whom they may associate with holding more power over them due to possession of items such as guns.

Slide 11

The information provides various solutions that law enforcement agencies can implement to reduce cases of ethnically motivated shootings. The article highlights the need for urgent police reforms as one of the solutions to the unfolding situation. The article notes that since racial bias is not restricted to law enforcement agencies, there is need for change even among community members (Hall, Erika, & Perry, 2016). In line with this, there should be efforts to address racial bias among children. This is because children are highly likely to internalize the negative stereotypes they learn from their parents and other individuals they interact with on a daily basis.

Personality and Culture

Social Anxiety -PSY MOD 8 homework


Social Anxiety

A client goes to a psychotherapist seeking help for incapacitating social anxiety.  Describe what the therapeutic approach might be like if the therapist is a:

  • psychoanalyst
  • behavior therapist
  • Gestalt therapist
  • cognitive therapist



Approach by a psychoanalyst

A psychoanalyst will most probably rely on the psychodynamic model when dealing with an incapacitating social anxiety problem. Psychoanalysts view social anxiety as a disorder that emerges during childhood. As such, they relate social anxiety to early childhood experiences which have a perverse and profound impact on the behavior of individuals in later years. The psychodynamic model establishes four key sources of social anxiety among individuals. These include: expectation of shame or humiliation that results from harsh or critical parents, conflict between goal attainment and fear or success, conflict between need for gaining independence from parents and the fear of rejection by the parents, and fear resulting from need to make perfect impression (Leichsenring et al., 2013).

The main goal of a psychoanalyst is to uncover potential conflicts and childhood experiences that lead to social anxiety (Leichsenring et al., 2013). Psychoanalysis is well suited to individuals having underlying issues that result to social anxiety. The classical psychoanalytic theory focuses on treatment of mental problems by identifying repressed unconscious desires resulting from early childhood experiences. Treatment focuses on helping individuals identify causes of their anxiety. Individuals are encouraged to talk freely about any issues they may have and to overpower internal conflicts. As individuals understand themselves better, their level of anxiety or fear diminishes.

Therapeutic approach by behavior therapist

Behavior therapists hold the view that social anxiety arises due to faulty thinking patterns among individuals (Hope, Heimberg, & Turk, 2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy as a science emerged in the 1980s and became more popular in the 1990s with the publication of numerous researches on anxiety disorders. Over the years, the main goal of behavior therapists has remained the same – to establish irrational beliefs and thinking patterns and to replace them with realistic ones among individuals with social anxiety disorder. The relationship between a behavior therapist and the patient is more like one between teachers and students. The behavior therapist aims at teaching new methods or changing patterns of thought among patients.

Related: Biological Foundations of Behavior

Behavior therapists examines the behavior of individuals in particular situations. They may also examine the cognitive aspects related to social anxiety such as negative thoughts and emotions. Behavioral therapists posits that thoughts mainly influence individual’s emotions rather than external events (Hope, Heimberg, & Turk, 2010). During treatment, behavior therapists group together individuals suffering from social anxiety. They are then exposed to practical activities that may cause mild anxiety. The behavior therapist then works to help individuals reduce the degree of anxiety felt from these situations through repetition. The behavior therapist can introduce a series of situations that cause anxiety. Participants increase their confidence regarding their personal capabilities and thus reduce social anxiety.

Therapeutic approach by gestalt therapist

A gestalt therapist is guided by the assertions of the gestalt school of thought which emerged in the later 1940s. Gestalt school of thought is hinged on the premise of relational theory principle that takes individuals as whole in terms of their body, mind and soul (Nevis, 2014). In addition, the principle asserts that individuals can best be understood as per their current situation and as they experience it. A gestalt therapist aims at establishing self-awareness and non-judgmental tendencies among individuals suffering from social anxiety. In this way, an individual is able to acquire a new perspective on life.

Gestalt therapists focuses on an individual as a whole in terms of body, mind, and spirit and the present state of events (Nevis, 2014). It not only focuses on self-awareness but also on the present events in the life of an individual as they happen from one moment to another. The approach in gestalt therapy asserts that self-awareness may at times become clouded by negative thought patterns leading to feelings of dissatisfaction and sadness. A gestalt therapist focuses on what an individual feels in the present, and anything else that which can be observed. In gestalt therapy, feelings and perceptions are critical in interpreting existing attitudes.

Related: Personality Characteristics and Criminal Behavior

Therapeutic approach by a cognitive therapist

Cognitive therapy revolves around the thinking processes.  A cognitive therapist concentrates on teaching new methods that leads to behavior change. Cognitive therapists believe that individuals suffering from social anxiety can train or condition their minds to respond in a different and rational manner than in the past (Hope, Heimberg, & Turk, 2010). Cognitive therapists believe that the human mind can be reconditioned to think in a rational manner and thus reducing social anxiety. Cognitive therapists may use a variety of methods in treating social anxiety such as teaching patients to relax, acceptance paradox, focusing techniques and how to curtail negative thoughts. Some techniques such as focusing enable individuals to develop a rational view of things.

Cognitive therapy largely involves learning new skills or new ways of coping with stressful events (Hope, Heimberg, & Turk, 2010). Cognitive therapists teach individuals suffering from social anxiety skills to cope with it. The person being taught must practice the skills taught at home. Through repetition, learning occurs as the learned skill becomes a habitual or automatic thing. Cognitive therapy is similar to school learning where new information is taught to students who then internalize it through repetition or practicing the skills learned.


Hope, D. A., Heimberg, R. G., & Turk, C. L. (2010). Managing social anxiety: A cognitive-          behavioral therapy approach: therapist guide. New York: Oxford University Press.

Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Beutel, M. E., Herpertz, S., Hiller, W., & Hoyer, J. et al.             (2013). Psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety            disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry,   170(7):759–767. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12081125.

Nevis, E. C. (2014). Gestalt Therapy: Perspectives and Applications. CRC Press.nd citations.

Personality and Culture

PSY MOD 6 Check understanding


Directions: Read the prompts below and write your answer.  The response to each question should be at least two paragraphs in length.  Each paragraph must be five to seven sentences in length.

  1. Define motivation and emotion.
  2. Explain the biological and psychological aspects of both motivation and emotion.
  3. What are the levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
  4. Define sex, gender, sexual motivation, and sexual orientation.
  5. What are examples of external and internal (social and biological) factors that affect gender identity and sexual orientation?
  6. Describe Solomon’s opponent-process theory of motivation and analyze his explanation of craving diverse things, such as parachute jumping, drugs, and dysfunctional lovers.
  7. Identify and summarize the principles behind the different personality theories.
  8. How are personality types and disorders assessed?
  9. What ethical issues are involved when considering theories of personality?


Directions: Read the prompts below and write your answer.  The response to each question should be at least two paragraphs in length.  Each paragraph must be five to seven sentences in length.

  1. Question 1

Motivation can be defined as internal and external forces that direct behavior in individuals. Motivation can also be defined as the driving forces that stimulate desires and needs among individuals and causes them to take action. Various motivation factors among individuals help in activating, directing and sustaining goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is characterized by three key components which include activation of behavior, persistence towards achieving a particular goal, and intensity in pursuing a goal. Motivation can either be intrinsic or extrinsic in nature.

On the other hand, emotion can be defined as a complex psychological state that arises from a subjective experience that leads to a physiological response and expressive response. Emotions arise from physical and psychological aspects that impact behavior of individuals. Emotions are complex and linked to behaviors expressed by individuals. Emotion is closely connected with personality, mood, disposition, motivation and temperament of an individual. Various components are associated with emotions such as instrumental behavior, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, and subjective experience.

Question 2

Part of motivated behavior can be directly linked to biological instincts. These biological instincts include love, fear, cleanliness, and among others that are important to organisms. Another biological aspect of motivated behavior can be found in drives and needs. All organisms have basic biological drives such as hunger, thirst, need for sleep, sex, and others. The psychological aspects of motivation involve the influence of thoughts on behavior. For instance, the smell of food may induce thoughts that drive behavior to seek food even though one was never hungry.

Emotion is partly biological in nature. The experience of emotion occurs following the activation of the autonomic nervous system and the brain. The autonomic nervous system include regulation of the heart, body muscles and lungs or breathing rate. The endocrine system activates glands to release various hormones depending on the state of emotions. On the other hand, some emotional responses are psychological in nature. For instance, an event may elicit a particular emotion on an individual which is psychological in nature.

Related: Intelligent Types

Question 3

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs contains five levels of needs which explain innate human desires and wants. These are the physiological needs level, safety needs, love/belonging, esteem needs and self-actualization at the top of the hierarchy. Physiological needs are the basic human needs for survival purposes. Example includes food, shelter, clothing, and sex. These must be fulfilled first. Safety needs are in the second level. Safety needs include personal security, health, financial security, and safety against other adverse impacts.

After safety needs are fulfilled, individuals seek love or belongingness. This includes the need for friendship, intimacy and family. Human beings need to feel accepted among social groups. Human beings also express esteem needs. This is the need to be respected and to have self-respect. Often, people engage in hobbies or professions for recognition. The last level is self-actualization which is realized when a person realizes his full potential. It is important to note that the fulfillment of these needs may at times overlap one another.

Question 4

Sex can be defined as the biological difference of being either male or female. These differences may be chromosomal, nature of sex organs, or hormonal profiles. Sex is thus described the same in all cultures. On the other hand, gender refers to the social roles societies ascribe to particular individuals based on their sex. Gender can also be seen as the social constructs or activities that societies deem appropriate for men and women. Thus, gender differs across various communities.

Sexual motivation is also known as sex drive. Sexual motivation is defined as the desire to gratify sexual needs by engaging in sexual activity or other activities such as sublimation. Sexual motivation represents the need for human beings to seek pleasure. Sexual orientation is used to describe patterns of sexual attraction among individuals. Sexual orientation describe an individual’s sexual identity with respect to the type of persons they are attracted to, which may lead various relationships such as homosexuality and heterosexuality.

Question 5

A number of internal factors affect gender identity. Internal factors such as genes and hormones have a profound impact on gender identity. Genetic variables play a crucial role in determining gender identity among individuals. External factors also influence gender identity. These include influence of the mass media, influential people in a person’s life, and family structure. Social-learning theory asserts that children learn about gender identity through observation. Children observe and learn the behavior of others in the society.

Sexual orientation is also affected by internal and external factors. Researchers agree that nature and nurture have an important role to play development of sexual orientation. External factors such as the mass media, culture, family values, and role models play a critical role in determining the sexual orientation of an individual. Genetic factors have also been identified as important in influencing sexual orientation of individuals. Some studies suggest that brain structure varies among individuals and hence determines sexual orientation.

Related: Classical and Operant Conditioning

Question 6

Solomon’s opponent-process theory of motivation postulates that human beings experience pairs of emotions that always act to counter each other, for instance, fear and relief, happiness and sadness, pleasure and pain, and among other pairs. When an individual experiences one of the emotions, the opposite component is temporarily suppressed. This theory can explain a number of things. For example drug users experience pleasure when high which suppresses withdrawal effects which may be associated with pain.

Parachute jumping can also be used to explain the theory. A study conducted by Solomon indicated that beginners were more fearful, and experienced less pleasure on landing. However as they kept up the practice, they became less fearful and reported more pleasure on landing. In a dysfunctional relationship, individuals often experience dissatisfaction. During reconciliation, the couple experiences stronger bonds than usual and renewed closeness.

Question 7

There are different principles which underpin personality theories. One of the modern personality theory is Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. This theory is based on the principle of the unconscious thoughts. Freud believed that behaviors are shaped by unconscious thoughts or ideas in individuals. Behaviorist theories of personality are based on the principle of external stimuli and its effects on behavior of individuals.

The trait theory is based on the principle that traits are relatively stable and continuous among individuals. Another important principle is that major traits have a genetic basis among individuals. Trait theory is also based on the principle of interactionism which assumes that traits may be controlled by situational factors. Social cognitive theories of personality development are based on the principles of cognitions individuals harbor about the world.

Question 8

Personality types and disorders are assessed by conducting skilled clinical interviews. While conducting the interview, it is important to be well acquainted in DSM-IV criteria. The DSM-IV criteria takes personality disorders as separate or discrete categories. The criteria assumes that there exists distinct boundaries between abnormal and normal personalities among individuals. Five or six criteria are used to determine whether individuals’ personality types or whether they have personality disorders. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is commonly used to analyze personality type into over 16 distinct personalities.

In the first criterion, the behavior of an individual is compared to the cultural expectations. If the behavior significantly deviates from particular areas such as cognition, affectability, or impulse control, then this may be an indicator of personality disorder. The second criterion involves analyzing the enduring pattern of behavior across social and personal situations. Other criterion analyzes important areas of functioning such as occupation or social life of an individual, and the source of the enduring pattern.

Question 9

A number of ethical issues arise when considering theories of personality. First, theories of personality involve human subjects in experiments. This is different from other experiments since it involves humans. Ethical issues involved include social concerns, legal concerns, personal concerns and the overall benefit of considering the theories. Social concerns involve the negative labels attached on individuals with particular personality traits. Individuals identified as having personality disorders are often treated unfairly. Also, the individuals being labeled can engaged in a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Personal concerns also emerge when considering theories of personality. Individuals may unwillingly be forced to reveal private information which is an invasion of their privacy. Also, distribution of test results may be harmful to individuals who participated in investigations. Legal concerns also emerge in this area. Legal concerns may come in play when researchers unfairly test a specific group of the population leading to discrimination of the group in the society. Lastly, the benefits of knowing more about the personality disorder should outweigh the costs of research, and the apparent risks associated with conducting the research on subjects.

issues are involved when considering theories of personality?

Personality and Culture


Personality and Culture


Personality and Culture

Review the section on personality and culture in the text.  How does culture affect personality?  Why it is important to consider culture before drawing conclusions about one’s personality?  What ethical issues are present when conceptualizing personality in terms of culture?  Be sure to specifically cite concepts and facts from Chapter 12, including references to specific cultures.


Personality and Culture

Personality can be defined as the entire set of behaviors that characterize an individual, whether learnt or not (Lahey, 2012). Culture has a significant effect on the personality of individuals. Personality is shaped by biological as well as environmental factors. Culture is one of the key environmental factors that determine personality of individuals.

How culture affects personality

The patterns of various cultures shape the personality of individuals (Lahey, 2012). Since man lives within cultural confines, it is inevitable that his attitudes, thinking, ideas, values and beliefs are influenced by culture. As individuals gain cultural competence through enculturation so does their personality gets shaped. Enculturation may occur consciously among individuals or in sublime levels making it hardly noticeable especially among children. Since the cultural content varies across different societies, personality also vary across different societies. Personality development in the cultural context is hedged on a number of factors. First, the social structure in which an individual is brought up infuses certain norms, taboos, values, beliefs, and ideas which affect one’s behavior. Second, subcultures also affect the personality of individuals in certain ways. Third, the occupations that individuals join significantly modifies their personality. Lastly, all cultures hold particular values that are distinct from the res (Dash, 2004).

Why is it important to consider culture before drawing conclusions about one’s personality?

It is important to consider the culture of an individual before drawing conclusions on personality. This is because the culture can help shed light about the personality or character of an individual. As earlier mentioned, culture plays a great role in shaping the personality of individuals. According to Terracciano & McCrae (2006), national character stereotypes tend to be true and often reflect the personality of individuals in such countries. Thus, researchers can partly obtain a true picture about the personality of individuals just by studying the overall culture in the community. The national culture of a particular country greatly reveals the personality of individuals in the community. This is because members of a particular culture share the same beliefs, norms, values, and ideas. A cultural perspective enables researchers to compare personality traits across different cultures and hence learn more. Cultures determine not only speech but also key behavioral characteristics among members such as individualism and collectivism. Thus in studying cultures, researchers would be able to understand more about the personality of various community members (Lahey, 2012).

Ethical issues present when conceptualizing personality in terms of culture

Ethical issues manifest when conceptualizing personality in terms of culture. One of the issues is stereotyping of particular cultures. Stereotypes are not scientific and on most occasions lead to development of negative attitudes towards particular communities. Stereotypes may at times reflect the myths held by people. Stereotypes resulting from conceptualization of personalities can at times be used as racial slurs. Combined with other factors such as historical factors, this may lead to racism, wars and even genocide. Although there exist significant group differences among cultures, such differences should never be ranked hierarchically as this can contribute to racial discrimination and hatred. As such personalities in different cultures should only be learned and appreciated as part of crucial diversity (Erchak, 1992). When conducting a study on personality across different cultures, it is imperative to ensure that respect is accorded to their unique language, values, beliefs and political status of the communities.


Dash, K. N. (2004). Invitation to social and cultural anthropology. New Delhi: Atlantic   Publishers.

Erchak, G. M. (1992). The anthropology of self and behavior. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers        University Press.

Lahey, B. (2012).  Psychology: An introduction (11th ed.).  New York, New York: McGraw-Hill             Higher Education.

Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2006). Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their   Relevance to Psychiatry. Epidemiologia E Psichiatria Sociale,15(3), 176–184.


Intelligence Types-PSY 140 module 5 homework


PSY 140, module 5 homework Intelligence Types

List and describe the seven types of intelligence according to Gardner and evaluate yourself on each of them.  Where do you find personal strengths and weaknesses?  For each of his intelligence types, discuss whether you believe it to be a valid measure of intelligence.  Please access the LIRN Library to perform your research.  At least two of the articles you select must be from peer-reviewed journals; you may have other references, as well.  Include at least two scholarly references, in addition to the textbook.


Intelligent Types


The study is directed towards analyzing multiple intelligence theory. According to Sternberg, R. J. (2015), there are different types of intelligence and each is biased towards a certain group but through practice an individual can advance the residual types of intelligence. There are seven types of intelligence as identified by psychologist Howard Gardner of Harvard (Armstrong, T. 2014). The theory is as a result of modern intellectual research and the degree to which students possess diverse kind of minds to learn, remember, perform and understand in diverse ways. It involves the use of language, spatial representation, logical-arithmetic analysis, musical thinking, and the use of the body to solve challenges (Ekinci, B. 2014).

Learning Style

Visual-Spatial – It involves reasoning in terms of physical space like sailors and architect do as they are fully aware of the environments (Furnham, A. 2014). They like to do jigsaw puzzles, draw, daydream and read maps. The skills can be taught through verbal, drawings and physical imagery. The tools included are graphics, photographs, charts, drawings, video, 3-D modeling, multimedia, televisions, texts with graphs, and video conferencing. My intelligence in this learning style is below average. I find it difficult to interpret graphics and drawings (Sternberg, R. J. 2015).

Body-kinesthetic – It involves the use of the body effectively. Such people who possess this kind of intelligence include dancer and a surgeon. They have an intense sense of body cognizance. They like touching, making things and movement (Shahzada, G., et al. 2014). They communicate well through body language and can be taught through physical activity, role playing, hands-on learning, and acting out (Furnham, A. 2014). The tools included in this type of intelligence include real objects. I am average in this kind of intelligence as I can be able to dance though not perfectly (Armstrong, T. 2014).

Musical they show compassion to rhythm and sound. They adore music but they are also sensitive to sounds in their specific environments. They can study well with music playing in the background. In this type of people, teaching can be well implemented by turning lessons into lyrics, tapping out time and speaking rhythmically. The tools involved include the radio stereo, musical instruments, multimedia and CD-ROM (Ekinci, B. 2014). I consider my intelligence in this as slightly below average. I do not get a lot of concepts when the music is playing and I am forced to shut the radio stereo down to get a better understanding.

Interpersonal the kind of people who possess this kind of intelligence understand by interacting with other people. The students learn through interaction. They have many friends and they have empathy for other people. According to Furnham, A. (2014), they are street smart. Interpersonal intelligent people can be taught through dialogues, seminars, and group activities. The tools involved in the study include audio conferencing, video conferencing, telephone, time and attention from the instructor, writing, E-mail, and computer conferencing (Sternberg, R. J. 2015). I am excellent in this type of intelligence. I can be able to interact well with people through seminars and dialogues. I learn a lot through interaction with other people.

Intrapersonal – They comprehend one’s interests and goals (Shahzada, G., et al. 2014). The students tend to shy away from others. They have intuition, wisdom, motivation and are in tune with the innermost feelings. Also, they have confidence and strong will when giving out their opinion. They can learn well through self-examination and independent study (Sternberg, R. J. 2015). The tools involved in the study include privacy, time, books, creative materials, and diaries. It is not my character to shy away from others but sometimes I admire privacy. So I think I am average in intrapersonal style.

Linguistic – They use words effectually and effectively. The learners have highly developed auditory skills and they often think in words. They adore reading, making stories and poetry, and playing word games. They can learn through encouraging them to read books, and say and see words (Armstrong, T. 2014). The tools include tape recorder, computer, games, books, and lecture. I am poor in linguistic as I may read a poem even thrice without being able to interpret it.

Logical-Mathematical – it involves reasoning and calculations. They think abstractly, conceptually, and they are able to explore patterns and relationships (Sternberg, R. J. 2015). They are fond of solving puzzles, experiment, and ask cosmic questions. They learn through logic games, mysteries and investigations (Ekinci, B. 2014). They need to learn and formulate concepts before they can deal with details. I am good in arithmetic. I can be able to analyze patterns and relationships with ease.

In conclusion, the paper has explored the seven diverse types of intelligence according to Gardner. It has argued that there are different learning styles and it is advantageous for a learner to focus on the learning style that suites them. I find my personal strength in interpersonal skills and my weakness in linguistics. However, given time and practice I can be able to improve on my areas of weakness and further capitalize on my strength.


Armstrong, T. (2014). You’re smarter than you think: A kid’s guide to multiple intelligences. Free Spirit Publishing.

Ekinci, B. (2014). The relationships among Sternberg’s Triarchic Abilities, Gardner’s multiple intelligences, and academic achievement. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 42(4), 625-633.

Furnham, A. (2014). Increasing your intelligence: Entity and incremental beliefs about the multiple “intelligences”. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 163-167.

Shahzada, G., Khan, U. A., Noor, A., & Rahman, S. (2014). Self-Estimated Multiple Intelligences of Urban & Rural Students. Journal of Research Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 8(2), 116-124.

Sternberg, R. J. (2015). Multiple intelligences in the new age of thinking. In Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 229-241). Springer New York.

Classical and Operant Conditioning-PSY 140


Classical and Operant Conditioning

This activity gives you the opportunity to try both classical and operant conditioning for yourself.  You are to create two separate, fictional scenarios.  One will demonstrate classical conditioning, and the other will demonstrate operant conditioning.

Your written response should be 2 to 3 pages in length (excluding title and references pages).  The paper should use APA formatting and include a title and reference page, even if the only resource used was the course textbook.  Please visit the Academic Resource Center for helpful guidelines on APA style and citations.  Be sure to address all five elements below.

  1. Unconditioned stimulus (for classical conditioning scenario)
  2. Unconditioned response (for classical conditioning scenario)
  3. Conditioned stimulus or conditioned response (for classical conditioning scenario)
  4. Positive or negative reinforcement (for operant conditioning scenario)
  5. Which of these approaches to learning do you think is most applicable to your personal and professional life?


Classical and Operant Conditioning

Classical conditioning occurs when an innate response is elicited by a previously neutral stimulus (Coon, Mitterer, Talbot, & Vanchella, 2010). This occurs when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the potent stimulus. The following scenario will demonstrate classical conditioning. Jane is suffering from breast cancer and is currently on treatment. She started receiving chemotherapy treatment which unfortunately causes her bouts of nausea. After several chemotherapy sessions, Jane observed that she begun to experience nausea on arriving at the chemotherapy treatment unit, even if she hadn’t undergone the chemotherapy treatment.

From the above scenario, chemotherapy is the unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus can naturally elicit an involuntary unconditioned response even before conditioning occurs. From the scenario, chemotherapy naturally induces bouts of nausea without the need for any conditioning. The chemotherapy treatment unit is the conditioned stimulus. A conditioned stimulus refers to a previously neutral stimulus that is often paired with unconditioned stimulus to elicit a response. From the scenario, the presence of chemotherapy treatment unit was paired repeatedly with chemotherapy treatment unit until arriving at the unit elicited the same response as chemotherapy treatment does. Nausea that results from arriving at the chemotherapy unit at the hospital is the conditioned response. Just like an unconditioned response, this is an involuntary response. Since it is caused by a conditioned stimulus (chemotherapy treatment unit), it becomes the conditioned response.

Related: Biological Foundations of Behavior

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning is also known as instrumental learning. The fundamental concept of operant conditioning is that reinforcement enhances required behavior (Coon, Mitterer, Talbot, & Vanchella, 2010). Reinforced behaviors are likely to persist, while negative reinforcements may lead to diminishing of a particular behavior. In operant conditioning, a response is first elicited and then undergo reinforcement. In classical conditioning, a stimulus is the first to occur and then a response initiated.  The following scenario will demonstrate operant conditioning. Rose is the manager of busy restaurant. The employees in the restaurant work in shifts. Rose holds weekly meetings with each of the employees where various issues are discussed. She takes an opportunity to motivate the employees by giving words of praise to those who did their work perfectly. Employees who report on time and perform well are appreciated while those who arrive late are forced to do extra chores such as cleaning the garage area for a period of time.

From the above scenario, positive reinforcement is the use of words of praise or appreciating employees who turn up early during their shift. Positive reinforcement involves giving rewards or pleasant things after a desired behavior is exhibited. Positive reinforcement increases the likelihood of a desired behavior reoccurring. Appreciating employees or giving words of praise is one way of reinforcing positive behavior among them. On the other hand, negative reinforcement involves removal of an unpleasant stimulus after a desired behavior is exhibited. From the scenario, the withdrawal of extra chores represent negative reinforcement. Those who arrive early are not required to do extra chores. This is negative reinforcement.

The most applicable approach to my professional life is operant conditioning. As earlier mentioned, operant conditioning is based on behavior reinforcement. In organizations, the management is tasked with reinforcing desired behaviors among employees. This may either be through giving words of praise, giving a pay rise, awarding bonuses, giving promotions, and other reinforcements. All this constitutes operant conditioning.


Coon, D., Mitterer, J. O., Talbot, S., & Vanchella, C. M. (2010). Introduction to psychology:        Gateways to mind and behavior. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Biological Foundations of Behavior-PSY 140