Category Archives: Soc 308

Between Orientalism and Fundamentalism: Women in Islam

Between Orientalism and Fundamentalism: Women in Islam

The article titled “Between orientalism and fundamentalism:….” provides critical insights into Muslim women feminism. The article asserts that Muslim feminists and activists encounter difficulties due to hardline views from Western society that regards them as oppressed, backward, and in need of liberation (Zine, 2006). A key point to note is that since September 11 attacks, the Muslim community has been on the spotlight as autocratic and lacking the ascriptions of modern states. The major points of contention revolve around divergent political, religious, social, and economic ideologies between Muslims and the Western society. The article highlights interesting points to note concerning the United States’ war on terror, and the Muslim jihad pitting the “infidel” Western world. Both wars are motivated partially by deep religious ideologies – the West justifies its incursions on the need for justice, while to the Muslims is a war against the “infidels”, or those who do not acknowledge Allah.

The article by Chishti (n.d) examines the challenges that Muslim women face on day-to-day basis and especially in their interaction with individuals from Western societies. Specifically, the author, a veiled Muslim highlights the challenges that Muslim women face at the international women’s movement, where surprisingly, Muslim women ought to feel welcome and at “home”. Chishti (n.d) asserts that Muslim feminists from third world nations are shunned from making a mark to the global feminist advocacy. She argues that even the current international forums still shun minority women. Like other veiled Muslim women, Chishti (n.d) discounts the all too common perception of an oppressed, backward, and uncultured Muslim woman. Wagner, Sen, Permanadeli, & Howarth, (2012), who asserts that the Muslim woman has enormous challenges to confront, notably racial discrimination, Islamophobia, and the patriarchal nature of society, echo Chishti’s views.

Related

Refugees and Risk of Mental Illness & Suicide Rates

References

Chishti, M. (n.d). The international women’s movement and the politics of participation for          Muslim women. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 19(4): 81-86.

Wagner, W., Sen, R., Permanadeli, R., & Howarth, C. S. (2012). The veil and Muslim women’s  identity: cultural pressures and resistance to stereotyping. Culture & Psychology, 18(4):      521-541.

Zine, J. (2006). Between orientalism and fundamentalism: the politics of Muslim women’s           feminist engagement. Muslim World Journal of Human Rights, 3(1): 1-24.

ethnic stratification and conflict

Ethnic Stratification and Conflict in South Africa

Ethnic Stratification and Conflict

Name

Institutional Affiliation

South Africa

Description of the Country

South Africa is a country found in the southernmost part of Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. It is the largest country in Southern Africa with an estimated population of about 56 million people. The country gained autonomy from the British Empire in 1961 after decades of British rule and influence. Between 1948 and 1994, the country experienced the highest levels of ethnic stratification. This was the apartheid era, a distinct characteristic being the adoption of the white minority rule in the country. During the apartheid era, institutionalized segregation of the people into three racial groups became the order of the day. The whites became the dominant group, controlling larger black Africans in the region. The whites have continued to dominate virtually all sectors of the South African economy since the apartheid era to the current period. Despite the coming to an end of the dark apartheid era, ethnic stratification is still rife in the country.

Ethnic groups in the Country

South Africa has four major racial groups, which include black Africans, whites, colored, and Asians/Indians. Black Africans comprise the largest racial group, accounting for about 80.2 percent of the population (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Whites comprise about 8.4 percent of the population. Colored (mixed race ancestry) and Indians/Asians make up about 8.8 percent and 2.5 percent respectively (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Whites in South Africa are mainly of Dutch origin. This is because of Dutch colonization of the country in 1652 (Oliver & Oliver, 2017). The original inhabitants of South Africa are native black African groups such as the Khoisan, Nguni, Venda, and Tsonga. The native people were mainly nomadic with no actual claim to the land. Their nomadic lifestyle made it easy for the Dutch to move and settle in the area. At the beginning of the 20th century, South Africa became a colony of the British Empire following the defeat of the Anglo-Boers.

Ethnic Stratification System in the Country

Ethnic stratification in South Africa plays a critical role in determining the social ranking of different groups. Perceptions of race and national origin play a significant role in the ranking of individuals in social positions. Membership to a certain race guarantees individuals higher social ranking or certain rewards. Although there are laws that attempt to eliminate the concept of racism and ethnicity in the country, the two concepts still play a dominant role in influencing an individual’s social ranking or success. Ethnic stratification is rife in South Africa despite the coming to an end of the apartheid rule in 1994. Post-apartheid South Africa shows patterns of glaring social, economic, and political inequalities between people from different ethnic groups.

Related paper: SOC 308 Ethnic Stratification and Conflict

The indigenous tribes in South Africa still experience social inequalities. The black population has the highest number of people living in extreme poverty and who experience social exclusion (Seekings, 2003). The whites in South Africa continue to enjoy significant privileges compared to other ethnic groups.  Although the class position has increasingly gained prominence as the major source of power for the whites, ethnicity still plays a central role in determining power and class. While there are arguments among scholars over the role that class and ethnicity play in influencing social rankings, it is clear that black Africans are worse off in virtually all inequality makers across social classes, such as health, education, and income. As such, it is clear that ethnic stratification still plays a dominant role in influencing an individual’s future success.

Ethnic Problems or Harmony

Prejudice and Discrimination

Prejudice and discrimination are two important concepts in evaluating ethnic problems in a particular country. Prejudice occurs when individuals make prior judgments about others. Prejudice reflects attitudes that a dominant group hold towards another group, and usually the subordinate group. Prejudicial thoughts tend to be negative. Prejudice may also reflect inaccurate beliefs that a group holds towards another. On the other hand, discrimination involves treating the members of a particular group unfairly and especially denying them opportunities in education, employment, and leadership because they belong to the subordinate group. Prejudice and discrimination are common aspects in South Africa. Black Africans have experienced the worst forms of prejudice and discrimination in the country since the Dutch colonization. The British also perpetuated prejudice and colonization after they seized power in the early 1900s.

Examples of Ethnic Problems

Black South African population still experiences high rates of discrimination. One of the ways that blacks face discrimination is through unequal employment opportunities. According to Callebert (2014), a majority of black South Africans belong to an underclass, characterized by extreme poverty levels due to lack of employment opportunities. Naidoo, Stanwix, and Yu (2014) observed that despite black South Africans attaining high educational status in the recent period, they continue to experience disproportionate representation in the job market. Glaring wealth inequalities exist in the country along racial and ethnic lines. In a study by Wittenberg (2017), the findings indicated that South Africa has high wealth inequalities that are reflective of ethnic disparities in the region. Further, the author asserts that about 90 percent of the wealth and income inequalities arise from racial disparities. Only less than 15 percent of income inequalities are attributable to between-group inequalities.

There is a gross underrepresentation of black South Africans across various sectors of the economy, such as in academics. Despite the whites being the minority group (4 million compared to over 50,000 black South Africans), they have the highest number of academics in the country’s higher education institutions (“MDG”, 2015). In 2012, for instance, there were 4,755 whites working as staffs in academic institutions, compared to 3,394 black South Africans. Differences in earnings contribute to high-income disparities between various ethnic groups. Data from the World Bank (2018) indicates that black South African households have the highest poverty levels with 47 percent living below the poverty line. Colored people come second, with only 23 percent of colored households living below the poverty line. Asians/Indians record the least poverty levels, with 1 percent and below 1 percent of the respective population groups living below the poverty line.

Structural discrimination is evident in South Africa’s land politics. Land issues continue to be a major source of conflicts in South Africa. These long-standing issues remain unresolved since the colonial era in the country. Estimates indicate that whites own about 78 percent of the land, with blacks having control of about 22 percent of the land despite being the majority (Graham, 2017). During the colonial and apartheid period, the white-controlled government introduced discriminative policies that hindered most black South Africans from owning land. Successive regimes have perpetuated these injustices instead of finding a long-lasting solution. This means that even after the fall of apartheid policy most black South Africans remain landless and living in slums.

Consequences of Discrimination

There have been serious employment disparities in South Africa’s labor market resulting from ethnic discrimination. During the apartheid era, black South Africans were excluded from employment opportunities through a system of education that focused on entrenching low-level skills. Education for whites focused on language, mathematics, and sciences. On the other hand, education for blacks focused on supplying unskilled labor to the country, with little focus on language and mathematics. The result of this is low job market skills among black South Africans, which still affect their ability to get jobs. Educational attainment for black South Africans remains low compared to that of other ethnic groups in the country (Gradin, 2015). This is associated with the low parental education levels of most black South Africans.

Another consequence of discrimination is land inequalities, with black South Africans marginalized in unproductive areas and far away from major towns. This makes it difficult for them to access the major towns and look for job opportunities. Another consequence is the high poverty rates among black South Africans. Poverty continues to be a major issue among this group, with whites recording the least poverty levels. Discrimination also influences the incidence and prevalence of disease across the population. An example of a consequence of discrimination is the large representation of whites in Academic institutions and the underrepresentation of blacks in the same, despite the blacks being the larger population. This is a clear indication of how discrimination leads to deprivation of opportunities for the subordinate group.

Research on Ethnicity in South Africa

Experts on Ethnic Problems and Findings

The World Bank Group provides useful data and statistics on the situation in South Africa. These statistics can be helpful in understanding ethnic stratification in South Africa and its impact on the country’s ethnic minorities. Some of the key statistics from the World Bank Group include employment patterns, economic growth statistics, income inequality figures, and consumption trends in the country. For instance, statistics from the World Bank Group (2018) indicates high inequality of opportunity figures in the country. This means that a large segment of the population does not have equal access to basic services that include education, necessary infrastructure, and access to health care. Statistics indicate that South Africa has an inequality of opportunity rate averaging 40 percent.

The findings from the World Bank Group (2018) suggest that the country has experienced a dismal change in key inequality measures since the end of the apartheid rule. In fact, there are concerns that the income gap between ethnic groups has worsened over the last two decades. South Africa has among the highest Gini coefficients in Africa, measured as 0.63 in 2015 (The World Bank, 2018). This figure is an increase since 1994, indicating the growing inequalities in the country. Consumption trends show a stagnation in the country’s bottom percentile from 2011 to 2015. This indicates that there has been no significant change in terms of earnings for the country’s poorest population that is predominantly black. Between the 40th and 75th percentile, there was significant growth, indicating improving fortunes for this group.

Comparison with the United States

Ethnic groups and Ethnic Stratification in the United States

The United States has three major ethnic groups. The dominant population is the whites, which also comprises the largest ethnic group at 72.4 percent of the population (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Blacks come second in terms of numbers at 12.6 percent of the population. The third largest group is the Asians, comprising of 4.8 percent of the population. Other notable ethnic groups are Alaska Natives and Hawaiians at 0.9 percent and 0.2 percent respectively (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Mixed races comprise about 2.9 percent of the population. Other ethnic groups make up a combined 6.2 percent of the population. The whites comprise of the dominant group, while African Americans comprise the subordinate group. Whites have better opportunities for education, employment, and health.

Ethnic Conflict and Discrimination in the United States

Ethnic conflict and discrimination in the United States were prevalent in the last century. Ethnic conflicts can be traced to the introduction of slavery in the early 17th century. In the 19th century, slavery was abolished in the United States through the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment (Waters & Karl, 1995). Nonetheless, the end of slavery did not significantly improve the social position of most African Americans. From the end of the slave trade era to the mid-20th century, high inequalities existed between blacks and whites. Racial and ethnic inequalities existed largely due to segregationist policies established in the United States, also known as the Jim Crow law (Waters & Karl, 1995). From the 1950s, civil rights movements gained prominence, their major goal is to end racial and ethnic discrimination through non-violent protests. In the mid-1960s, new legislation outlawed any form of racial discrimination or inequalities in the country.

Similarities between South Africa and the United States

Similarity in Ethnic Groups, Ethnic stratification, and Ethnic Conflict

One of the similarities among ethnic groups in both countries is that they mainly involve blacks and whites. Asians/Indians are involved, to some extent, in both countries. The source of ethnic conflicts can is traceable to colonialism and the slave trade. In both countries, there were attempts to institutionalize ethnic stratification, with the US introducing the Jim Crow laws and South Africa apartheid policy. Blacks and Asians/Indians in both countries have suffered the most in terms of racial discrimination and lack of opportunities. As such, blacks and Asians/Indians record higher poverty rates in both societies. Blacks have the highest poverty rates in both societies. Social classes – the upper class, middle class, lower class, and the working poor, characterize both societies. Lastly, both countries have experienced inter-ethnic conflicts. Racial tension is evident in both countries

Differences between South Africa and the United States

Differences in Ethnic Groups, Ethnic stratification, and Ethnic Conflict

One of the glaring differences in the ethnic groups is that in South Africa the minority group is the dominant group, while the United States the larger group is the dominant group. With regard to ethnic stratification, South Africa has high income and wealth inequality rates between blacks and whites compared to the United States with lower inequality rates. For instance, South Africa has a polarization index of 0.37 while in the United States is it stands at 0.22 (The World Bank, 2018). South Africa had a rigid social and political system (apartheid) for perpetrating ethnic stratification. In the United States, such a law existed among the Southern United States. The Jim Crow laws applied mainly in the Southern United States until they were abolished in the 1960s.

Conclusion

Ethnic stratification and conflict continue to be a major force shaping the social, political, and economic environments in most nations. South Africa is one of the countries that have experienced significant ethnic stratification and conflict over the last few centuries. Black South Africans, despite being the majority, continue to experience subordination from the minority whites. Ethnic stratification and conflict in the country have contributed to high poverty rates, low educational attainment, unemployment, and lower health outcomes among the marginalized groups in both countries. This is notwithstanding the social ills associated with high poverty levels. There are similar patterns of ethnic stratification and conflict in both countries, with both involving blacks and whites and the attempts to institutionalize racial discrimination. A major difference between the two is that in South Africa the dominant group is the minority group, unlike in the United States.

References

Callebert, R. (2014). Transcending dual economies: Reflections on ‘Popular economies in South             Africa’. Africa: The Journal of the International African Institute, 84(1), 119-134.             doi:10.1017/S0001972013000636

CIA World Factbook. (2017). Africa: South Africa. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from             https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html

Gradin, C. (2015). Poverty and ethnicity among black South Africans. The European Journal of             Development Research, 27(5), 921-942. doi:10.1057/ejdr.2014.76

Graham, S. (2017, March 3). Jacob Zuma calls for confiscation of white land without       compensation. The Telegraph. Retrieved from     https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/03/03/jacob-zuma-calls-confiscation-white-land-      without-compensation/

MDG. (2015). Millennium Development Goals: promote gender equality and empower women.   Statistics South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.statssa.gov.za/MDG/MDG_Goal3_report_2015.pdf

Naidoo, K., Stanwix, B., & Yu, D. (2014). Reflecting on racial discrimination in the post- apartheid South African labour market. World Bank Group.

Oliver, E., & Oliver, W. H. (2017). The colonisation of South Africa: A unique case. HTS            Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, 73(3), e1-e8. doi:10.4102/hts.v73i3.4498

Seekings, J. (2003). Social stratification and inequality in South Africa at the end of apartheid.     Center for Social Science Research. Retrieved from             http://www.cssr.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/256/files/pubs/wp31.pdf

The World Bank. (2018). Overcoming poverty and inequality in South Africa: an assessment of   drivers, constraints and opportunities. The World Bank Group.

Waters, M. C., & Karl, E. (1995). Immigration and ethnic and racial inequality in the United        States. Annual Review of Sociology, 21: 419-446.

Wittenberg, M. (2017). Wages and wage inequality in South Africa 1994–2011: Part 1 – wage             measurement and trends. South African Journal of Economics, 85(2), 279-297.             doi:10.1111/saje.12148

 

 

ethnic stratification and conflict

SOC 308 Ethnic Stratification and Conflict

Soc 308 week 3 assignment Details

In this assignment, the student is required to select a certain country and then analyze ethnic stratification and conflict in society. The student should focus on both conflict and ethnic stratification while including prejudice and discrimination.

Apart from adding description of the society selected and its ethnic groups, include also similarities and differences of the society ethnic stratification system compared with United States.

 

Ethnic Stratification and Conflict in South Africa

Name

Institutional Affiliation

Proposal

Race, class, and ethnicity have been dominant forces in South Africa’s socio-economic and political arena. Ethnic stratification in the country has contributed to decades of prejudice, discrimination, ethnic conflicts, and the struggle for equal rights. In the period between 1948 and the early 1990s, South Africa experienced the highest levels of racial segregation. This was the apartheid era when the country was under white minority rule. The apartheid era was marked by forced racial segregation, whereby the government ensured the separation of people from different ethnic groups. The segregation of society into different ethnic groups allowed the white minority to curtail the fundamental rights and freedoms of other groups, and mainly the blacks

South Africa comprises of four major ethnic groups. Blacks are the majority, accounting for about 80.2 percent of the population (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Whites comprise about 8.4 percent of the population. Despite being not being the largest group numerically, the whites are the dominant ethnic grouping in the country. Colored (mixed race ancestry) and Asians make up about 8.8 percent and 2.5 percent respectively (CIA World Factbook, 2017). South Africa is an appropriate country for the paper because of the large ethnic groupings and the history of racial segregation in the country. It will be interesting to examine how minority groups have been able to gain dominance and exercise control in the country’s social, economic, and political arena.

Outline

Ethnic Groups, Stratification, and Conflict in South Africa

South Africa comprises of four major ethnic groups – black Africans, whites, colored, and Asians/Indians. While blacks comprise the largest ethnic group, they are not the dominant group. The whites are the dominant group in the country. The whites are mainly Dutch descendants mixed with White British. The presence of whites in South Africa is the result of Dutch colonization in 1652.

The original inhabitants of South Africa are believed to be the Khoisan people, and other ethnic groups comprising of blacks (Oliver & Oliver, 2017). These were mainly nomadic groups with no claim to the land. Due to their nomadic lifestyle, it was easier for the Dutch to move into and settle in the area. While the Dutch mainly settled in the South, black people groups moved into South Africa from the north. As the groups expanded their territory clashes begun around Fish River. Indians arrived in South Africa in 1684 as slaves for the Dutch colonialists (Oliver & Oliver, 2017). Intermarriages between the Dutch and blacks resulted in the colored subgroup.

Ethnic stratification is rife in South Africa. This is despite the coming to an end of the apartheid rule in 1994. Post-apartheid South Africa shows patterns of glaring social, economic, and political inequalities between people from different ethnic groups (Seekings, 2003). The indigenous tribes in South Africa still experience social inequalities. The black population has the highest number of people living in extreme poverty and who experience social exclusion (Seekings, 2003).

The whites in South Africa continue to enjoy significant privileges compared to other ethnic groups. Prior to the abolishment of apartheid, the whites derived most of their power from racial discrimination. Post-apartheid, the whites continue to dominate, drawing much of their power from class positions. Although the class position has gained prominence as the major source of power for individuals, ethnicity still plays a central role in determining power and class. These factors have contributed to conflicts between the dominant whites and the majority blacks, conflicts that are evident even today.

Examples of Ethnic Problems in South Africa

South Africa is still experiencing major ethnic problems. According to Callebert (2014), racial inequality is still high in post-apartheid South Africa. Various problems continue to plague the nation along ethnic lines. Unemployment remains a major issue, with access to formal jobs being a major challenge for a majority of blacks who form an “underclass” (Callebert, 2014). In a recent study by Wittenberg (2017), the findings revealed high wealth inequalities between ethnic groups, with non-whites being the worst affected by high poverty rates.

Blacks have the highest inequality levels compared to all other racial groups. About 90 percent of wealth and income inequalities in South Africa can be explained by racial disparities. Only about 15 percent of income inequalities can be attributed to between-group inequalities. These inequalities point to the prevailing ethnic problems facing the non-white population in South Africa.

Blacks in the country have the highest poverty rates. Research findings indicate that about 47 percent of black households lived below the poverty line in 2015 (The World Bank, 2018). About 23 percent of households headed by colored people lived below the poverty line. Poverty rates in Asian households were slightly above 1 percent. Whites have the lowest poverty levels with less than 1 percent of the whites living below the poverty line.

According to Naidoo, Stanwix, and Yu, (2014), the differences in earnings among racial groups suggest that racial discrimination is prevalent in society. While the end of the apartheid era meant that blacks could go through similar educational experiences as the whites, the results are not reflected in the job market. Blacks have attained the same educational status as whites, yet they record a disproportionate representation in the job market (Naidoo, Stanwix, & Yu, 2014). This indicates racial discrimination is still prevalent.

Land issues continue to take a prominent stand in South Africa’s political arena. Estimates indicate that whites own about 78 percent of the land, with blacks having control of about 22 percent of the land despite being the majority (Graham, 2017). The high inequality of opportunity in South Africa has led to calls for the government to resolve long-standing land issues.

In 2017, ethnic tensions were highest with Zuma’s government threatening to take back land from the whites and allocate it to black South Africans (Graham, 2017). There have been efforts to establish a national land audit that would evaluate land use patterns in the country. The results of these efforts would be the expropriation of land from the whites without compensation and allocation of the same to black South Africans. These actions led to soaring racial tensions between blacks and white South Africans.

Expert Opinion on Ethnic Harmony

Experts contend that South Africa is far from achieving ethnic harmony, mainly due to the inequalities in outcomes and opportunities that exist between ethnic groups. The findings from the World Bank Group (2018) suggest that the country has experienced a dismal change in key inequality measures since the end of the apartheid rule. In fact, there are concerns that the income gap between ethnic groups has worsened over the last two decades. South Africa has among the highest Gini coefficients in Africa, measured as 0.63 in 2015 (The World Bank, 2018).

This figure is an increase since 1994, indicating the growing inequalities in the country. Consumption trends show a stagnation in the country’s bottom percentile from 2011 to 2015. This indicates that there has been no significant change in terms of earnings for the country’s poorest population that is predominantly black. Between the 40th and 75th percentile, there was significant growth, indicating improving fortunes for this group.

South Africa records a high inequality of opportunity. This means that a large segment of the population does not have equal access to basic services that include education, necessary infrastructure, and access to health care. Statistics indicate that South Africa has an inequality of opportunity rate averaging 40 percent (The World Bank, 2018).

Examining this while taking into consideration the constituent factors reveals that the parent’s education is the most important determining factor for the level of opportunity at 38 percent. Race comes second at 34 percent. The Human Opportunity Index (HOI) indicates that various predetermined factors such as ethnicity, place of birth, and gender play a significant role in influencing an individual’s success (The World Bank, 2018). Ordinarily, these factors should not influence an individual’s future success.

Comparison with the United States

There are similarities relating to ethnic groups, stratification, and conflict between South Africa and the United States. In both societies, there are two major ethnic groups involved in the ethnic conflict. Ethnic conflict in both societies mainly involves whites and blacks. Other groups involved are Indians in both countries. In both societies, the source of ethnic conflicts can be traced to colonialism and the slave trade. Although both societies have outlawed racial discrimination, the practice still occurs covertly.

Blacks and Asians/Indians in both countries have suffered the most in terms of racial discrimination and lack of opportunities. As such, blacks and Asians/Indians record high poverty rates in both societies. Blacks have the highest poverty rates in both societies. Social classes – the upper class, middle class, lower class, and the working poor, characterize both societies. The upper class comprises about 1 percent of the population. Lastly, both countries have experienced inter-ethnic conflicts. Racial tension is evident in both countries

A number of differences are evident between South Africa and the United States. With regard to ethnic groups, South Africa’s dominant group is the numerically minority group. On the other hand, the dominant group in the United States also forms the majority group. South Africa has high income and wealth inequality rates compared to the United States with lower inequality rates. For instance, South Africa has a polarization index of 0.37 while that of the United States is 0.22 (The World Bank, 2018). Ethnic conflicts in South Africa touch on the issue of land distribution between black South Africans and the Whites. Ethnic conflicts in the United States mainly involve equal opportunities, with land being a less contentious issue.

Concluding Remarks

Ethnicity continues to be a major determining factor for socioeconomic success in countries experiencing high racial divide. For countries to achieve high economic growth and development there is a need to ensure that socioeconomic success does not depend on ethnicity or place of origin. This will require such nations to invest in developing equal opportunities for all ethnic groups. While it is much easier to develop laws criminalizing racial discrimination, it is very difficult to eliminate racism and ethnicity that often occurs in subtle ways. Courts in the United States have played a crucial role in eliminating racial discrimination especially by arbitrating on issues relating to equal employment opportunities.

References

Callebert, R. (2014). Transcending dual economies: Reflections on ‘Popular economies in South             Africa’. Africa: The Journal of the International African Institute, 84(1), 119-134.             doi:10.1017/S0001972013000636

CIA World Factbook. (2017). Africa: South Africa. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from             https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html

Graham, S. (2017, March 3). Jacob Zuma calls for confiscation of white land without compensation. The Telegraph. Retrieved from     https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/03/03/jacob-zuma-calls-confiscation-white-land-      without-compensation/

Naidoo, K., Stanwix, B., & Yu, D. (2014). Reflecting on racial discrimination in the post- apartheid South African labour market. World Bank Group.

Oliver, E., & Oliver, W. H. (2017). The colonisation of South Africa: A unique case. HTS            Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, 73(3), e1-e8. doi:10.4102/hts.v73i3.4498

Seekings, J. (2003). Social stratification and inequality in South Africa at the end of apartheid.     Center for Social Science Research. Retrieved from             http://www.cssr.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/256/files/pubs/wp31.pdf

The World Bank. (2018). Overcoming poverty and inequality in South Africa: an assessment of   drivers, constraints and opportunities. The World Bank Group.

Wittenberg, M. (2017). Wages and wage inequality in South Africa 1994–2011: Part 1 – wage             measurement and trends. South African Journal of Economics, 85(2), 279-297.             doi:10.1111/saje.12148