Category Archives: Uncategorized

The Mystery Surrounding John Kennedy’s Death


Choose a mystery or scandal from the second half of
the 20th century and write a 3 page essay with a detailed description of the topic you
chose and its relevance to American society, in general. Please make sure to use size

Sample paper

The Mystery Surrounding John Kennedy’s Death

The death of John F. Kennedy has evoked numerous controversies since it occurred through a shooting in November 1963. Countless investigations and murder reports have not yielded any satisfying answer concerning who killed the then President. John Kennedy’s death remains controversial as different investigations give different opinions surrounding the death. The major issue of concern has been the mastermind behind the assassination. Investigations have failed to determine whether the death of John Kennedy was part of an assassination conspiracy by particular criminal gangs either in government or from foreign nations. The arrest and questioning of suspects connected to the murder was largely unsuccessful and yielded little clues on those responsible for the assassination. This paper is an analysis of the conspiracies surrounding the death of John Kennedy.

In 1963, President John Kennedy was gearing up for the upcoming presidential campaigns in the following year. Despite not having officially announced his interest in the next general elections, it was clear that he was planning to do so at an appropriate moment (“JFK Library and Museum” 1). Public opinion indicated that John Kennedy would be the most popular candidate and thus likely to win in the next presidential elections. John Kennedy had been Americas’ youngest President. He was energetic, charismatic, eloquent, and admired by many. John Kennedy had successfully imbued enthusiasm among the Americans concerning the country’s economic performance under his reign. John Kennedy had clenched the seat at a time when the country was recovering from the impacts of World War II. As such, he inspired hope among thousands. John Kennedy had run for the presidency on the slogan “get the country moving again” (The Editorial Board 1).

In his campaigns, John Kennedy had resolved to meet as many people as he could possibly meet through tours across states. In particular, Texas was a crucial region for him to hunt for votes (“JFK Library and Museum” 1). The party leaders in this region had the power to sway the vote either in his favor or against it. John Kennedy had resolved to stamp his authority in the region by ensuring the Democrats remained united. In the early days of his campaign within the state of Texas, John Kennedy emphasized on the need for the U.S. to advance its defense and space programs and the need to ensure strong positive economic growth (“JFK Library and Museum” 2). Crowds in the region had received John Kennedy warmly in the start of his campaigns.

On November 12 1963, John Kennedy was conducting campaigns in Dallas, Texas, when a gunman opened fire. The President had been traveling on his car along the street when a gunman opened fire. Two bullets struck his neck and head (“JFK Library and Museum” 1). John Kennedy was later declared dead. Texas’ Governor, John Connally, survived the shooting with serious injuries. Following the death of John Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, the then Vice President, took oath of office. The police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald in connection with the assassination and the murder of a law enforcement officer on the same day. Oswald allegedly opened fire on the officer as he tried to question him concerning the assassination.

The arrest of the prime suspect in connection with the assassination did not yield any answers. Barely five days after his arrest, a lone gunman opened fire and killed Oswald while being transferred from local jail to the county jail (“JFK Library and Museum” 1). The assailant was identified as Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner in the region. With the main suspect dead, it would be difficult to conduct investigations to unearth who was actually behind the assassination or even the motive of the killing. Jack Ruby, who shot and killed the main suspect, had claimed that he was motivated by rage at the thought of Oswald killing John Kennedy (“History”, n.d).

Although Jack Ruby denied any connections to criminal gangs, there has been widespread speculation that he killed Oswald in order to prevent him from revealing the conspiracy surrounding the assassination of the President (“History,” n.d). Background investigations indicated that Jack Ruby had minimal connections to criminal gangs in the region. Following the assassination, Lyndon B. Johnson established a commission dubbed the Warren Commission to investigate the murder of John Kennedy. The findings by this commission indicated that neither Lee Oswald nor Jack Ruby was connected with national or international criminal syndicates. The commission tabled the report in 1964. In 1967, Jack Ruby died of lung cancer while awaiting fresh trial (“History” 1).

The Warren Commission report did not quell the speculations concerning the assassination of John Kennedy. In 1978, a report by the House Select committee on Assassinations indicated that John Kennedy could have been assassinated through a conspiracy (“History” 1). Further, the report indicated that there were probably multiple shooters involved in the assassination. The truth behind the assassination of John Kennedy remains elusive. There is no hope in obtaining accurate details concerning the assassination. Questions on whether the assassination was the work of national or foreign enemies will forever linger on people’s minds.

The relevance of this topic to the American society concerns the protection of the heads of state. Since the incidence, the Secret Service committed to change the manner in which future presidents would be protected. The improved security detail surrounding current presidents have a lot to do with John Kennedy’s assassination and the lessons drawn from the incidence. For instance, John Kennedy was moving in a vehicle with an open-top roof, which significantly increased the chances of being shot at. In the recent period, the president’s security detail has significantly improved, including the use of armored cars.


History. “John F. Kennedy assassinated.” History, n.d. in-        history/john-f-kennedy-assassinated. Accessed 5 April 2018.

JFK Library and Museum. “November 22, 1963: Death of the President.” JFK Library and          Museum, n.d., Retrieved from Accessed 5 April 2018.

The Editorial Board. “JFK, 50 years later still a controversy: our view.” USA Today, 21 Nov.       2013,     50th-anniversary-assassination-editorials-debates/3670357/. Accessed 5 April 2018.


Primate Communication

Primate Communication

Primate communication is a popular research topic in anthropology and other subjects. Current research indicates that non-human primates are able to utilize gestural, vocal, and chemical signals to convey messages. In most animals, communication involves instinctive reactions to various stimuli. In other words, communication in most animals involves involuntary behavioral reactions. In non-human primates, however, communication involves a complex cognitive process. As such, communication among these primates indicates flexible behavioral adaptations. Non-human primates have the ability to communicate via gestures and vocal communication. For instance, non-human primates often engage vocalization to one each other of imminent danger such as presence of a predator. This paper presents a critical evaluation of primate communication.

Evidence available indicates that black howler monkeys use both vocal and gestural communication. Briseño-Jaramillo, Estrada, and Lemasson (2015) conducted a study investigating the communication behavior of black howler monkeys. The study revealed that majority of the black howler monkeys in the Palenque National Park region typically places a hand over their mouth while vocalizing. Interestingly, the researchers did not observe this vocalization behavior in black howler monkeys living in the distant Yucatan region (Briseño-Jaramillo, Estrada, & Lemasson, 2015, p.3). Further, the study revealed that black howler monkeys are able to identify individual acoustics. Laidre (2011, p.1) finds significant evidence that mandrills are able to develop shared meanings. The study findings indicate that mandrills found in Colchester, England express a common gesture by covering their eyes and lifting an elbow higher in the air. The mandrills use the ‘eye covering’ gesture as a warning sign to others against disturbance or interruptions (Laidre, 2011, p.2). This indicates shared meanings of the gesture.

The ‘eye covering’ gesture among mandrills is specific and unique to these primates only. The study compared the primates’ behavior in various parts of the world including Europe, Africa, and America (Laidre, 2011, p.1). While all mandrills in the various parts of the world express certain common features in communication such as similar body movements and facial expressions, the mandrills of England were unique with regard to the eye covering gesture (Laidre, 2011, p.6). The gesture seems to have developed on its own without the intervention of humans. Research focusing on chimpanzees has produced significant findings on their communication behavior. Gruber and Zuberbuhler (2013, p.1) conducted a study analyzing joint travel in chimpanzees. The findings reveal that chimpanzees use a unique way of vocalization while engaging in joint travel.

Chimpanzees use ‘travel hoo’ vocalizations when engaging in joint travel. According to Gruber and Zuberbuhler (2013), chimpanzees apply ‘travel hoo’ vocalizations during joint travel activities only. The findings indicate that during joint travel, chimpanzees produce a unique vocalization not common in other contexts. The chimpanzees conduct travel initiations by making the vocalization along with certain gestures, mainly “waiting and checking” (Guber & Zuberbuhler, 2013, p.2). The leader normally produces the ‘travel hoo’ vocalization, while waiting and checking to see the behavioral responses of other chimpanzees. Such vocalizations indicate the development of shared meanings among the chimpanzees. The development of shared meanings is similar to the case of mandrills that also share similar meanings (Laidre, 2011, p.1).  According to Guber and Zuberbuhler (2013, p. 7), the vocalizations and gestures are an indication of intentional communication.

An interesting concept in primal communication is voice recognition. According to Briseño-Jaramillo, Estrada, and Lemasson (2015b, p.1), black howler monkeys are able to differentiate the voice of other black howler monkeys from different groups. Voice recognition is a significant step in the enhancing the social life of animals since it enables the animals to identify their close members or those that they share mutual bonds. Black howler monkeys are able to recognize individual acoustic signatures by various monkeys (Briseño-Jaramillo, Estrada, & Lemasson, 2015). Further, black howler monkeys are able to discriminate between group members and the non-group members by listening to the specific acoustic variations (Briseño-Jaramillo, Estrada, & Lemasson, 2015b, p. 22). This is great indication about primate communication potential.

Primate communication seems to vary across primate groups rather than among primate species. For instance, the hand-front-mouth gesture among black howler monkeys was limited to particular subsets of the population studied (Briseño-Jaramillo, Estrada, & Lemasson, 2015). In the case of the black howler monkeys, the hand-front-mouth behavior was evident among a particular age segment, rather than across the entire subgroups. This indicates that hand-front-mouth gesture was a learned behavior. Researchers first observed the eye-covering gesture in a 3-year old mandrill, ‘Milly’, in 1999 (Laidre, 2011, p. 2). This behavior was unique among the community of mandrills in the Colchester Zoo. Other mandrills, although not related to Milly, adopted the gesture, which has stuck up to date. This indicates intentional primate communication.


Briseño-Jaramillo, M., Estrada, A., & Lemasson, A. (2015). Behavioural innovation and cultural transmission of communication signal in black howler monkeys. Scientific Reports, 5(1),           13400. doi:10.1038/srep13400

Briseño-Jaramillo, M., Estrada, A., & Lemasson, A. (2015b). Individual voice recognition and an             auditory map of neighbours in free-ranging black howler monkeys (alouatta pigra).           Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69(1), 13-25. doi:10.1007/s00265-014-1813-9

Gruber, T., & Zuberbühler, K. (2013). Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees:             E76073. PLoS One, 8(9) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076073

Laidre, M. E. (2011). Meaningful gesture in monkeys? investigating whether mandrills create      social culture. PLoS One, 6(2)          doi:


Economics of Wealth Distribution

Economics of Wealth Distribution

Explain why policymakers and economists are concerned about how evenly a nation’s wealth is shared or distributed among a nation’s citizens

One of the economic goals that every country has is to achieve economic growth which is an increase in its total value. Countries strive towards achieving a higher economic growth in order to improve the living standards of its citizens and have influence on the world market. When a country’s economic growth is slow, the living standards of citizens reduces and the government faces criticism and opposition as a result (Saastamoinen, 2006).

A country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the measure of its total annual economic transactions. A rise in GDP leads to economic growth. Per capita is the measure of GDP since it reflects the amount of GDP per head. The higher the per capita, the better the living standards of the citizens are. It can be a quite unyielding exercise to compare GDP for different countries since they have different population sizes. However, economists and policymakers use per capita income to compare the relative or wealth or poverty in different countries (Zorach, 2010).

The manner in which a country’s wealth is divided up is another indicator of economic growth. In most countries, there are few individuals who have a lot of wealth while most of the population is made of poor people. Modern democracies are working towards distributing wealth equally across the populations by all means including welfare. Buts still in the best democracies such as the United States, there is still a huge disparity between the poor and the rich.

Equity is achieved when fairness is observed in all economic transactions. Equity is an important aspect of a fair economy. Most governments have implemented policies to ensure equity. Failure to implement such laws would mean that people would be unwilling to engage in economic activities. .

Related: Liberalism, conservatism, socialism, fascism

Describe the pros and cons of market and authority (government) based economic policies. Provide examples to support your argument

All governments have a responsibility to implement sound economic policies. Normally, different sections of the society have different needs and the needs of one could easily hurt the other. In addition, solving one problem could lead to another.

There is a close relationship between money and politics. The two realms often interact and affect each other in complex ways that are different to tell apart. The state is equipped to shape the economy and therefore it is natural that the state affects the economy. However, the economy also affects the state since a failure by the state to ensure economic growth and fair distribution of resources could easily lead to trouble therefore, a prosperous economy can save a corrupt or incompetent leader.

In an authority economy, the national or central government is responsible for planning the economy. The entire economy is controlled by the central government. In addition the government determines the price of goods and services and also allocates resources. Such economies are deemed inefficient since they totally disregard the laws of demand and supply. In order to cater for markets that are not catered for by the central plan, black markets arise to cater for these unmet demands states with free markets often experience slow economic growth. Although some authority economies claim to be economic equality champions, the elites continue to lead better lives than most of the population (ConnectUS, 2015).

Governments are faced by unemployment, economic depression/recession and inflation struggles. Thus, they have the responsibility to enact policies that work towards overcoming these issues. For several decades now, the United States has been experiencing fairly low unemployment and inflation rates. The irony of this is that low inflation and unemployment rates do not translate to economic growth.

Unemployment is depicted when those people who are willing to have jobs cannot secure them simply because they are not enough jobs for all of them. Every economy in the world experiences unemployment especially when people quit their jobs and take time before they find new jobs. In addition, some people are unemployed for a long period of time. The problem with unemployment is that there will always be individuals in the society who do not have a source of income. This puts this section of the population at the danger of suffering from extreme poverty. High levels of unemployment raise criticism and opposition with the unemployed blaming the government for their situation. During such times insecurity and political instability can be on the rise (Cashell, 2004).

Related: The Battle of Seattle

Inflation is depicted by rising prices of goods and services. Inflation causes a country’s currency to lose its worth. High levels of inflation can lead to economic instability that in turn hinders people financial success. Such situations will easily lead to economic instability. People will always expect their leaders to implement policies that would get them out of such situations.

Governments have a responsibility on their shoulders to balance the effects of inflation and those of unemployment. Inflation can be reduced by reducing the amount of money spent which leads to increase in unemployment levels. On the other hand, unemployment can be reduced by spending more money which can lead to increase in inflation rates. Therefore, balancing the two can be a quite challenging undertaking that one a government has to do. One way of ensuring that unemployment and inflation levels are reduced by avoiding economic recession/depression since it accelerates the two.


Saastamoinen, J. (2006). Wealth Distribution and Economic Growth. University of Joensuu, Economics and Business Admin istration. Retrieved 27 March 2017, from

Zorach, A. (2010). Why GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is a Poor Measure of Wealth and Prosperity. Alex Zorach’s Blog. Retrieved 27 March 2017, from

ConnectUS,. (2015). 10 Significant Pros and Cons of the Market Economy. ConnectUS. Retrieved 27 March 2017, from

Cashell, B. (2004). Inflation and Unemployment : What is the Connection?. Retrieved 27 March 2017, from

Liberalism, conservatism, socialism, fascism

Design thinking


Question 1

Commuting from home to school and from school to home has been a nightmare for most children myself included. Depending on the distance between school and home different children have different tales why commuting has been an issue. Insecurity and tiredness have been the main issues affecting commuting to and from school this prompting them to dislike the schooling idea.

Question 2

Research shows that two in every fifteen young children have to walk to and from school either because their parents cannot afford to pay for the school bus or the school does not provide transport services especially those schools in remote areas (Gharajedaghi, 2011).  Moreover, research indicates that the likelihood of commuting student to concentrate in class is lower than other children considering that he or she gets to school while tired.

Question 3

This discussion and brainstorming session was carried out between my b discussion team that comprises of undergraduate students spread across departments. A diverse discussion group increases the chances of getting correct and comprehensive solutions.

Question 4

To come up with a prototype solution we interviewed other undergraduates on their views and solution concerning commuting to and from school and the survey and interview conducted; we selected the best solution.

Question 5

Our prototype fully addressed the problem by suggesting that parents and guardians should arrange private transportation of their kids to and from school in case the school does not offer the service or the school transportation program is too much expensive for them (Gharajedaghi, 2011).

Question 6

During the implementation stage, all parents and guardians had to be educated on the importance of providing security and comfort to their kids when attending their lessons and through training, they accepted the idea.

Question 7

There was a positive response from the students who were initially walking to school as there was an improvement in their performance which is a clear indication of an increase in the level of concentration of these students.


Gharajedaghi, J. (2011). Design Thinking. Systems Thinking, 133-157. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-385915-0.00007-6



 Industrial Revolution – Product Analysis


Find a product invented during the Industrial Revolution. Under the context of personal or social change, discuss your product a one or two paragraph essay. Imagine yourself using this product during the Industrial Revolution, and describe the changes you experienced. For example, how did the: Clock, Interchangeable parts, Transatlantic cable, Mason jar, Safety pin, Unions, Pasteurization, Celluloid… affect you or your community?


 Industrial Revolution – Product Analysis

One of the most important products invented during the industrial revolution is the steam engine. The invention of the steam engine significantly contributed to the growth of factories, led to development of steamboats, and contributed to the emergence of steam-powered trains. The development of steam engine had a great impact on the social scene. One of the greatest impacts is the ease of movement from one place to another. The development of steam engines made it possible for people to move over longer distances using trains, steamboats, and road vehicles. This improved trade since people could easily move goods from one region to another. For instance, it became possible for one to move raw materials to factories and finished goods to people. Another change that occurred is the exploration of new lands. With the development of steamboats, people were able to travel faster and expand territories. Another social change that occurred is improvement in trade between different and often far off countries. The development of steamboats enabled people to move across oceans with ease and carry more goods compared to when they were relying on wind power.

Discussion board participation provides an opportunity to practice writing and persuasive skills, as well to listen to, critique, and support the arguments and analyses of your peers


Discussion board participation provides an opportunity to practice writing and persuasive skills, as well to listen to, critique, and support the arguments and analyses of your peers. The evaluation of your discussion board participation is neither a measure of simple attendance nor that you answer questions correctly. Many of the issues we will confront in this course have been vexing the human mind for some time and while solutions would be welcomed, they are hardly expected. Moreover, learning is an experimental process and oftentimes the experiments of even the most dedicated and intellectually engaged students go astray.

This evaluation will reflect, however, the regular, careful preparation of assigned material and the consistent, enthusiastic attempt to share your interpretations with your peers and engage with their interpretations. Students finding it difficult to participate for any reason should see me as soon as possible

I think that this was my best discussion board post because I need to learn how to listen, being a good listener is an overlooked leadership tool that should be embraced.


Discussion Post Week 3-Listen Deeply

Since I work in a large hospital with many departments, I relate my experiences on a much smaller scale since we have almost 150 employees within the hospital pharmacy department alone.

Listen Deeply to Others (P117) is one foundation skill of almost everything you do. Non-verbal communications is just as important as communicating. Reading this section really resonated with me because I always want to talk. If I just listened more effectively I could ….

  • Reduce risk of inter-personal conflict
  • Listening creates respect, which facilitates success for the organization
  • Reduce risks of misunderstandings or regrettable mistakes and helps to problem solve
  • It breeds respect and trust
  • Listening gives a leader the power and ability to encourage and motivate employees
  • Strengthen customer relationships and aid in facilitating product and service improvement

There is always room for improvement in any leadership area. So after reading this section my thoughts on listening have changed. I once saw listening as a weakness as if you don’t know what to say. But when practiced it takes tremendous strength and security in yourself to actually employ this kind of leadership skill. It expands an individual’s moral obligation to find common ground and solutions that work when opportunities present themselves. I definitely need to “strengthen my ability to listen” (p.118).

How can I improve in this area?

  • I could set a goal of what percentage of time I plan to listen vs talking.
  • I could listen with an empathetic ear and maintain an open mind
  • I will practice positive communications skills
  • Speak genuinely and truthfully to others
  • By all means always maintain eye contact and be mindful there is value in listening, and not talking.

Clearly now is the time to practice these lessons as it will significantly improve my effectiveness in a leadership role. The most important role a leader can possess is the power to mentor and lead others; to excel in this role one must have a defined set of goals, expectations and procedures that are governed by a deeply ingrained practical and fair ideology. With this, a leader can actively listen for understanding first, use acumen to apply and new ideas that may be beneficial, and respond with unwavering conviction regarding the set principles.


Argument for which Grade I Deserve

I deserve a Grade Outstanding Contributor-A. This is because my response is substantive in that it examines all critical issues from multiple angles. In the first part, my post examines all the benefits of developing outstanding listening skills, which is vital in the communication process. Most often, people focus on talking and give little attention to listening, which leads to communication breakdown. The post offers insight into various ways of improving communication and developing mutual relations. The post provides an interesting insight about listening that most of people do not know of; that listening is a key leadership skill that takes tremendous strength for a leader to learn and employ effectively. Most of us have grown to believe that listening is just a normal routine. However, as a leader, one must learn to balance talking and listening, and most importantly to remain open to different viewpoints.

The post addresses all the critical elements, with well-substantiated points applied throughout the post. The post reflects an in-depth research in the area of communication, which is key in any research work. The presentation of the information is done in a methodical manner – the information is well structured and organized in a logical manner. For instance, I have arranged key details on improving communication in bullet format, making easier for readers to read and understand my point of view. This makes the post interesting and easy to read. My post can be of great use to any leader who aspires to improve his/her communication skills. This is because it covers most of the aspects involved in the communication process. That is why I am confident that I deserve the highest grade.

What factors contributed to the success of American arms in the war against Germany and Italy during World War II


Question 1

What factors contributed to the success of American arms in the war against Germany and Italy during World War II? Which ally contributed most to the eventual victory? Which branch of the armed services? Explain by means of specific examples.

Question 2

Discuss the comparative roles of Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States in the fight against Germany. Also, evaluate the roles of the Army, Navy, Marines. and Air Force in the defense of the United States.


Question 1

A number of factors contributed to the success of American arms in the war against Germany and Italy. Four major factors helped American arms in the war against Germany and Italy. These were assistance from allies (in terms of manpower and resources), a powerful American force, Weaknesses in Italian Army, and Germany’s miscalculations. During the war, the U.S. contributed the largest number of soldiers and military resources such as planes, tankers, and even oil supplies. For example, in the Cross-Channel Attack, about 1.6 million soldiers were transported across the Atlantic. In addition, over 5000 ships were used during the invasion on Germany-held regions. The American arms utilized advanced military technology in Sicily, a region in Italy, which largely contributed to their success. For example, they used new landing craft, some of which bore tanks, and could easily move ashore. The military also utilized new amphibious trucks known as DUKW, which helped in delivering supplies along the beaches.

Another factor contributing to the success of American arms is Germany’s weaknesses and miscalculations. The German army had an ineffective command structure, which only allowed Adolf Hitler to make decisions, and often against the advice of his generals. For example, during Germany’s invasion in North Africa, Hitler made the decision to attack the Soviet Union, simultaneously. This divided his forces and materials, leading to a weak German force in North Africa. The use of propaganda by the U.S. forces also contributed to their win. During the Cross-Channel Attack, American forces spread false rumors that the invasion was only a minor one, and that a major invasion was on its way. This somehow led to slackness among the German soldiers. British ally contributed most to the American victory. The branch that contributed most is the Air force. This branch helped secure the Atlantic against German submarines, allowing soldiers to cross. In addition, the air force helped carry soldiers to the battlefield, where they would use parachutes to launch surprise attacks on unsuspecting German soldiers.

Question 2

Britain played a direct role in the offensive against Germany. The first action that Britain took is the Blockade of Germany. The Blockade of Germany was a form of economic sabotage whereby Britain attempted a naval blockade in the Atlantic. It is worth noting that Germany relied on the Atlantic for shipping of supplies such as munition, minerals, food, and other items needed during the war. Britain also made effort to buy military supplies from neutral countries. This helped in preventing the neutral countries from selling arms to Germany. Another role of Britain is contribution of military supplies and soldiers to aid America in the war against Germany. The British forces greatly helped the U.S. forces in countering German invasion in various Mediterranean locations and across North Africa.

The U.S. army had the capacity to launch a direct offensive against Germany, something that Britain and French lacked. The American forces had mobility, great artillery firepower, and air support, which is what was needed to launch an offensive against Germany. The U.S. contributed much of the troops in the assault force. This was necessary because there was need to paint a picture that America was the one behind the invasion, and not French or Britain. Another role of the U.S. was in planning of attacks and coordinating the war in general. The U.S. played critical role in coordinating attacks against Germans. The U.S. brought together various allies such as France, Britain, and Canada in the fight against Germany. This significantly contributed to the defeat of the German and Italy due to the large force that was pitted against German’s forces. Although the Soviet Union did not directly help the U.S. in the war against Germany, it was crucial in helping the U.S. secure a win. In 1941, the Soviet army had successfully thwarted Germany’s efforts to occupy Moscow. The Soviet army put up a brave resistance that complicated Hitler’s plans, which were to conquer the Soviet Union within a short period and concentrate on other areas such as North Africa. The Soviet Union worked against a single ground front in the east, the Germans, while in the west, the U.S. and its allies were against two ground fronts, Germany and Italy.

The Army conducts land-based military operations with an aim of securing the country’s geographical borders and all American citizens. The Army provides support to communities afflicted by disaster or in times of crisis. The Army also helps in defending U.S. allies against invasion or incursions by enemies. The Army is also involved in training soldiers to engage in military operations. The Navy is involved in providing safe passage in the sea and protecting the U.S. from any form of sea incursions. The army is also responsible for transporting military personnel as well as equipment to areas required. The Navy can also conduct air assault missions, land missions, and sea missions. The Marines are responsible for protecting embassies and launching swift attacks in case of attacks. Marines work closely with the Navy and are always ready to respond to emerging situations.  The role of the Air Force is to protect the U.S. from air attacks. For instance, it protects the U.S. and allied nations against nuclear attacks and maintains space superiority.


American Military History

Case Study- Why Aren’t They Listening?


  1. Define and describe the problem(s) or issue(s) that should be the focus of your analysis.

  2. Note any relevant quantitative or qualitative data and/or evidence that is pertinent to the case.

  3. Describe the results of your analysis and share your thoughts as they pertain to what some of the possible actions might be.

  4. Share what you believe the preferred action plan should be.

  5. Answer the questions as noted in the text at the end of the case.


Case Analysis Preparation

Problem(s) and Issues that should be the Focus of this Analysis

The problem of major concern in the case study is lack of commitment to training by the middle level managers. Most managers felt that the training sessions did not add any significant value to their line of work. As some of them said, “Here we go again: a fancy in-house training program from which we will gain nothing”, indicating that they expected to gain little or nothing from participating in the seminar. The focus of Jim Anderson was teaching listening and communication skills and making the seminar as interesting as possible. However, this did not seem to fit well with the middle level managers. Another issue relates to the content of the training program. It is possible that that middle level managers were highly competent in the area of listening and communication skills. In addition, past training programs may have focused on this area. As such, providing training in this area did not add any key benefits or value to the middle level managers.

The delivery of the program could be an issue, and specifically the manner in which Jim conducts the seminars. Jim does not create any rules for the training session, but rather lets the managers decide on their own whether to attend the sessions. Jim seems to have introduced the laissez-faire style of leadership, which is not effective in this case. Another problem is that there is no reward system in place to motivate the middle level managers. Jim should introduce a reward system to ensure that managers feel motivated to attend all the sessions. Introducing a reward system could help in increasing the motivation levels and thus optimize attendance levels.

Relevant Quantitative or Qualitative Data and/or Evidence

One of the quantitative aspects is that the training program runs for 6 weeks. This seems to be a lot of time considering the fact that nearly all of the managers hold advanced degrees. Jim could design a shorter training program to ensure that the group remains focused throughout the program. The training program comprises of about 25 middle level managers. A class size of 25 individuals seems appropriate for a communication and listening training program. It is worth noting that the larger the group, the more time it may take to complete training. A key qualitative aspect is that previous training programs had not been effective in delivering new knowledge or skills required by the middle level managers. This is a major reason why the middle level managers did not see the need to participate in the program. Another qualitative aspect is that the training sessions were lengthy; taking an entire day and hence leading to boredom. Shorter training sessions could have been more appropriate in this case.

Results of the Analysis

This analysis indicates that the main problem was a mismatch between the training program and the specific needs of the middle level managers, leading to a lack of commitment. As Northouse (2013) asserts, “effective leaders are those who can recognize what employees need and then adapt their own style to meet those needs” (p.100). Jim Anderson did not clearly understand the specific needs of the middle level managers. Thus, even when designing the program he did not have the specific needs of the managers in mind. This led to lack of commitment among the middle level managers who saw the program as a waste of time. In order to avoid this problem, Jim Anderson should have consulted with the middle level managers in order to learn about their specific needs. This would enable him to tailor the program to address the specific needs of the middle level managers.

Another issue regards the design of the program. Jim Anderson should have focused on introducing punishments and rewards. During the third session, attendance dropped to about 15 managers, meaning that as time went by, more managers dropped out. In addition, more managers were skipping the afternoon session. If the managers were interested in learning, they could not miss classes. Jim should have ensured that there is some form of rewards and punishment to keep the managers interested. Leaders have an obligation to ensure that those in lower levels are motivated (Wächter, Lungu, Liu, Willingham, & Ashe, 2009). This can be accomplished by rewarding desired behavior.

Preferred Action

Jim Anderson should understand the specific needs of the managers. He can achieve this by obtaining feedback from the managers about the training program as well as the previous training programs. Obtaining feedback from the managers will help Anderson to recognize what the managers need and modify his teaching methods to cater to those needs. The situational leadership model holds the premise that leaders should adapt their style to match different situations. A leader should examine the competency level of the employees or those under him. This can in turn help in developing the content and in choosing an appropriate leadership style. For instance, the leader may choose between a directive and a supportive style depending on the circumstances. Jim Anderson failed to assess the current situation during the training program. This resulted in a substantial number of managers quitting the training program or showing low enthusiasm by reporting late.

Questions at the end of the case

  1. What style of leadership is Jim Anderson using to run the seminars?

Jim Anderson is using a supportive style of leadership. Supportive leadership focuses on relationship behaviors. The key is to make the group members experience comfort with regard to the situation and the coworkers. In developing supportive relationships, the leader ensures that there is open communication with those in lower levels. The leader also ensures that there is a strong social and emotional support among all individuals in the group. Jim Anderson employs supportive style of leadership since his training design encompasses various elements of supportive leadership. For instance, he encourages socializing and networking, listening, problem solving, and other elements.

  1. At what level are the managers?

The managers are at a delegating level, contrary to Jim who seems to be in the extreme opposite end. The delegating level is one of the highest levels in the organization. At this level, the leaders provide little direct input. The leaders have less involvement in planning and control, instead leaving the employees to plan and set their own goals. At this stage, the leaders act as consultants. The leader monitors the team’s success, making sure that there are no signs of regression. The managers at this stage are responsible for developing strong inter-organizational relationships. For instance, the managers continue to solicit for more stakeholders who may be of benefit to the organization. Lastly, managers at this level are involved in seeking necessary resources that the team requires in order to fulfill the business goals.

  1. From a leadership perspective, what is Jim doing wrong?

Jim’s failure stems from the fact that he has not established any authority by allowing workers to arrive at their own time. Jim should set some rules to ensure that managers respect the training program. Jim should introduce punishments to those who report late as a way of deterring lateness. As a trainer and a leader in the training program, Jim should display his leadership skills, such as establishing rules. As the trainer, Jim should set the tone for the entire training program. He should make the managers aware that coming to the program late is wrong. Although Jim is clearly in a lower position compared to the managers, he should show confidence by setting rules rather than expecting the managers to arrive at any time of their discretion.

  1. What specific changes could Jim implement to improve the seminars?

Jim can improve the seminars by introducing a punishment/reward system. Punishment and reward system are fundamental in the motivation process (Wächter et al., 2009). Although they are considered external motivating factors, they are still crucial in the motivation process. Punishment should be introduced to those who report late during the training program. They can serve as important deterrents to lateness. Punishments should not be severe as this can lead to low attendance rates. Rewards should serve to encourage positive behavior. Rewards have a positive influence on behavior, while punishments can be used to discourage the occurrence of particular behavior.


Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Wächter, T., Lungu, O. V., Liu, T., Willingham, D. T., & Ashe, J. (2009). Differential Effect of   Reward and Punishment on Procedural Learning. The Journal of Neuroscience : The     Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience29(2), 436–443. 


Vintage Fashion: The 1970’s Bell-bottoms


Please write an article about vintage fashion which can get readers emotional and express like smiling or crying. It can be telling a story about how nice to see a vintage garment, and it will remind you of your grandpa or grandma. Or some funny things.


Vintage Fashion: The 1970’s Bell-bottoms

In the early 1970s, a fashion avalanche swept the entire world off its feet – the bell-bottoms are trousers that are wider from the knees all the way downwards. As such, they have a bell-like shape at the bottom part. They are also known as flares. The origin of bell-bottom design is thought to be the U.S. Navy. In the 1800s, the army did not have a standardized uniform. Nonetheless, majority of those in the army started wearing straight trousers with flares at the bottom. This became the origin of the bell-bottom trousers. In the early 1970s, designers integrated the flared style into the conventional clothing design, with amazing results. The bell-bottom designs became an instant sensation in the entire fashion industry. Both men and women adorned the bell-bottom trousers mostly in North America and Europe. The fashion avalanche also spread to other parts of the world.

Bell-bottom trousers were often made of denim. They had curved hems and flared out from the knees downwards. Although musicians and other high-ranking individuals popularized the bell-bottoms, they quickly became a favorite among all social classes in the society. Thus, from the rich to poor, men and women, teenagers and gown-ups, the old and sundry all adopted wearing of bell-bottoms. Over the recent past, there have been claims that the 1970’s flared trousers are making a comeback (Whitmore, 2015). However, none of the claims has materialized. Attempts to reintroduce the 1970s fashion have all failed owing to disinterest from the public and the fashion industry. It seems that the fashion industry has moved on from flared trouser designs of the 1970s.


Whitmore, G. (2015, Jan. 24). The history of flares – In pictures. The Guardian. Retrieved from                pictures



Trending News Today-Social Listening 


Researching reader comments on a piece of trending news today,  and write your response to the following questions:

What was general reader feedback?

What was your response?

Which strategy, if any, would you employ after listening to this feedback?


Trending News Today-Social Listening

The trending news today is about the U.S. elections, where Trump and Clinton are fighting for the top seat. The ongoing elections have generated heated debate among various functions affiliated to Clinton and Trump. The general reader feedback is about trying to predict the winner and the economic impact if any of the presidential candidates win (Kopan & Thompson, 2016). One of the general reader feedback relates to an economic outlook if either of the presidential aspirants wins. Majority argues that the stocks may decline once Donald Trump wins, and that stocks may rise if the Hilary Clinton emerges the winner. Others dispute the claims arguing that the economic performance depends on how the successful presidential aspirant manages the country.

My response to the debate is that the winning candidate may have a significant impact on the U.S. stocks. The impact will depend on the economic policies that the successful candidate makes. Thus, the economic performance is not hedged on the particular candidates but on the particular policies that they make. The strategy I would employ involves providing information to the public on how the stock market in the U.S. runs and the impacts of the general election. Providing information to the public can enable individuals to reduce speculations and make informed decisions. The stock market is partly speculative. As such, negative speculations may trigger a crisis leading to poor performance even though other factors such as investment levels remain optimum.


Kopan, T., & Thompson, N. (2016, Nov. 8). Live election coverage. CNN.

Review of SHOP 657 in SF