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Boston Marathon Bombing

Boston Marathon Bombing

The events surrounding the Boston bombing of 2013 clearly illustrates the significant role played by the Boston Police Department. In relation, the institution is portrayed as one that worked hand in hand with federal agents in attempts to safeguard the state from similar unaware attacks. In relation, the role of the police in homeland security is embedded on four sectors, which will be critically evaluated in the paper. The Boston Marathon Attack occurred on April 15th, 2013. Two bombs went off near the finish line of the Boston Marathon. The Bombs killed three spectators and injuring over 260 other persons.

After a four-day intense manhunt shutting down the Boston area, police captured a bombing suspect, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, a 19 years old. However, Dzhokhar brother and fellow suspect, Tamerlan Tsarnaev died the same day because of a shootout with the law enforcement officers. The investigation summarized that brothers organized and executed the attacks themselves without any linkage to the particular terror group (Volpp, 2014). The two brothers had spent much of their childhood in the former Soviet republic of Kyrgyzstan. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was scheduled for trial in November 2014 and the federal prosecutors declaring to seek the death penalty. The attack took place at 2:49 in the afternoon during 5600 runners’ still racing.

The investigation was launched involving over 1,000 federal, state and local law enforcement personnel. On April 19, the Boston area was on lockdown. The school was closed, public transportation halted and populace advice to stay inside their homesteads. The police conducted door-to-door manhunt in Watertown while military-style vehicles were patrolling the streets. On the very evening, a Watertown man went out his backyard after the law enforcement had halted searches. The man went to check on his dry-docked boat from where he observed the inside of the covered, 24-foot vessel and startled to find blood and an individual. The person was later recognized as Dzhokhar in hiding. He called 911 immediately, and the police arrived and circumscribed the boat. The alleged wounded terrorist was taken into custody. Tsarnaev reportedly scrawled a note that Boston Bombing was in response to the U.S wars in Muslim nations. At the period of the bombing, Dzhokhar was a sophomore at the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth.

The role of the police in homeland security

Each and every police department has its independent role that it plays regarding homeland security. Community policing, is crucial to public safety at all levels be it at local or communal levels, or on the national scale.  Conversely, one of the roles that have adequately formulated by the police body includes policing terrorism which aims at terrorism threats prevention.

As of late, a lot of exertion has been put resources into diverting the part of law implementation to shielding life and property from a large number of inside and outer dangers (Friedmann & Cannon, 2007). Country security approach battles that, on the neighborhood level, data gathering, coordination with state and government offices, framework insurance, and improved advancement of police group connections will encourage anticipation, and help reaction to potential fear of terrorist assaults.

There is the need for more critical observation of foreign travelers, heightened level of data sharing among federal, state government police offices and the inescapable requests for more security, more observation, and more government energy to avoid comparative assaults later on.

With the Boston bombing, the four strategies can be played out as some of the strategies that were adopted by the police force soon after the tragic experience (Mayer, Carafano & Zuckerman, 2011).

  • Prevention: the police force prevents acts of terrorism through a mechanism of information sharing and counter-terrorism operations and investigations.
  • Protection: the police force not only aims at the provision of protection for the members of the Boston community but the country as a whole. Conversely, the same is done via the use of a comprehensive risk management approach.
  • Mitigation: Employ the use of coordinated reduction efforts in attempts to reduce the loss of life by lessening the probability of future disaster.
  • Response: The police force should respond quickly to save lives, mitigate further harm after an event, protect property and meet basic human needs.

With particular reference to the Boston bombing, Police regulatory training directs that officers consider a few key components when settling on the choice to shoot their weapons. They should evaluate the threat postured to bystanders and local occupants; they ought to know the position of other fellow officers and they ought to stop to reassess the circumstance on the off chance that they can, instead of just keeping on pulling the trigger.

In relation, more than twelve officers endured minor wounds amid the commotion. However, the suspects had injured none. Richard Donohue, a travel cop with the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, was hit in the crotch by a police projectile and started to drain bountifully, sustaining a serious injury in the process.



Caruson, K., MacManus, S. A., Kohen, M., & Watson, T. A. (2005). Homeland security preparedness: The rebirth of regionalism. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 35(1), 143-168.

Friedmann, R. R., & Cannon, W. J. (2007). Homeland security and community policing: Competing or complementing public safety policies. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 4(4).

Mayer, M. A., Carafano, J. J., & Zuckerman, J. (2011). Homeland Security 4.0: Overcoming Centralization, Complacency, and Politics. Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies..

Volpp, L. (2014). The Boston Bombers. Fordham Law Review, 82.

MT499-1: Evaluate information management, planning, and control in business environments.

MT499-1: Evaluate information management, planning, and control in business environments.

Please watch the following videos, 5 principles of using information technology to improve your business and 6 Stages of Funding listed as Unit 7 Assignment LINKS ARE BELOW. 6 Stages of Funding link  5 principles of using information technology to improve your business link

This is a two-part 5–6 page written project that will focus on Information management systems for your organization utilized in financial planning, and control in your organization This project also includes the use of Excel® spreadsheets containing financial data and required reports.

***In part I, describe information technology and information management systems used in marketing, accounting, management control, and discuss how you might use these systems in your organization.

***In part 2, you will determine the startup funds, source of funding, and create a break-even analysis for your organization using Excel spreadsheets.


Information Management System


In recent decades, there has been a revolution in computing and communication, and all signs are that innovative advance and the utilization of data innovation will proceed at a fast pace. Going with and supporting this sensational and wild increment in the power and the utilization of new data advancements has been the declining expense of communication owing to the technological advancement and increased competition in the communication industry.  Information technology widely helps computer users to store, study, retrieve, transmit as well as manipulate data and information usually in the business contexts and to suits the need f an enterprise. IT is often considered as a subset of the bigger information and communication technology which helps to unify and integrate communication and telecommunications (Wahlgren, 2010). Today innovations and inventions in information technology are having a wide-ranging effect across a variety of domains in the society and policy makers are working round the clock to ensure individuals have access to information.

On the other hand, the effectiveness of a company’s Information Management System is a key factor to the success and growth of this organization.  The success of information management system (IMS) combines some key support features that help in streamlining workflow, supporting data tracking as well as managing most fields of informatics systems in utilization on location. IMS which was once a simple tool for data gathering and safekeeping has evolved to meet the ever growing demand of a number of roles, and today most companies highly rely on some form of an information management system to complete their daily operations (Sarngadharan & Minimol, 2010). Notably, IMS provides software that facilitates the storage, organization and retrieval of information and data in an organization.


Marketing Information System

A typical company or an organization might have different information systems with each supporting a particular organizational level based on the needs of that organization. For example one of the widely used genres of Information Management System is the Marketing Information System (MIS) that is designed and formulated to support marketing decision making. Through this system, an organization has an opportunity to collect, store, analyze and distribute data to managers and executives in accordance with informational needs on a regular basis.  On the same note, other companies prefer to implement marketing records system (MIS) which is a statistics control device created and developed to help in advertising selection making (“Chapter Nine. The marketing information system,” n.d). MIS brings collectively distinct varieties of data, persons, gadgets and processes to help an investor to make higher choices that can help in the growth of these companies. As a result, MIS is proposed to unite dissimilar things of information into the rational assemblage of data. Additionally, this information system provides unique techniques of interpreting the information considering that it is a continuous and interacting structure of persons, equipment, and processes to collect, sort, analyze, evaluate and distribute information for utilization by marketing decision makers.

Thus, through this application, an organization can improve their marketing plan, their implementation as well as control for effectiveness and efficiency (“Chapter Nine. The marketing information system,” n.d). For example, the employment of the advertising statistics machine offers endless advantages to any organization in the non-public or public zone irrespective of its size or stage of managerial sophistication. It helps marketing managers to interact with clients and consumers on product designs and purchase necessities.

Accounting Information System (AIS)

Another type of information system that can be adopted and implemented in an organization is an Accounting Information System (AIS).  AIS is often designed to gather, store and process financial and accounting data that is later used by management and other decision makers to make sound and well-informed decision regarding the operations of business. AIS are a computer-based system that keeps track of all accounting and financial activities and transactions in conjunction with information technology resources in a company. The resulting financial reports that are created through this system can be used both internally and externally by interested parties such as investors, shareholders and tax authorities. This system contains various components that are crucial in the accounting process and procedure despite the fact that the information stored in the system may vary from one industry to another and the sizes of the businesses (Powner, United States, & United States, 2012).

Normally, accounting information systems include information and information identifying with income, costs, client data, and representative data and in addition impose data. However, for this application to effectively and successfully bring positive results, the system must have a database structure that is structured with query language to assist in the generation of table and data as well as enabling data and information storage. Notably, this application can yield high results only if the system can support all accounting functions and activities such as auditing, financial accounting, and reporting. One of the major benefits of this application is the fact that they computerize and streamline detailing, create propelled demonstrating and bolster information mining. For example, accountants are known to take much interest in quick books and spreadsheets which are relatively effective and efficient and help accountants to record, calculate and report the different financial transaction in a company.

Management Control Systems (MCS)

Organization and companies need to utilize Management Control Systems that go past the methodologies that put more accentuation on the securing of innovation and coordination which are not adequate to give the association a supported long haul aggressive edge over its rivals. Management control systems encompass activities, processes, and procedures by which managers and senior officials in an organization or a company can make sure that resources of their companies are obtained and utilized effectively and efficiently, in the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives (ZHANG, 2016). Additionally, this system is designed to obtain and use information and data to evaluate the performance of different organizational resources such as human, physical and financial resources in an accepted manner. As a result, management control systems in companies can influence the behavior of resources in an enterprise to implement organizational strategies which mean that they might be normal or informal. Additionally, the system contains tools that are meant to aid the management to steer an enterprise towards the strategic objectives and competitive advantage.

Research shows that a management control system gives managers a platform where they can record company objectives, strategic plans and moderationalism, evaluate the performance of all internal control e procedures as well as show the performance of individual employees and the organization at large in relation to the predetermined objectives and policies. With these information managers have the necessary data to make well-informed decisions and corrective action where necessary in their enterprises and this can be translated to management control. The primary objective of management control systems is to give the management of an entity more corporate control, an evaluation of the operational performance, a way to effectively manage risks and internal control of the entity as well the proof of accountability and transparency in the organization (Shimizu, 2017). For example, the implementation of a control statistics device gave a manager the opportunity to obtain past, gift and projected information and data on internal operations and external intelligence to help in decisions making processes and procedures.

Application of the data in the organization

Generally, all information management applications pay much attention to the planning and control of the operations in an organization. Therefore, effective management information systems are important and crucial to different business organizations owing to the increased complexity and rate of changes in current business setting and the environment in the global market. As a result, the utilization of applications such as marketing records systems and an advertising statistics machine at G-10 Holdings will allow the marketing manager to proportion facts and work collectively. Its implementation will help to address operational desires through patron management systems that concentrate on the normal processing of patron transactions from the original sale through customer service (Powner, United States, & United States, 2012).

Moreover, the implementation of the purchase records and feedback systems will help the company to align its organizational techniques in line with the need of clients. Therefore, the efficient management of customer information and organizational financial transactions can assist to plan for the organizational activities and promotion strategically.  As a result, the company will employ these applications and databases to facilitate planning, minimize information overload, encourage decentralization, bring corporation and coordination, make control of all operations easier as well as assemble, process, store, retrieve, evaluate and disseminate information and data.



Chapter Nine. The marketing information system. (n.d.). Customer Service in the Information Environment. doi:10.1515/9783110956788.92

Powner, D. A., United States, & United States. (2012). Information technology: SBA needs to strengthen oversight of its Loan Management and Accounting System modernization : testimony before the Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.

Sarngadharan, M., & Minimol, M. C. (2010). Management information system. Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House.

Shimizu, T. (2017). Management control systems in Japan.

Wahlgren, P. (2010). Information & communication technology. Stockholm: Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law.

ZHANG, X. I. (2016). Enterprise management control systems in china. Place of publication not identified: SPRINGER.



Methodological Issues Article Review

Methodological Issues Article Review

Read the following articles, which can be accessed through the ProQuest database in the Ashford University Library:

  • Evidence-based practice in psychology: Implications for research and research training.
  • Practice-based evidence: Back to the future.
  • Psychological treatments: Putting evidence into practice and practice into evidence.

Write a three- to four-page article review in which you discuss methodological issues unique to psychological research and analyze basic applied psychological research relevant to the treatment of mental disorders. In your paper, you will discuss the topics of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence and their roles in providing practitioners useful information for making decisions about appropriate mental health treatments.

In the body of your paper:

  1. Discuss the methodological issues and challenges that are unique to psychological research investigating effective treatments for psychological disorders.

  2. Explain the concepts of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence and identify controversies associated with these concepts.

  3. Select one treatment modality associated with a disorder in the DSM-5 and present at least one example of pertinent, applied psychological research investigating the efficacy of the treatment modality. Discuss the findings of the research. Locate at least one peer-reviewed article that contains a research study on a treatment modality to fulfill this requirement. You may not use any of the course materials.

  4. Take the point of view of Bauer (2007) to analyze the article(s) you selected in #3. Using this author’s arguments from his Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology: Implications for Research and Research Training article, what would be his evaluation of the article(s) you selected?

  5. Take the point of view of Brendtro, Mitchell, & Doncaster (2011) and analyze the article(s) you selected in #3. Using these authors’ arguments from their Practice-Based Evidence: Back to the Future article, what would be their evaluation of the article(s) you selected?

  6. Discuss ways in which an evidence-based practice model might provide practitioners useful information for making decisions about the degree to which the treatment modality you selected in #3 is an appropriate treatment for the disorder you specified.

  7. Conclude your paper with a discussion of your opinion of the utility of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence for practitioners needing to identity effective treatments for psychological disorders.

  8. Utilize a minimum of two additional peer-reviewed journal articles published within the last five years (not including the course text or any of the course materials). At least one article must be used to satisfy the requirement in #3, and at least one article must also be included to support your arguments. All sources must be documented in APA style, as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.


Methodological Issues Article Review

There exist gaps between science and practice in health and psychological domains. Practitioners have for long sought ways of bridging the existing gaps with little success. The aim of practitioners is to improve patient outcomes by using the most effective models. Currently, two models inform practitioners during practice. These include the evidence-based models and practice-based models. Controversies exist over the application of either model. This leaves practitioners at a dilemma over which model to follow. This paper examines evidence-based and practice-based models, the various controversies surrounding the models, and concludes by making a recommendation of the most effective model that practitioners can adopt.

There are certain methodological issues and challenges that are unique to psychological research. One of the challenges is inadequate training. The current methodology courses evaluate traditional knowledge while ignoring contemporary skills or knowledge relevant in conducting clinical trials (Bauer, 2007). For instance, there is need to include training on how to conduct clinical trials methodology that adhere to CONSORT recommendations. Another issue pertains to methodological trade-offs. This might occur when, for instance, the researchers are unable to garner the right sample size. Failure to use the appropriate sample size simply means that the findings lack statistical significance and are not generalizable (Bauer, 2007). Another issue lies in the inadequate training and skills in research methods. Most students receive training in quantitative and qualitative research methods, while very few know how to apply methods such as focus groups, personal histories, convergent interviewing, and to an extent systematic reviews.

Evidence-based practice refers to a process in care delivery whereby decision-making is solely based on best evidence presented (Bauer, 2007). In this process, researchers examine the best treatments or procedures and apply these in daily practice. There are three pillars in evidence-based practice. These include best evidence in making key decisions, clinical expertise (relating to the physician), and client expectations. On the other hand, practice-based evidence involves focusing on the specific needs of an individual while providing therapy (Brendtro, Mitchell, Doncaster, 2011). The controversy in evidence-based practice relates to the application of research evidence. There is concern that there is a wide gap between science and practice. For instance, it is not easy to change the behavior of practitioners simply because of new evidence. The controversy associated with practice-based evidence relates to the amount of evidence that is appropriate for psychological treatments especially when applying randomized controlled trials. Dozois (2013) argue that evidence-based practice promotes rigidity and numerous restrictions.

A disorder in the DSM-5 is obsessive-compulsive disorder. The treatment modality for this disorder is cognitive behavioral therapy. Sánchez-Meca, Rosa-Alcázar, Iniesta-Sepúlveda, and Rosa-Alcázar (2014) conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological options in the treatment of obsessive compulsive behavior among children. The results indicate that both cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments are effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive behavior. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy had a higher effect size compared with the pharmacological options. A meta-analysis of literature by Olatunji, Davis, Powers, and Smits, (2013) supports the study results. The findings of this study indicate that cognitive behavioral therapy has a high effect in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Bauer would give a positive evaluation of the article by Sánchez-Meca et al. (2014). This article provides evidence-based practice for cognitive behavioural therapy by conducting a systematic review of literature. Evidence-based practice involves empirically supported treatments (Bauer, 2007). It involves the use of current evidence to effect changes in clinical practice. Both articles conduct systematic reviews of existing literature to identify best evidence that can be applied to clinical practice.  The articles utilize systematic reviews that are a rich source of information and thus critical in psychological research. According to Bauer (2007), the only way for psychology to contribute to evidence-based practice is by researchers learning and implementing the systematic review skills in their studies. Since this study is similar to Olatunji et al. (2013) study, Bauer would hold similar sentiments as above. This study utilizes a meta-analysis of literature, which according to Bauer (2013) is the basis for future psychological research.

Bendtro, Mitchell, and Doncaster (2011) would give a negative review of the two articles. This is because according to them, evidence-based model is a flawed model of evaluating best practice in clinical practice. The three argue that practice-based evidence is the key in the field of psychology. According to Bendtro, Mitchell, and Doncaster (2011), the articles ought to utilize a practice-base model, which focuses on the individual needs rather than on evaluating treatments in general. The focus of practice-based models is on individual needs. It recognizes the fact that same treatments may not apply to all individuals. The articles focus on evidence-based practice, which involves the examination of the efficacy of treatment methods among individuals. As such, this would lead to a negative evaluation of the articles.

The evidence-based model can provide crucial information to practitioners about the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy. The evidence-based model provides a preponderance of evidence showing the effectiveness of the particular intervention. Practitioners relying on the evidence-based model can be able to tell the efficacy level of the particular intervention (Wallace & Vanhook, 2015). In such a case, it is possible to make predictions regarding the likely treatment rates of a particular group of patients. Using evidence-based models enables practitioners to give priority to the interventions that have a higher efficacy level. For instance, in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, there are different interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy and pharmacological interventions. By utilizing the evidence-based model, a psychological professional can be able to tell the most effective intervention. Evidence-based practice can enable practitioners to sort various interventions into different categories basing on the problem issues they solve (Wallace & Vanhook, 2015). Lastly, evidence-based practice can enable practitioners learn about important protocols they might use while applying particular interventions.

To sum, evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence are critical in shaping clinical interventions. Evidence-based practice refers to making of critical decisions basing on research evidence. On the other hand, practice-based evidence refers to focusing on the specific needs of an individual and looking for ways to address these needs. Although there various controversies surrounding evidence-based practice, it still remains fundamental in clinical practice. It is worth noting that evidence-based practice involves the application of those interventions, which has been show as highly effective in achieving certain outcomes. As such, practitioners seeking to identify effective treatments or procedures for psychological conditions will still rely more on evidence-based practice in search for the answers.


Bauer, R.M. (2007). Evidence-based practice in psychology: Implications for research and           research training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(7), 685–694. Retrieved from the         EBSCOhost database.

Brendtro, L.K., Mitchell, M.L., & Doncaster, J. (2011).  Practice-based evidence: Back to the      future. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 19(4), 5-7. Retrieved from the ProQuest   database.

Dozois, D.J.A. (2013). Psychological treatments: Putting evidence into practice and practice into             evidence. Canadian Psychology, 54(1), 1-11. Retrieved from the ProQuest database.

Olatunji, B. O., Davis, M. L., Powers, M. B., & Smits, J. A. J. (2013). Cognitive-behavioral         therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis of treatment outcome and             moderators. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(1), 33-41.   doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.08.020

Sánchez-Meca, J., Rosa-Alcázar, A. I., Iniesta-Sepúlveda, M., & Rosa-Alcázar, Á. (2014).           Differential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatments for          pediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety    Disorders, 28(1), 31-44. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.10.007

Wallace, R., & Vanhook, P. (2015). The importance of evidence-based practice. Tennessee          Nurse / Tennessee Nurses Association, 78(4), 11.



MT499-5: Evaluate how economics, government, and law affect value creation in the global context.

MT499-5: Evaluate how economics, government, and law affect value creation in the global context.

In this Assignment, you are required to prepare a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation of 10–15 slides with audio. Please see Doc Sharing for a tutorial on adding audio to PowerPoint presentations.

Please review and export tutorial websites using the links found below and in the webliography document in Doc Sharing along with assigned readings.

Part 1:

Assignment Checklist:

  1. Assess economic differences between the U.S. and a foreign country of your choice in prices, promotion, and legal protection.
  1. Evaluate how you might distribute (export) your product or service.
  2. Explain how exporting your product or service could affect value creation in the global context.

Part 2:

Assignment Checklist:

  1. Decide a means of promotion for the product or service.
  1. Determine legal protection for a brand.
  2. Describe your distribution plan for a new product or service.

HR400-4: Assess how employment tools and documentation are used for employee selection.

Assignment: Background Checks

Background checks are generally conducted with the final candidate in the selection process. The
background checks can include employment and education verification, references, criminal history,
and other sources if they pertain to the job. In this Assignment, you will describe potential legal issues
associated with background checks. You will also be reviewing a scenario and making a
recommendation on what action to take.
In this Assignment, you will be assessed on the following outcome:

HR400-4: Assess how employment tools and documentation are used for employee selection.

Before starting this Assignment, review the Assignment Checklist.
You are the hiring manager for Home Improvement Center and need to fill a position for a night
supervisor position. You have narrowed the selection to an applicant you think would be a good fit for
the position. The applicant meets the job requirements and responded well to the competency-based
interview questions you posed during the interview. You conducted reference checks on the applicant
by contacting former employers and received positive results. However, the background check shows
the applicant had been convicted of possession of illicit drugs ten years ago for which the applicant
served time in prison. Respond to the following questions in a 2–3 page paper.
1. How do the results of the background check influence your decision to hire the applicant? Do you
still hire the applicant, despite the results of the background check? Explain.
2. What are potential legal issues associated with background checks? Include a description of
negligent hiring and defamation of character. Describe the steps an organization should take to
prevent negligent hiring and defamation of character from occurring.


Background Checks

As the hiring manager for Home Improvement Center, it is critical to conduct a thorough background check for the best candidate to fill position of a night supervisor. Conducting a background check comes after identifying a potential candidate, usually following the interview. Background checks reveal crucial details concerning the applicant. This paper examines how background checks may influence the decision to hire a job applicant.

The results of the background check would have little or no impact in making the hiring decision. As the hiring manager, I would consider a number of factors. First, there were positive results from the former employer. This indicates that the applicant maintained a clean record at the former employer’s place. Another factor is that the background check does not reveal any connection between his job and the crime he committed. Since it is not a job-related offense that led to the applicant’s incarceration, it is worth considering making the hiring decision. Some states such as Connecticut and Colorado has issued legal guidelines concerning the circumstances under which the employer may refuse to offer employment based on the background checks. For instance, the employer should not refuse employment if there is no connection between the crime committed and job. Another reason for hiring the applicant is that the conviction is already sealed. The applicant spent time in prison and was released, meaning he is not a danger to the society any longer.

There are other factors to consider during background checks, such as the time when the offense was reported. State governments may regulate time limits concerning background checks. The common time limit in most states is 7 years. As such, the employer may not consider a criminal conviction that occurred past 7 years. A state such as Texas does not consider criminal convictions with 7 years or more following release or parole. The federal Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) recommends that employers may not report negative information about an applicant that is over seven years old and bankruptcies that occurred over 10 years ago (“FCRA,” n.d). Considering this policy, it would be prudent to give the applicant a chance to employment.

Question 2

There are various potential legal issues concerning background checks. One of the legal issues is negligent hiring. This occurs when the HR Manager fails to conduct a thorough background check of the applicant. The HR Manager holds the responsibility of ensuring that the applicants do not have a recent criminal history. If the HR Manager fails to conduct a thorough background check, he is legally liable for damages that might occur. The HR Manager must ensure that the applicant does not pose a danger to self and others within the organization. Failure to conduct through background checks leads to legal charges. Another legal issue involves defamation of character. This occurs when a former employer issues defamatory remarks concerning an applicant. Defamatory remarks may involve giving false information concerning the applicant. In this case, the employer would be liable of defamation of character.

The organization may take various steps to prevent negligent hiring and defamation of character. In order to avoid negligent hiring, the organization should conduct complete investigation covering employment history and educational background. From there, the organization should check driving record violations and conviction records relating to the applicant. Lastly, the organization should ensure compliance with appropriate acts such as IRCA. To avoid defamation, the organization should ensure it provides accurate historical account of the applicant. The information provided should be employment-related, and should not be of personal nature. The organization should provide true information, regardless of whether it is negative.


FCRA (n.d). Retrieved from


MT499-2: Analyze organizational processes and procedures in a variety of business settings.

MT499-2: Analyze organizational processes and procedures in a variety of business settings.

Prior to starting your Assignment, take this tutorial regarding production and manufacturing.

In a 3 to 4 page paper, address the following areas pertaining to operations in your organization:

    • If you are a service-based business, please explain the business flow of how you plan to service your client base.
    • Analyze organizational processes and procedures in a variety of business settings.
    • Describe the general business operations for manufacturing and service companies.
  • Provide an explanation of the service business flow used in your selected company.

Business operations

The business flow process

In recent days, products, services, and pricing competition have increasingly important to the success and growth of business.  Therefore, the company intends to make sure that both internal and external business processes operate at the highest level to guarantee success and growth. As a result, the company is planning to use hierarchical business process model. With this model in place, project management, planning, and business monitoring will typically rely on the manual scheduling of activities rather than complete process graphs or process trees. This model will help to direct attention to what needs to be done, without paying much attention to the details of how the business process should be conducted. Additionally, this business flow model opens up for more partially structured and semi-formal processes that ensure that all the tasks and responsibilities are carried out in the right manner and at the right time to meet the customer’s needs and demands (Epstein, Maltzman, & Kerzner, 2014). The model focuses on breaking up the flow process into steps to avoid some of the dangers of over-serialization associated with other business flow models such as transformation models. Therefore, important tasks are prioritized and given more time than less important tasks.

Organizational processes and procedures

Considering that the company will be helping other firms and organizations who are unable to promptly update their financial transactions to uphold the accountability and transparency of their organizations, it is prudent it is likely to face several barriers in the process. Additionally, G-10 Holdings will be responsible for recording customer’s sales, receipts as well as individual and organizational payments. Moreover, office management services will make sure that the designing, implementation, evaluation and the maintenance of the work process in the customer’s organizations are taken care of to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, there are chances that employees can make errors during the recording of these transactions or when compiling the final report (Carroll, 2015). At such times the concerned employee or employees will be required to go through the records again with the help of the organization representative and one of our company representatives at no extra charges. This will help to minimize the chances of the employee to make the same mistake again.

On the other side, it may be hard for office management department to keep up with the demands and needs of different customers considering that their tastes and preferences change now and then depending on their customers need. However, in the case that the employee makes a mistake when designing, implementing, evaluating and the maintaining the work process under clear instructions, he will be required to repeat the job at our company’s expense.  However, in the case the owner of a business decides to change his office design when the work is in the process, his or her company will be required to incur the additional cost of redoing the work after an agreement with our company (Carroll, 2015). These policies will help to make sure that both employees and clients are aware of what is expected of them in case there is a mistake or any barrier that hinders successful completion of the job.

General business operations for manufacturing and service companies

Service and manufacturing have differences that make them unique but also have similarities that enable companies to provide both goods and services.  Some of the similarities between organizations that either organizations or companies have to create a mission and a vision statement stating how these organizations will be run and perceived by their respective customers. However, there also exist great differences between these two operations depending on the nature of the final products. Some of the greatest differences between the two operations include:

Characteristics – manufacturing operations are known to produce tangible goods that can be touched or seen and thus making them physical. Moreover, fabricating operations can be broken into two gatherings: prepare and discrete assembling. On the other hand, service operations provide intangible products that might be difficult to identify (Wheelen & Hunger, 2007).

Customization and Standardization – manufacturing operations makes sure that goods produced can be standardized in a particular manner before being stored in a warehouse waiting for distribution. Therefore, the entire production from the same manufacturer stands a good chance of being similar regarding quality, size, and branding.  On the other side, service operations have a wide range of opportunities to customize their services before offering them to customers. Therefore, each service may be unique depending on the creativity of the service provider.

Service business flow

Despite conditions for working that might be available in specific districts of the world, outsourcing by utilizing work at home specialists may reduce manhandle that may happen with the utilization of local heads for oversight. It lightens the political threatening vibe that can originate from inside the US while encompassing groups natives understand the association is not particularly outsourcing abroad and those nationals of US have an indistinguishable possibility of working from association temporary workers (Nagaoka, 2010). Receiving the right plan of action for outsourcing may impact the client benefit quality level and in the meantime diminish costs for first rate client benefit.

G-10 Holdings Service Flow Chart

Sales team member in person consult
2 day follow up customer call
2 week customer survey
Survey data analyzed


Sales team member takes patient customer order



Carroll, J. S. (2015). Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. London: Taylor and Francis.

Epstein, D., Maltzman, R., & Kerzner, H. (2014). Project workflow management: A business process approach. Plantation, FL: J. Ross Pub.

Nagaoka, H. (2010). Service business design method utilizing business dynamics. 2010 7th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management. doi:10.1109/icsssm.2010.5530247

Wheelen, T. L., & Hunger, D. L. (2007). Strategic management and business policy. Harlow: Prentice Hall.





Best practices, quality management, and performance management

MT499-2: Analyze organizational processes and procedures in a variety of business settings.

In this Unit 3 Assignment, research three articles from AB/inform in the KU Library on best practices, quality management, and performance management in your chosen industry. Write a 2 to 3 page project paper detailing how you will apply best practices, quality management, and performance management in your organizations.

When you are ready, you may submit your paper to the Assignment Dropbox. *Note, include your name in the file name of the Assignment.

Best practices, quality management, and performance management

The concept of best practices

With the increasing competition in the market each single day, firms and organizations are looking for the best and the most efficient and effective way they can conduct their operations to guarantee success and beat off competition. Therefore best practices consist of guidelines, ethics, and concepts that represent the best and most efficient course of action based on the current circumstances surrounding an organization. As a result, best practices are expected to consistently show superior results that can be achieved both at the individual and organizational level when a certain technique is utilized compared to other means. Thus, the authorities of an organization have the mandate and responsibility to set forth the best course of action such as the formulation of the governing body or a selection of the best management team depending on the current status of the business (Saleh & Khine, 2012). However, different industries and organizations may have different best practices since they deal with different types of products and services as well as customers. Often, the best practice encompasses sharing of information on with other experts in the industry for benchmarking purposes. The best practice should involve doing things smarter to lead to greater and superior performance and to achieve consistent top quality results.

Quality management

Research shows that performance actions have a potential to significant improvement of the quality of products and services of a company. Customers are increasingly becoming value based in recent weeks which means that organizations need to maintain high-quality products and services to make sure they attract new customers as well as retain the existing one. Therefore, quality management consists of all activities undertaken by an organization to monitor and control the desired level of excellence in all their operations. Thus, quality management manager has the mandate has the responsibilities of spearheading important activities in an organization such as determining the quality policy, formulating and implementing quality planning assurance, controlling the quality of the organization output as well as improving the quality of all outputs from the organization (Oakland, 2016).

Every organization, company or investor likes to think that they have a commitment to quality.  However, this is not always the case since some of the products and services from different organization fall far much below consumers’ expectations. However, a good producer and investor should remain focus and find ways to improve the quality of his or her products to create a brand in the market some of the simple ways that can help improve the quality of products and services from an organization include:

Tracking mistake – the first and the most important step is to define what is quality and make a commitment to quality. After the commitment, it becomes very easy for the quality control manager to compare and contrast the final product from the company and his definition of quality.  This comparison helps him to make the necessary changes before the product, or the service is finally released to the market (Oakland, 2016).

Investing in training – with the rampant changes in technology as well as consumer tastes and preferences should always keep producers on their toes as they try to find the best way to satisfy their customers.  Therefore, to keep up with technology which helps to improve the quality of the final production and consumer tastes, the quality management manager needs to create training programs to enrich his employees on how to improve and control the quality of their products and services using the latest technology in the market and as per consumers demand.

Performance management

Employees are increasingly becoming one of the important assets that an organization can have.  However, it is the duty of the human resource manager to ensure that the workforce at his disposal work at the highest level possible and they give their best to the organization.  Notably, the responsibility of managing the performance of all the employees cannot be left in the hands of the management only.  Therefore, the management and the workforce should cooperate to arrange, screen and survey representatives work goals and general commitment to the association (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, 2014). Vital parts of worker execution administration incorporate execution arranging, progressing execution correspondence, execution evaluation gatherings and data and information gathering, observation and documentation.

Through performance management, the managers and employees make sure that specific goals and objectives both personal and organizational are met in the course of daily operations of the business. Some of the best ways the management of an organization can enhance the performance of their employees as well as performance management include:

Matching tasks to skills – it is prudent for managers to fully understand the skills, knowledge, behavioral styles and abilities of their employees for maximizing efficiency. Therefore, employees should be assigned duties and responsibilities based on their skills and knowledge rather than asking them to be efficient on all fronts. This makes it easy to track their performance (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, 2014).

Effective communication – every manager should understand that communication is key to the success of every business.  Therefore, the management should be readily available to pass information and data to the employees whenever necessary especially during performance review and appraisal. This will help the employees to know and understand their strengths, weaknesses, and areas they need to improve.


Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. (2014). Performance management. London: BPP Learning Media Ltd.

Oakland, J. S. (2016). Total quality management: A pictorial guide for managers. Place of publication not identified: Routledge.

Saleh, I. M., & Khine, M. S. (2012). Practitioner Research in Teacher Education: Theory and Best Practices. Frankfurt: Lang, Peter, GmbH, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften.




Assignment: Pre-Employment Testing-HR400

Assignment: Pre-Employment Testing
There are a variety of pre–employment tests that can be used to obtain additional information about
applicants. In this Assignment, you will be assessing and making recommendations on what types of
employment tests to use in an organization.
Learning Activity
It is strongly recommended that you complete this Learning Activity after completing all the unit
readings and before beginning your Assignment. This will help you practice important concepts
related to skills needed for the Assignment.
Before starting this Assignment, review the Assignment Checklist below. Then, in a Word document,
write a 2–3 page paper addressing the following scenario.
Select an organization to use for this Assignment. This could be your current or previous employer or
another organization of your choice. You have been hired as a consultant to recommend a plan for
using pre-employment tests as part of the hiring process. In your report you must include a response
to the following areas:
1. Describe the purpose for using pre–employment tests.
2. Identify which pre–employment test(s) you would recommend for the organization and explain
3. Summarize some potential legal issues that can occur with the use of pre–employment tests.
4. Describe why test validation is important.


Pre-employment tests

The organization of choice is G-10 holdings

The primary purpose of using pre-employment tests

Traditionally, employees must attend interviews before they are finally hired by their employers. Similarly, employers can decide to screen job applicants through pre-employment tests that may include cognitive ability, knowledge, work skills, physical and motor ability testing. There are different types of pre-testing that job hopefuls can be subjected to depending on the department, organization and the industry they intend to join.  On other occasions, employers can use cure testing as a core element of the pre-work plan. Therefore, companies and organizations may use these pre-tests to search for the best and most qualified applicant to win the available positions as well as screening out those who do not fit in the organization (Arthur, 20120606.). Research shows that pre-employment tests can help the organization to provoke additional association focal point such as saving time, decreasing turnover and reduce the number of training programs if organizations can get the best job contenders.

Competency–Based Questions-HR400


While different organizations can settle on different pre-employment tests, I would recommend intellectual accessibility tests.  Intellectual accessibility tests can help the employer to measure and gauge the applicant’s ability to learn, understanding and other important concepts of mental limits that are paramount in the position available. At times and in most occupations, the professional or educational background does not guarantee success.  Therefore, the employer needs to tests the intelligence ability of the applicant to handle business related issues by obtaining information regarding their mental limits, verbal and nonverbal deductions as well as their ability to make emergency decisions. Research shows that intellectual accessibility tests provide legitimate inductions for different authority results which have led to success and growth.

Potential legal issues

Apart from helping companies and employers to get the best talent in the market, pre-employment tests can help in enhancing the objectivity, impartiality, and legality of the employers enlisting processes. All employers are required by the law to make sure that the larger part of their representative determination policies is impartial and lawfully consistent with the rules and regulation put in place by authorities (Arthur, 20120606.). Irrespective of the time taken by employers to administer their tests and evaluate the outcomes, the tests given should be occupational related and settle on enlisting decisions by making sure additional layers of objectivity to the contracting process is included. Affiliations that execute testing programs according to legal standards are thus better orchestrated to protect these strategies should a true blue test to their utilizing practices ever develop.

Why test validation is important

The validity of the pre-employment tests administered consists of setting a standard that the tests measures and how well the standards set are measured. It is fundamental to understand the complexities among enduring quality and legitimacy. Authenticity will reveal to the employer how remarkable a test is for a specific circumstance; resolute quality will uncover to you how strong a score on that test will be. The employer cannot accomplish certified conclusions from a test score unless he or she is certain that the test is solid. In spite of when a test is solid, it may not be real (Arthur, 20120606.). The employer ought to be mindful that any test that he or she selects is both attempted and genuine and critical for the organization circumstance. A test’s authenticity is set up in reference to a specific reason; the test may not be considerable for different uses. For example, the test the employer uses to make genuine assumptions about someone’s particular ability at work may not be substantial for suspecting his or her drive aptitudes or non-participation rate.


Arthur, D. (. (20120606.). Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting & Orienting New Employees, 5th Edition/. . [Kaplan]. Retrieved from

Preventing Employment Discrimination-HR 400


[20pgs]ADVERTISNG VALUE EVALUATION-Dissertation paper


Is Advertising Value Evaluation (AVE) the best way of measuring success of Public Relation campaigns



Table of Contents



Introduction. 5

1.1 Background of study. 5

1.2 Problem Statement 7

1.4 Objectives of the study. 8

1.5 Research Questions. 8

1.6 Justification of the Study. 8

1.7 Scope of Study. 9

1.8 Limitations of the Study. 9



2.0 Introduction. 10

2.2 History of Advertising Value Evaluation. 11

2.3 Theoretical Review.. 12

2.3.1 Pyramid Model 12

2.3.2 Preparation, Implementation and Impact (II) Model 15

2.4 Empirical Review.. 17

2.4.1 Strengths of Advertising Value Evaluation Method. 17

2.4.2 Limitations of Advertising Value Evaluation Method. 18

2.4.3 Preferred Tools for PR Measurement 19 Cyberspace Analysis. 20 Media Content Analysis. 20 Events and Trade Shows Measurements. 22 Case Studies. 22 Public Opinion Polls. 22



3.0 Introduction. 24

3.1 Research Design. 24

3.2 Target Population. 25

3.3 Sampling Techniques. 25

3.4 Sample Size. 25

3.5 Data Collection Methods. 25

3.6 Data Analysis. 26



4.1 Introduction. 27

4.2 Advertising Value Evaluations. 27

4.3 Most used evaluation tools. 29



5.0 Introduction. 33

5.1 Summary. 33

5.2 Conclusion. 35

5.2.1 Preferred PR measurement tools for evaluating PR campaigns. 35

5.2.2 Effect of evaluation tools on PR practice and profession. 36

5.3 Limitations of the study. 37

5.4 Recommendations for further study. 37

References. 38















Figure 2.1: Pyramid Model of PR Research………………………………………………..14

Figure 2.2: Preparation, Implementation and Impact Model……………………………….16

Figure 4.1: Satisfaction rate of marketing directors in the UK………………………..……30

Figure 4.2: Methods most used to measure PR……………………………………………..31

























Public Relations is still a relatively new profession which explains why the field still has a lot of issues that need to be addressed such as evaluation methods. The issue of evaluation and measurement has been a topic of debate for many years. The lack of a universally accepted method of measurement and evaluation is an issue that has caused lack of credibility in public relations as a profession. However, despite such issues, Public Relations is a profession that has grown tremendously in the world brought about by the increasing need for the government, organizations, individuals and businesses to communicate with either their citizens, shareholders or customers so that they can improve and maintain good relations.

Public Relations are a very integral part in helping organizations establish long-lasting reputations that are significant in building an organization’s image and improve relationships with the community. Public Relations are also important in helping change any negative behaviors or attitudes that may be present in the society and help resolve any conflicts that may affect the organization’s image. Although such results are greatly valued, there has been a growing demand from managers to evaluate the success of public relations campaigns (Morris, 2012).  Advertising value equivalents is one of the methods used to evaluate public relations but its validity is quite questionable hence the research is focused on determining the method’s flaws and other methods better suited to evaluate the success of public relations.

1.1 Background of study

Public Relations are defined as a management tool that establishes support among an organization’s internal and external publics. It includes activities that are created around a company’s image through publicity and community events. When it comes to PR campaigns, these are arranged activities or operations that are designed with the aim of achieving a particular social, commercial or political objective .Bobbit and Sullivan (2005) show that PR campaigns can also be described as the effort put by an organization to create, develop and maintain generally acceptable relations by using evidence-based objectives through the use of communication strategies and measuring of the outcomes.

A Public Relations campaign is comprised of seven primary components. These include audience targeted, objectives, messages, situational analysis, budget, timetable and evaluation. This research is particularly interested in the evaluation component of Public Relations (Rinrattanakorn, 2016). PR campaign evaluation is a process of systematic measurement of a campaign to determine its effectiveness. PR professionals are required to evaluate the results of a campaign after it is complete and relate the results with the pre-set objectives of the PR campaign. This enables PR practitioners to answer clients any questions they may have about the success of the campaign with accurate data.

Evaluation of PR campaign is important for PR practitioners as it helps them to determine the success of the campaign while gathering information on the efficiency and effectiveness of PR campaign activities (Watson & Noble, 2014). It also allows for practitioners of Public Relations to be able to explain the changing attitudes and behavior of the society. There are three levels of measurement when it comes to PR campaigns. The first and primary level is the media placements, compilation and distribution of messages. The middle level is comprised of measuring audience awareness, their understanding and retention of the message. There are different techniques used for evaluation with Advertising Value Equivalency or Evaluation being one of the most commonly used.

The ideas of Advertising Value Equivalency (AVE) is one that has existed for many years and generated a lot of debate in the Public Relations profession. AVEs are a form of measurement tool used by PR practitioners. It involves calculating the space consumed by an article into advertising costs and calculating that by the cost of the space had it not been advertised. The evaluation method has brought about a lot of debate focused on its validity and reliability. Many people prefer the method especially clients as it puts a dollar value on media coverage and gives media people the opportunity to compare their results with the advertising.

In other cases, when AVE is applied, some users of the evaluation tool apply multipliers to advertising rates based on the opinion that advertising is less credible than PR. Advertising Value Equivalents calculated using multipliers are known as PR value. However, despite its familiarity with a lot of people, through research carried out and trials by PR practitioners, AVE has been determined to be invalid as it does not inform any future activities or measure the value of PR but only measures the cost of media coverage space. Other methods have been proven to be way more effective and reliable in measuring PR. These include media content analysis, cyberspace analysis, public opinion pools, case studies and many more.

1.2 Problem Statement

Public Relations is a wide profession made up of many sub-functions which are normally separate units in the organization and report to PR. At times they report to other organizational units such as marketing or human resources. Corporate as well as non-governmental organizations are embracing PR at a growing pace due to its perceived value in creating mutually beneficial relationships. Despite this tremendous growth in the profession, the effectiveness of public relations has not been established. There is a lack of international standards for measurement and evaluation of the impact of PR campaigns. Advertising Value Evaluation has been mistakenly perceived as the best way to measure the success of PR campaigns probably because it is what most people know and is common among clients but unfortunately, the method has flaws which will be discussed in this paper in detail which make the method invalid as a measure of Public Relations.

1.4 Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study is to determine whether Advertising Value Evaluation method is appropriate for measuring the success of PR campaigns. However, there are also other specific objectives such as:

  1. To establish the limitations and strengths of AVE as an evaluation method
  2. To establish other preferred tools for evaluation of PR campaigns
  • To investigate the effect of evaluation tools on the PR profession through systematic review

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What are the limitations and strengths of AVE as a tool for evaluating PR campaigns?
  2. What are some of the preferred evaluation tools for PR campaigns?
  • What is the effect of evaluation tools on the PR profession?

1.6 Justification of the Study

The results from the study are of great benefit to PR practitioners all over the world as it helps them understand various tools for PR evaluation hence determine the best possible tools for evaluation that they can adopt in their organizations. The study will provide alternative solutions beyond the commonly-used AVE as a measure of success of PR campaigns. The study will make practical, theoretical and methodological contribution to the PR practice that can be used for many years to improve the future of Public Relations.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study focused on discussing AVE and determining its validity through assessment of its strengths and limitations. The study will discuss AVE and other preferred methods and determine the best solution through systematic review using publications and studies carried out on PR evaluation methods.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study used systematic review methodology which poses a risk since some of the authors may be biased when writing their work or conducting various studies. The researcher overcame these challenges by guaranteeing the validity and reliability of all the materials used in the paper.

















2.0 Introduction

This chapter discusses the literature review both theoretically and empirically looking at the factors related to measurement of PR campaigns. Various authors have put forward different definitions of Public Relations in order to clarify the parameters of the field. Public Relations is a complex subjects since it borrows on theories and practices from other fields such as psychology, media and communication (Theaker, 2004).

2.1 History of the development of PR Measurement and Practice

Various authors have traced media monitoring practices back to the late 18th century and thereafter (Lamme & Miller, 2010).In the 20th century,  Public Relations was used as a description for a set of activities related to communication whose practices could be determined and measured. James Grunig and Todd Hunt who are PR gurus see Public Relations as something that was used by the Greek rhetoricians and evolved from the 1800 BC. However, they caution that the direct descent of PR today is yet to be identified (Grunig & Hunt, 1984)

Edward Barneys is identified as one of the major contributors in the 1920s who saw PR turn to what it is today (Bernays, 1928). Barneys made a proposal for a direct approach to communications by making an argument that PR was an attempt aimed at getting the support of the public through use of information, adjustment and persuasion. Press agentry was the very first part of PR development. This phase was aimed at trying to create publicity for clients with no regard for honesty or truth. It was a type of information dissemination.

The following phase was public information, According to PR gurus, this form of PR was comprised of former journalists representing clients’ interests and also constituted the issuing of press releases to different media outlets just like ordinary journalists would do. The press agentry and public information types of PR were formulated based on technical skills along with media relations, writing with words and images. One-way dissemination of information was the basis for these types of PR.

Next in the development of PR is the asymmetrical model which is a concept borrowed from behavioral psychology. The objective of Public Relations in this case is to identify the knowledge and understanding about a client’s or an organization’s issues that are of great importance. Once this knowledge and understanding is gained, it is then incorporated into the PR messages and distributed by the company. The other model, the symmetrical model was proposed between the years 1960-1980. This model uses research on public opinion but not with the aim to persuade but rather to create and maintain a mutually beneficial relationship between the organization and its publics.

2.2 History of Advertising Value Evaluation

Advertising Value Evaluation is a method that has being used by PR Practitioners from way back. However, it has never been considered a valuable evaluation method in academic and PR literature. In 2010 around the month of July, the PR industry began the process of stopping the use of AVE in the future as a tool for evaluating Public Relations campaigns. In the year 2011, the International Association for the Measurement and Evaluation of Communication (AMEC) mentioned the word ‘outlawed’ when talking about AVE, (AMEC, 2011). Advertising Value Evaluation was rejected as a method as they do not have any relevance to the financial value of an organization. The method does not reflect what the PR campaign achieves. Any successful PR campaign must have tangible results for it to be described as successful. The fact that AVE does not help provide such results makes the method invalid.

The debate on the validity of AVE is obviously one that has existed for many years. There are those who feel that the method serves the purpose it is intended for which is to determine the value of PR campaigns while other feel that new methods are necessary for PR practitioners if they are to show professionalism in their field. Data obtained from Metrics showed that the advertising value fell in the year 2008. By 2007, the AVE per article for the ordinary organization within the UK was at £ 7,520 while the monthly AVE for an organization was at an average £ 3.7m. These figures fell to £ 6,358 and £ 2.2 m respectively in 2008. This means that those organizations that were still using AVE as their PR evaluation method has a terrible year in 2008 because they had set targets that would be impossible to achieve. This goes to show that AVE has long been identified as an inefficient method for evaluating the success of PR campaigns.

2.3 Theoretical Review

This section presents theories that were used during the study to guide the research carried out. It is quite difficult to find any particular theory on evaluation of Public Relations in literature but it is possible to use evaluation theories and models to discuss the evaluation process in the PR practice. The study used the Pyramid Model and the Preparation, Implementation and Impact (II) Model.


2.3.1 Pyramid Model

The Pyramid Model of Public Relations research is an improved version of the Macro Model of PR evaluation (Macnamara, 1992). Just like a pyramid, the model is read starting from the bottom while heading to the top. The bottom part of the model represents the ground zero of the strategic management of the PR campaign or that of the firm that leads to the needed results such as attitude or behavior. This means that at the start of any PR campaign, there is a lot of information and also a wide range of options to consider in terms of media and activities. The model shows that selection and choices are made with the aim of targeting particular messages to a specific audience targeted via media which in the end results to achievement of a pre-set objective. This is the peak of the entire program. The three-step pyramid model helps in evaluation of results, inputs and outputs while providing options for the next undertaking that should be implemented by a PR practitioner.

In the model, inputs refer to the strategic and physical components of communication campaigns or projects which consist of choice of medium to use, format and content. On the other hand, outputs are comprised of physical materials such as publications, the activities and the processes to produce those materials. Outcomes refer to the attitudinal and behavioral effects of communication. The model puts effort in trying to be instructive and practical by listing various proposed procedures for research for each of the three stages (Macnamara, 1993).

Figure 2.1: Pyramid Model of PR Research (Macnamara, 1993)

The significance of the Pyramid Model to the study is that it assists in analyzing the main steps in the process of communication with particular measurement tool for PR practitioners to choose where, what and when to use the tools. The model also supports the closed and open system evaluation. Baskin and Aronoff (1992) show that the main focus of closed systems is the messages and evens planned to be used in a PR campaign and the effect it has on the targeted audience. Through a closed evaluation system, PR professionals are able to test messages and media before using them then using the results attained to compare with those gotten during the test to see if they activities achieved the desired effect.

Through the use of an open system evaluation, it was determined that there are elements beyond the control of the communication program that influence the results acquired hence need an open-minded approach. This approach views the communication on the basis of the organization’s effectiveness. Quite often, the most suitable options comprise of the closed and open system evaluation. The Pyramid Model does not exhaust all the research methods but only highlights them as a representation of both formal and informal research methods that can be used by PR practitioners (Broom, 2009)

2.3.2 Preparation, Implementation and Impact (II) Model

The PII Model of Evaluation was developed by Cutlip, Broom and Center (Broom, 2009).The model is formulated on three levels or steps namely: Preparation, Implementation and Impact. This model illustrates the importance of the three steps of preparation, implementation and impact as it helps to avoid substitution. This means it guarantees that the amount of press releases issued is not used as a tool of measure in the impact level hence separating outputs and outcomes. The PII model suggests that PR practitioners should put into consideration the values of messages, information base and appropriateness in the first stage of preparation then use the last impact stage to measure any behavior or social change. (Broom & Sha (2013) showed that the last level of the model which is the impact phase is aimed at researching any repeated social or cultural change, attitude change, gain of knowledge, opinion change and behavior change. In order to research all these possible outcomes, a lot of funds are needed together with skills and time. The lack of these three main resources is identified as one of the major barriers to effective PR evaluation.

This model is important to the study as it focuses on the evaluating stages of a PR campaign. The model suggests that PR professionals should use the planning, implementation and impact identification stages of a campaign to prepare for evaluation. A PR campaign is made up of various stages meant to identify the objectives of the campaign, the actions to take to achieve those objectives, choosing the communication tools to be used and the messages. Evaluation pf the impact of a PR campaign against the pre-set objectives comes at the last stage.

Despite the model’s significance on PR evaluation, it also has its limitations. It assumes that the process of evaluation is linear. The model assumes that once a phase has been evaluated, everything about it ends at that hence should not go back to be modified after evaluation. This lack of the opportunity to adjust evaluations hinders PR Practitioners from continuously monitoring the campaign hence they are unable to determine if it is going on successfully or if there are elements that need to be modified for it to succeed. Due to this, a campaign continues with components that are not working which eventually leads to failure of the PR campaign (Dozier, 1992).



Figure 2.2: Preparation, Implementation and Impact Model (Dozier, 1992).


2.4 Empirical Review

This segment discusses literature content on AVE as a PR evaluation tool and other PR measurement tools that are preferred by practitioners. The section is aligned with the objectives of the study.

2.4.1 Strengths of Advertising Value Evaluation Method

Advertising Value Equivalents or ad values are calculated by multiplying the column centimeters of an editorial print coverage together with the seconds of broadcast publicity by the respective advertising rates for the media used. The amount of editorial coverage is valued as an advert regardless of its tone or content. Although there is a lot of controversy on the relationship between advertising and Public Relations which is the basis for the AVE method, the method still has some positive things about it.

The use of AVE is simply fantastic on the basis of client relationship. There is nothing that feels as good as telling a client that they have gotten media coverage at an AVE of £ 5m. The client is happy and the PR agency gets to look good. It is a similar case when one goes to the board of directors of a company and tell them that a PR agency got coverage at an AVE of £ 5m on a budget of just £ 5,000 in turn makes the client look good too. The ability to compare PR to advertising directly makes the industry and the profession look good. Advertising Value Equivalents also make it easy to explain the value of Public Relations even to people who have never heard it before and are not familiar with media or marketing (Wallace, 2009).

In times of economic hardships where financial managers are in control of the Managing Directors, it pays to have clear Return on Investment (ROI) that can be provided upon questioning. When trying to justify investments in any PR related activity, financial directors may not be interested in the number of media platforms that the firm has appeared. However, if the communications department names a significant ROI that has been achieved due to that investment in PR, the finance director will be glad it was done. This is a tool that can help PR agencies beat their competitions. Using AVE also gives clients assurance that their million-worth investments will definitely pay off (Wallace, 2009). This is why it is widely accepted and requested by many clients as more and more clients are looking for assurance of media coverage. This eliminates the issue of PR agencies telling clients that they cannot tell them how much coverage they will get. Thanks to AVE, agencies can no longer get away with that and clients can enjoy fearlessness as they sell it to their board of directors because they are sure it will be accepted.

2.4.2 Limitations of Advertising Value Evaluation Method

As much as most client prefer use of AVE, the method has been identified to have some serious flaws which show that it is not the best way to measure the success of PR campaigns. The first major flaw is the fact that AVE does not take into account the difference in credibility between advertising and editorial coverage. Studies suggest that credibility is not constant rather it varies by topic and over time. This further suggests that there cannot be a fixed multiplier as suggested by AVE method. Another factor that deems AVE unsuitable is the difference in messages in advertising and PR, Advertising uses controlled messages whereas PR uses uncontrolled messages hence the article’s content is important in the evaluation of its value. In addition, messages used in advertising are normally repetitive and homogenous whereas PR uses a totally different approach that involves constant changes to identify the message that has the most impact on the publics (Macnamara, 2006).

The AVE method fails to take into account the quality of coverage such as the key messages, tonality and the spokesperson effect. In cases where there is neutral coverage, AVE method will still give that a rating and it will not be a zero. Another factor that AVE fails to consider is that editorial publicity can be negative. It does not make sense to compare creative advertising with negative publicity. However, this is exactly what AVE does in its calculations. Those practitioners who feel they cannot use any other method in their evaluation have to go to the trouble of eliminating negative paragraphs, sections of articles or even whole articles and this can be very time consuming.

The concept behind AVE makes the method flawed considering that editorial coverage can be in low priority media or media that does not reach the audience targeted. Such media that is low on circulation and does not reach the audience targeted may never be used for advertising but can be used for PR campaigns which makes the comparison between PR and advertising meaningless. The calculation for AVE are normally based on casual advertising rates which are usually higher than those rates used for advertising campaigns. This only further invalidates the so-called value of PR and makes AVE statistically incorrect (Macnamara, 2006).

The most significant flaw of all that makes AVE a wrong choice for PR evaluation is that AVEs only calculate the cost of buying media space that is equivalent to space covered by an article and time for advertising but are not a measure of value. Advertising is not evaluated on the basis of the cost because this would mean advertising is only valuable because it costs a certain amount which does not make sense. Today, the value of advertising is determined based on audience reach, recall of messages and share of voice. Even more, advertising is measured based on outcomes such as sales generated, inquiries or leads. The value is obtained from the achievement of those objectives. Considering AVEs mix metrics from two different parts of the balance sheet makes them financially invalid as well.

2.4.3 Preferred Tools for PR Measurement

There are many other better and more accurate tools available to PR practitioners that they could use to measure the outcome of PR campaigns. Some of the most common tools used to measure the impact of PR include Media Content Analysis, Cyberspace Analysis, Case studies, Public Opinion Polls, event and trade shows measurement (Grunig, 1983). This segment is aligned with the research objectives hence will discuss these tools and show why they are more preferred unlike Advertising Value Equivalents. Cyberspace Analysis

The term cyberspace refers to the online world comprised of the internet and other computer networks. With the growing technology present today, chat rooms, forums and new web groups are becoming an important tool for measuring an organization’s positioning. The same method used in assessing print articles and broadcastings can be used to evaluate postings made in cyberspace. Nowadays, more commentaries are found on the web not on print media and this can be used as an output measurement for PR by conducting reviews and analysis of cyberspace postings.

The other output measurement tool that can be used is the review and analysis of website traffic patterns. Cyberspace analysis involves a lot of things. These include assessing the requests made by visitors to the firm’s website. Browsers on the internet use a review of flash-click streams or click-through. This can be used for analysis by checking traffic times, home page visits and returned feedback forms. A review of the amount of time spent on each page and the bytes transferred can also be helpful in carrying out cyberspace analysis (Pavlik, 1987). Media Content Analysis

Media content analysis is defined as a sub-set of content analysis, a deeply established qualitative research method (Macnamara, 2005). McNamara shows that there are two major types of media content analysis; quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis involves gathering of data on the relationship between the text meaning and the expected audience. When it comes to quantitative content analysis, it involves collecting data on media content such as topics or issues discussed, volume of mentions and messages identified by analyzing key words present in the context, audience reach and frequency.

Lai and To (2015) agree on the fact that media content analysis is one tool that is used in measuring the effect of social media in PR campaigns. A paper written by the 2003 Institute for Public Relations on the guidelines for evaluating the success of PR activities and campaigns showed that there are many variables available that can be adopted in the measurement of media content analysis. These include, media vehicle variables, audience variables, subjective variables, news item variables and subject variables.

Measurement and research in evaluation is conducted in three levels from bottom level to the top most level (Lindenmann, 1993). Output refers to the way a PR campaign is presented through various media relations. Out-growth measures how messages are received with the purpose of creating awareness, retention and comprehension through quantitative and qualitative methods. Outcome and behavioral changes measure opinions and attitudes using pre and post-campaign research. It also uses an array of commercial market research methods, social science techniques and polling. In addition, PR professionals can use either evaluation of outcomes or output to evaluate PR campaigns.

A study conducted in Australia on how to use evaluation techniques and performance showed the impact of PR campaigns that used evaluation methods (Xavier, 2005). The study showed that more than 80 campaigns used outcome evaluation while 106 campaigns used output evaluation. The outcome evaluation method usage in the study was at 26% as PR practitioners used evaluation approaches of three at an average consisting of two output evaluation methods and one outcome evaluation method for each campaign. At the end, the number of output methods used were six while outcome methods were four. Events and Trade Shows Measurements

The main objective of PR campaigns is to create and maintain a mutually beneficial relationship between a firm and its publics. One way of achieving this is through holding special events, creating speaking opportunities or staging trade shows. The amount of people who attend these events is one way to determine the output and evaluate the effect of the PR campaign which in this case is the trade show or event planned. The number of materials used for promotional purposes is also included here together with the interviews generated from those who attended and the different personalities that attended the events or show. In certain scenarios, such events or shows bring about media presence which enables the PR practitioner to carry out media content analysis of the articles that will result from the media coverage (Lindenmann, 1990). Case Studies

Case studies have proved to be very effective in PR evaluation as they provide a lot of descriptive information as compared to other evaluation tools. They provide helpful insight into what was effective and what was not in different contexts and why the methods used in those contexts did not work as expected. For examples, case studies carried out on alcohol and tobacco are comprised of personal experiences from victims of alcohol and tobacco abuse and other targeted publics. This information is used to measure the effect of such information on behavior to see if people will change their practices related to alcohol and tobacco (Jernigan, 1994) Public Opinion Polls

Public Opinion polls are carried out in an attempt to measure PR by identifying if targeted groups were or were not exposed to certain concepts or messages. They also help to assess the effectiveness of any promotional effort carried out. For example, after a PR practitioner has hosted an event or show, they can conduct a short survey to determine what people thought of the whole thing and the main concepts that they picked from the event which was a PR campaign (Pavlik, 1987).This will help the PR practitioner to assess the outcome of the campaign and determine if the set objectives of the PR campaign were met. Most of PR campaigns are conducted in areas with the most population of the intended audience hence the opinion polls received will be an effective evaluation tool for the PR campaign.



















3.0 Introduction

This chapter discusses the data collection and research design applied in the study. This section will also cover the population, sampling design, research procedure, data analysis methods used and the chapter summary. Other issues discussed in this chapter include the reliability and validity of the results.

Public Relations evaluations is an issue that has been a hot topic for debates within and outside the PR profession for many years now. The basis of this chapter is to gather evidence of the invalidity of AVE as an evaluation tool and evidence on better tools that can be used in future for better results by PR Practitioners.

3.1 Research Design

The study adopted the review design specifically systematic review. There is a lot of literature and research conducted on PR evaluation methods considering the issue has been debated for years. This makes the systematic review method a good way to gather evidence on the subject. It provides the study with secondary data to use for provision of evidence on the study subject hence saving on time and costs that would have been used gathering primary data. Systematic reviews are aimed at providing exhaustive evidence and conclusions related using literature that is relevant to the research question. The method uses a transparent approach for synthesis of research and objective with the primary aim of minimizing bias. The method was used due to its ability to open the research to various works or studies done by prominent authors hence successfully answering the research question.

3.2 Target Population

The study used any literature that could be found on the internet and academic databases to come up with evidence material that could provide indisputable answers to the research question. The study used various literature search engines to achieve as many relevant literature as possible. Various databases were searched to come up with studies on PR evaluation methods. The study also used various articles written on Public Relations. In addition, various search engines were searched for possible web pages that might provide valid references.

3.3 Sampling Techniques

In order to identify the appropriate literature to use, the study used specific search using a group of keywords hence sieving out numerous results to give only relevant published articles or studies. Articles found during the search were assesses for biases which is either the exaggeration or underestimation of content. If such articles were found, they were put aside. Another sampling technique involved looking at the content covered. The study adopted material that focused mainly on PR evaluation methods and nothing else related to PR. Therefore, only literature or studies discussing PR evaluation methods were used in the study.

3.4 Sample Size

The search conducted lead to discovery of 100 articles. Out of the 100, half of them (50) were put aside for being bias while others were put aside for their lack of needed content. Out of the 100 original sample, only 7 ended up being adopted in the study.

3.5 Data Collection Methods

The study used the internet and PR databases to gather literature and collect various studies conducted regarding the measurement tools for evaluation of PR campaigns. Some of the searches conducted include the following urls and databases:

Google scholar


Public relations review journals

3.6 Data Analysis

The results from the various literature gathered was analyzed through statistical means using the main points gathered from each article all contributing to answering the research question. The analysis is aimed at showing the effect of AVE as a PR evaluation tool and other tools that have proven to yield better results and have less flaws as compared to AVE.













4.1 Introduction

This chapter shows how data collected from various reviews was analyzed and presented. The chapter will be arranged based on the main concepts form the gathered literature.

4.2 Advertising Value Evaluations

Advertising Value Evaluations is common among clients or bosses who demand it is used by their PR agencies. However, the Institute of Public Relations Commission does not endorse the method as a valid PR evaluation tool. The commission shows that the problem with AVE does not lie with its calculations but rather lies with the name itself and the way it is used. The method being referred to as ‘advertising equivalency’ highly implies that a news story printed on a particular size of paper has similar impact to an advertisement put in the same article of similar size to the news story (Bruce, 2003).

It is not exactly simple to compare the relationship between advertising and news stories. For example, many studies have been carried out in the journalism field in the recent years showing that in the past decades, an increase in entertainment components introduced into news stories has seen the credibility of news media slowly decline. Journalists refer to this as credibility crisis. There have been surveys carried out in the recent years asking people how much credibility they have put into advertising and news media and the results have shown a drop of credibility in news stories (Watson, 2013). The survey has also shown the level of credibility people have in news stories varies depending on the topic hence showing that the relationship between advertising and news stories cannot be constant but rather varies over topic and time. Not being able to easily compare this relationship goes ahead to dhow it is even more impossible to know what multipliers to apply in calculations.

Another issue that makes the use of AVE so debatable is that the method only values only what appears in the media. This is contradicting considering most Public Relations practitioners normally guide their clients to behave in a manner that results to absence of publicity. This means that in such cases, absence of publicity is what is valued and is what is desired. The Advertising Value Evaluation’s method has no way to reflect such value. On the other hand, the issue of different types of communications in advertising and news is also a concern related to AVEs. Advertisements are normally part of a campaign which involves repetition of the same adverts in the media. It is a very huge possibility that an individual sees that advertisement several times. Various studies show that repeated exposure to particular content in this case an advert or commercial creates significant effect on the perception, awareness, behavior and attitude of consumers.


Unlike advertisements, news stories work very differently. One news story is not repeated severally but rather an individual is exposed to a number of stories of different topics and events. Even when the news is on the same topic, the stories are bound to be different considering they are written by different journalists who have varying facts, views, personalities and delivery skills. Other stories may be loved than others or may be more insightful than others. So yes we know that exposure to news stories also has an impact on consumers but what we do not know is hot to create comparison between the homogenous messages of advertisements and the diverse messages delivered through news coverage (Watson, 2012).

Apart from these conceptual problems, there are also logistical problems related to AVEs. A good example is the fact that advertising rates do not exist in many scenarios. It is rare to find articles that accept adverts on the front pages or in major sections. There are even those broadcast shows that do not accept any advertising at all. This is unfortunate because these media and locations within the media are often the ones coveted by many. This spots within the media are the most prominent which is why any big news is placed in these spots because they are the most influential. Although supporters and users of the AVE method may have developed alternatives in cases where ad rates are not available, these techniques definitely undermine the basic PR concepts.

Another logistical problem with AVE calculations is the lack of an advertising equivalent to an unfavorable or bad story. This leaves a gap in such cases because how then are such news to be handled. Are bad or unfavorable stories supposed to be ignored and use AVEs to calculate only the favorable stories? Are the unfavorable stories supposed to be subtracted from the favorable ones and AVE calculated on net? What about the neutral stories? Do they fall under favorable or unfavorable stories? (Bruce, 2003). These are just some of the controversies raised by use of AVE calculations.

4.3 Most used evaluation tools

There is a significant difference between the methods of PR evaluation that were used in the past and those used in the recent years. Despite the fact that the issue of evaluation of Public Relations was brought to light many years ago, there has been slow progress in addressing the issue on the part of PR practitioners. According to a 2000 survey carried out on Marketing Directors in the UK, Public Relations had the lowest percentage of satisfaction rate of marketing directors with its evaluation. Other fields in which the satisfaction rate of the marketing directors was determined included direct marketing, sales promotion and advertising. This is presented in the chart below:

Figure 4.1: Satisfaction rate of marketing directors in the UK with evaluation of sales promotion, advertising, public relations and direct marketing (Test Research survey of UK Marketing Directors, 2000.)

This survey clearly indicates a lot of effort needs to be put by PR practitioners. It is quite clear that evaluation research by PR practitioners is used poorly and there is a need for major reforms to be made in the area in order to attain high levels of accountability and professionalism.

In 2002, a congress held in Cairo by the International Public Relations Association agreed that the measurement of corporate communication and PR was still among the hottest issue in the industry worldwide. John Pavlik in his book on PR research said that “measuring the effectiveness of PR has proved almost as elusive as finding the Holy Grail” (Pavlik, 1987, P.65).In a landmark study of 1988 conducted by Walter Lindenmann, a survey was carried out on 945 PR practitioners within the US and the study concluded that most methods used in opublic relations research were sytill informal and casualk rather then being scientific (Macnamara, 2008). The study referred to as the Kethcum study showed that 54% of 253 respondents strongly agreed that research for PR evaluation would grow in the 1990s while 9 out of 10 PR practitioners agreed that there was a need for PR research to become more complex. (Lindenmann, 1990).

In an internet survey carried out by the Public Relations Society of America on 4,200 members, it was identified that press clippings or tapes were the most commonly used measurement and evaluation tool in PR. 82% of PR professionals showed comp-lete reliance on the method. On the other hand, intuition was cited as the second most common method with 50% of PR professionals admiting it to being a reliable method which is actually quite surprising.There were practitioners who still believed in AVE as an evaluation method with other methods used including media content analysis, focus groups, audience surveys among others.The results of the study are as shown below:

Figure 4.2: methods most used to measure PR (Media Relations Reality Check Internet survey of Public Relations Society of America members, 2001)




The fact that AVE has been identified as an invalid PR evaluation tool has not made practitioners to stop using the method mostly because it is requested for by bosses and clients hence are forced to use. However, studies show that the AVE method should be limited only to the financial impact of PR campaigns as it fails to capture other effects of PR campaigns due to the flaws in the concept behind the method. The other methods such as clippings, audience impressions and content analysis have proven to be effective from various research and literature written on the methods and the rate at which these methods are being accepted by PR practitioners as shown by the figure above prove the methods are effective in PR measurement and evaluation.















5.0 Introduction

This chapter uses the results gathered from the systematic reviews to give conclusive statements on the research questions and provide definite answers based on the evidence provided. The summary and conclusions part of the chapter focus on collecting the main concepts and ideas form the study and showing how they all contribute to arriving at a solution to the research question. The chapter also identifies areas of future study through identifying gaps in PR related research that can be addressed in future studies. It is also in this chapter that the limitations of the study are identified.

5.1 Summary

Evaluation of Public Relations campaign is a very important aspect in the PR profession. Although there are still numerous debates on Advertising Value Evaluation as a PR evaluation tool, it is clear that AVE is not the best way to measure the success of PR campaigns. The method has major flaws such as comparing editorial coverage with advertising when they are not similar at all right from the way they are presented and everything else.

Another major flaw that eliminates AVE as the best way to measure the success of PR campaigns is AVEs only calculate the cost of purchasing similar media time and space for advertising. Determining the cost is very different from measuring the value. The cost itself that is claimed to be measured by the AVE method is highly hypothetical because there is no evidence that supports the concept that media time or space gained by editorial coverage would have been bought for advertising purposes.

Advertising Value Equivalency is based on the concept that editorial coverage and advertising are similar which is totally wrong. The content used in advertising is highly controlled unlike editorial content which is highly flexible or variable. The two features also differ significantly when it comes to issues of presentation and placement. Arguments on editorial coverage having nothing in common with advertising do not mean that advertising is more effective than editorial coverage. There are cases where editorial coverage can have much greater impact compared with same level advertising. For example, when one or two columns of editorial coverage in an influential media or section such as a positive review of a restaurant can have great outcomes such as boosting of share prices or sales. However, the same space featuring an advertisement may not have the same effect if it were purchased. Nevertheless, the AVE results for such an editorial coverage would be really small hence significantly under-estimating the PR value in that scenario.

Despite these flaws of AVE being brought to light by numerous literature and through various studies conducted by PR practitioners, we still witness the continued use of AVE as a PR evaluation tool. The continued use of AVE poses major risks to the Public Relations industry as well as other research and media monitoring firms. To begin with, the method deviates the PR industry from pursuing, researching on and adopting valid evaluation and research methods hence holding back the growth of the PR professions, its acceptance by society and its reliability in a professional sense. Secondly, the exposure of AVEs and the multipliers used as faulty over a long time brings out a lack of ethics in the PR profession because some of the PR practitioners still insist on using the method despite knowing this. Most codes of ethics in the PR profession contain clauses that warn against knowingly presenting misleading and inaccurate information to employers or clients.

An approach that has been identified throughout the study to have better effect and cover all important aspects required for evaluation of PR campaigns is the content analysis method. In this time and age where a lot of people spend a lot of time on technology gadgets or social media and depend on technology to know just about everything ranging from news, lifestyle trends and fashion, media content analysis is a method that makes more sense to use today.

Although technology is more adequate today or rather in abundance, this is not to say that media content analysis has only being adopted in the recent years; no. Content analysis is a research methodology in Public Relations that has been used since the year 1920s. Media content analysis is among the best methods to evaluate PR campaigns because it takes into consideration some of the major variables such as the audience reach, placement of the editorial, size of article, sources, messages communicated among many more other important variables in Public Relations..

5.2 Conclusion

5.2.1 Preferred PR measurement tools for evaluating PR campaigns

Through the systematic review methodology used in the study, it was confirmed that the most common method used in evaluating PR campaigns is the media content analysis method. Various literature and studies gathered from the systematic review proved beyond reasonable doubt that AVE was not a valid PR evaluation tool to use in determine the value for PR campaigns by giving details on the factors that make the method inaccurate. There are many other better and more accurate tools available to PR practitioners that they could use to measure the outcome of PR campaigns. Other preferred tools as identified in the study include, audience reach, web surveys, case studies, audience impressions among others. The study showed how each of these methods worked and gave satisfactory insight on why the media content analysis was the best preferred method.

5.2.2 Effect of evaluation tools on PR practice and profession

The study confirmed that AVE did indeed have an impact on PR practice and as a profession only that it was not a positive effect. The debate on the validity of AVE is obviously one that has existed for many years. There are those who feel that the method serves the purpose it is intended for which is to determine the value of PR campaigns while other feel that new methods are necessary for PR practitioners if they are to show professionalism in their field.

The study identified other tools that have been proven to have better results that are more reliable and more accurate. However, there is still some slack among PR practitioner in adopting these other methods especially those used to the AVE method or agencies whose clients insist on the AVE method to be used. In failing to elaborate to clients the effects of using the AVE method and continuing to use the method that they know is faulty shows great unprofessionalism and lack of moral ethics among such PR practitioners. It is not in the best interest of PR practitioners to be in the middle of unethical practices considering people acquire their services to look good to the public and nobody in their right mind would hire a PR agency already having a stained reputation form unethical practices.

Evaluation is an important aspect in the field of Public Relations, one which should be taken very seriously if PR is ever to have a chance of being accepted as a serious and valid profession. There are many multi-billion dollar companies that feel they can do without the services of PR agencies instead use on of their own to handle their publicity matters. In order for such things to change, PR practitioners need to go back to their boards and conduct extensive research on suitable evaluation methods that are clear, precise, accurate and reliable. This way they will be more confident in their abilities and more able to approach clients with methods that they can explain and leave the client satisfied beyond doubt.

5.3 Limitations of the study

The study failed to get into enough detail regarding the many options provided for other PR evaluation methods. Use of systematic review methodology also exposes the study to some level of bias despite precautions taken during selection of articles to use. The study could also have used more studies or gathered more data in order to get more conclusive results however this was limited by the number or bias articles which made the study to use just a few numbers of articles to limit bias and inaccuracy in data. Another limitation was in the research question which was limited to one specific method which limited the study from discussing a lot of other methods that may be used in the PR profession but are invalid.

5.4 Recommendations for further study

The research conducted an analysis of PR evaluation tools in different parts of the world. It did not focus on a specific country or state. There is need for further study that will be particular to specific countries to establish different PR in individual parts of the world. This will help create better insight than when research is generalized. There is also need for further research to be done on each of the preferred PR evaluation tolls in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses and just how much their weaknesses impact the PR practice and profession. Another issue that calls for further study is why PR practitioners still use the AVE method despite its many identified flaws and steps taken in the profession to protect employers or clients form inaccurate data as a result of using the AVE method.





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Bookkeeping/Office Management paper


The business that is being opened it a bookkeeping plus office management business. We would provide the service or we can provide a software that can handle both bookkeeping and office management.


Bookkeeping/Office Management

With the recent increase in competition in the global market, organizations and businesses are keen to improve the quality of their products and services while at the same time maintaining high standards of accountability, transparency and office management.  To be transparent and accountable, an organization needs to have an efficient bookkeeping department and ensure that office managers are always working at the highest level possible.  As a result, my company has decided to seize this opportunity in the market to start a bookkeeping and office management firm known as G-10 holdings. Bookkeeping encompasses the recording of all financial transactions in a company such as sales, receipts and both individual and organizational payments.  On the other hand, office management widely focuses on designing, implementing, evaluating and maintaining of the work processes within a firm to improve efficiency and effectiveness (Chopra & Bhatia, 2009).

Question 1

Vision statement

We are aspiring to create a work environment where employees can grow and find freedom to fulfill their potential.

Question 2

A vision statement of any organization should provide a strategic direction and describe where the investor wants to achieve both in the short and long term future. Therefore, a vision statement should inspire and provides a sense of motivation for all employees. Investors may use different processes to come up with the best vision statements for their companies.  However, to create the above vision statement, the process below was used:

  1. Defining the output of the company rather than the input – the first step should be clearly informing the customers what the organization does. Therefore, the vision statement should remain output focused rather than input focused which will eventually have a high impact on the market compared to an input focused statement.
  2. Defining what unique twist the organization brings to the outcome mentioned in the first step – considering that it is rare to find new products in the market since most of them are renovations of what exist in the market, the investor needs to show why he thinks he is different from other investors and producers. The investor needs to convince the employees that his organization would be successful where other have failed because of …something that he must define this something and include it in the vision statement (“How to Write a Good Vision Statement | Cascade Strategy Blog,” n.d.).
  3. Application of high-level quantification – to come up with the best vision statement, there is the need to avoid a too visionary vision statement. Therefore, a company should not be too specific or include the application of particular metrics to avoid frustrations or cynicism among the employees and the target customers in case things go south.
  4. The addition of relatable, human and real world aspects – the secret to a good visionary statement is the addition of a real-world aspect that helps both the employees and customers to create a mental picture that can be associated with the vision statement. Such a move will encourage the employees and customers to participate in furthering the objectives and goals of the company.



Question 3

With the increased use of technology and internet, customers are increasingly becoming aware of their value and importance to the organization. Therefore to win a better competitive position in the market, the company needs to have a sound business strategy that focuses on:

  1. Getting personal with the clients – the real reason why the company was formed is to provide bookkeeping and office management services to their customers, therefore to remain at the top of the game, the company needs to listen and learn what their customers need before producing these products in the market.
  2. Customizing customers products – some customers are very strict to what they need and desire. Therefore, to win their trust, there is the need to know them better to enable the company to provide customized product, services, and experiences (Ghemawat, 2010).
  3. Entertaining customers – as a new enterprise, the company should focus on attracting customers through entertainment in a bid to create brand awareness as well as retaining the existing customers.

Question 4

The organization will use democratic management still where the managers will allow the employees to take part in decision making so that the employees can feel like part of the organization and give them the sense of belonging and importance. Additionally, this forms of management helps to eliminate all office politics that can threaten the integration of the employees

Question 5

  1. Chief financial officer – the chief financial officer will b the overall leader of the organization and should be involved in all decision-making processes his work will mainly focus on overseeing that the organization is moving in the right direction as a unit (Ringen, 2013,).
  2. Functional manager engineering – the manager in this department will be responsible for supervising all engineers and overseeing all the engineering work go as planned. He should report to the CEO.
  3. Functional manager marketing – should be the leader of the marking team with a sole aim of promoting the company’s products and services to new and existing customers
  4. Functional manager sales – he should be in charge of the sales team where all the plans and strategies for this department should go through him. He should be in charge of distribution of the company’s products and services to the customers.



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Ghemawat, P. (2010). Strategy and the business landscape. Boston: Pearson.

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Ringen, S. (2013). Nation of devils: Democratic leadership and the problem of obedience.