The environment in which human beings and animals that we live are far much detailed and complex than most individuals think.  The natural environment comprises of all living things and non-living things occurring naturally on earth’s surface or in a specific area. Both human and plants have to find a natural living balance to ensure that there is a balanced ecology in the environment we live in. On the same note, human population in a specific region may have both positive and negative effects on the surrounding environment. Moreover, the human population can be defined as the total number of human living in a region. Depending on the population number in the region, under population and overpopulation may have both constructive and adverse effects.  However, human activities on the surface of the earth are known to bring about environmental issues. Environmental issues are defined as the harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.  Environmental protection should be paramount to all humans to ensure that more emphasis is put on protecting the natural environment on individual, organization and governmental levels (Sobotka, 2008). Environmental protection will definitely lead to ecological balance thus producing high-quality breathing air and living environment.

Describe the demographic transition model and how it was developed by demographers.

For a country to witness population growth, there is the need to increase the birth rate while at the same time reducing the mortality rate. As a result, most demographers emphasizes on demographic transition to put the population growth in the check to ensure a country is neither under populated nor overpopulated. Demographic transition comprises of the transition from high birth, and mortality rate to lower birth and death rates as a region transforms and moves from pre-industrial to and industrialized and developed the economic system.  With the development of new in agriculture and production and advancement in health and sanitation, demographers were able to control and predict the birth rate and mortality rate.

Describe the 4 phases of demographic transition.

There are four main stages that are followed by demographers that include pre-transition that is characterized by high birth rates and high fluctuating death rates and as a result population size remains fairly constantly.   The second stage is widely known as an early transition that is characterized by the decline of death rates while the birth rate remains high due to the introduction of modern medicine. The third stage known as the late transition is characterized by a decline in birth rate as a result of improved economic conditions and increase in women status in the society. Finally, the last stage is post-transition that is characterized by low birth rate and low death rate due to stronger economies, higher levels of education and better healthcare.

For each phase, compare crude birth rates (CBR) to crude death rates (CDR), and state whether the population is stable, growing, or declining in each. ·

The crude birth rate is the number of live births occurring among the population while the crude death rate is the number of deaths occurring in a given geographical area. In the first phase, there is an increase I n birth rate and an increase in death rate meaning there is minimal or no change in the population size. In the second phase, there is a decline in death rate but an increase in birth rate thus resulting in a growing population (Cervellati, 2011). On the third stage, there is a slight decline in birth rate but the population is growing but slowly. Finally, in the final phase, both the birth rate and death rate are low thus the population is stable.

According to demographers, what factors lead to a decline of the CDR in phase two and the CBR in phase three of the demographic transition? ·

According to demographers, improvement and advancement in medicine and improvement in agricultural technology have resulted in a decrease in crude death rates in the second phase. On the other hand, in stage three improved economic conditions, an increase in women’s status and access contraception are some of the factors that have lead to an increase in crude birth rate.

Briefly describe 3 living conditions in developed countries that have reached phase four, and contrast them with these same conditions in developing countries that remain in earlier phases.

There is a wide difference between developed and developing countries especially when it comes to living conditions. Some of the living conditions in developed countries include differences in wealth, health care and quality of the goods and services produced and distributed. Most of the individuals in developed country are wealthy thus experiencing improved living standard compared to developing country that lives and earn below a dollar each day. On the other hand, developed countries haven better health care facilities to high investment in medical technology while developing countries have no investment funds to invest in medicine field. Finally, the developed countries always produce high-quality products and services since they produce industrialized products as compared to agricultural products produced by developing countries (Mason, 2007).

Research and describe a program for developing countries that would help improve 1 of the 3 conditions that you compared.

For developing countries to improve the level and quality of the products and services they offer, they have to transform from selling raw agricultural products to the developed countries and later buying them as finished products. They should rather process them and sell them as finished products as they move from agricultural products to industrial products.

Food security means that everyone has an adequate amount of nutritious food to lead healthy lives. Research and describe 1 specific program that helps developing countries reach food security goals.

To reach food security goals, developing countries should strive to reduce by half the proportion of the size of the population living on less than a dollar a day through the creation of employment and increase in investment opportunities. By reducing the proportion of the number people who suffer from extreme poverty and hunger, a country can improve its food security programs and goals in general.


Cervellati, M. &. (2011). Life expectancy and economic growth: the role of the demographic transition. . Journal of economic growth, 16(2), , 99-133.

Mason, A. &. (2007). Transfers, capital, and consumption over the demographic transition. Population aging, intergenerational transfers and the macroeconomy, , 128-162.

Sobotka, T. (2008). Overview chapter 6: The diverse faces of the second demographic transition in Europe. Demographic research, 19(8),, 171-224.


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