- If the United States were to close the borders to all immigrants, how would that affect immigration trends worldwide? What might happen if all countries closed their borders? How would zero population growth affect the age geography of a country? Research and locate a thematic map that illustrates this concept. (has to have at least 150 words, excluding your greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)
- Propose some solutions for each effect identified. Does the United States have its own culture, or is it a culture that has been created by mixing other cultures together? Provide examples in your response. (has to have at least 150 words, excluding greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)
- How could city planners avoid certain areas of a city from becoming wealthy and other areas to become impoverished when developing a city? How can impoverished areas become revitalized? (has to have at least 150 words, excluding greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)
- What causes certain areas of a city to become wealthy and other areas to become impoverished? (has to have at least 150 words, excluding greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)
- How would ethnic cleansing be an accepted practice in society today? (has to have at least 150 words, excluding greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)
- Discuss any following Electronic Reserve Reading. (has to have at least 150 words, excluding greeting, signature, quoted/cited text, and the references.)
Course name and number
If the U.S. closed borders to all immigrants, there would be ripple effects in the global immigration trends. To start with, more immigrants would choose to stay in the U.S. even when job openings reduce since they are aware that they will not be allowed to return once they leave (“World Economic Forum,” 2012). Second, border enforcements also affect the immigrant decisions on the areas they choose to live. This is because immigrants often look for alternative crossing routes which lead them to new destinations in the U.S. Thirdly closing borders may increase illegal crossing behavior among immigrants. If all countries closed their borders, there would be a high increase in illegal border crossings. It would also become a lucrative business to facilitate movement of illegal immigrants. Zero population growth occurs when a particular area achieves a demographic balance (Dahlman & Renwick, 2014). Zero population growth may lead to a high proportion of aged population. This places a great financial burden on the working population since they have to support a large population of the aged. The pertinent question remains as to what would be the economic impact of closing the borders to immigrants?
In order to avoid immigrants becoming permanent residents illegally, the closed border policy should be abolished. This would make the immigrants feel free to return to their countries of origin at any time of their will. However, this does not mean maintaining an open border policy. To reduce the number of illegal immigrants living in the U.S., the government should embark on a national exercise to register all immigrants and issue them with temporary work permits. Such work permits should be renewable depending on the nature of the immigrant, that is, if he/she is law abiding. The U.S. does not have its own unique culture, but rather a mix of cultures. Even though the culture of the U.S. is referred to as Western, it contains deep influences from Latin American, Native American, Polynesian, Asian and African cultures. For example, its English influences can be traced to early settlers from Europe. Another notable influence is the Spanish influence in some parts of the U.S. The key concern here is what have been the impact of diverse cultures in the U.S.?
City planners can be able to determine the growth of particular areas of the city. To control the wealth of particular areas, city planners need to formulate policies that impact the development of particular areas (Yigitcanlar, 2010). For instance, city planners can formulate policies for land-use plans, development of mass infrastructure, business development strategies, and job creation strategies all of which have a significant impact on the growth and development of a particular region. Impoverished areas can become revitalized in a number of ways. To start with, improvement of existing infrastructure can lead to growth of the impoverished areas. This includes improvement of key infrastructure such as road & rail network, communication network, piped water, proper waste management, and electricity connection. Second, education should be given a major priority. Those in poor communities are unable to access quality education, leading to endless cycle of poverty. Improvement of commercial activities can also reduce poverty. This involves providing job opportunities by encouraging growth of industries in the particular areas (Yigitcanlar, 2010). The major concern here is what would be the overall impact of an infrastructural development project which leads to increase in the demand for housing units and rent in the impoverished area?
Some areas of a city are wealthy while others remain poor. There are a number of reasons that explain this scenario. Firstly, historical injustices have a significant impact on the wealth of a particular area. Structural racism greatly contributed to wealth inequalities in most areas of the U.S. In the 1930s to 1960s, the government developed a program to enable millions of Americans own houses. Loans were issued based on race, with Blacks and Latinos facing strict policies for accessing loans. This is because they were deemed as high-risk in terms of repayment. The Whites were able to access low-cost mortgages with extended repayment periods of up to 30 years. With no access to loans, African-Americans and other communities remained tenants. Those who were able to purchase houses in the black neighborhoods saw their value decline with time since potential buyers who were mainly the whites refused to buy property in black neighborhoods. As more white people left these areas, businesses collapsed or stagnated, creating and endless cycle of poverty whose impacts are still felt (Dalton, 1999). The pertinent question is what would happen if blacks were given equal access to home loans as whites? Would there still be the issue of inequality?
Ethnic cleansing occurs when there is an attempt to get rid of some members of an ethnic community in order to establish a homogenous race in particular geographical region. Ethnic cleansing may lead to civil ways and decimation of populations as evidenced in the past. Such cleansing has existed and some of them have been historically documented in books (Levitt, Peggy, & Rafael de la Dehesa, 2003). The Nazi Holocaust was one of them involving the annihilation of 6 million European Jews and the forced dislocation and mass killings. The mass killings were also carried out in Yugoslavia and the genocide of Rwanda in the 1990s. Ethnic cleansing is mostly the result of political tensions. Cleansing should be based on independence fact finding mission. This should involve going to alleged area of violation, conducting interviews, frame in-depth open ended questions, and follow up by querying fact-based questions. The silent ethnic cleansing is an example of Yugoslav wars. The ethnic cleansing should be accepted where the national opportunities are denied to people of origin and in-migrants are given the opportunities. The critical question is what would be the impact of ethical cleansing on communities?
The electronic reserve reading analyzes migration, including the definition of migration, future trends, theoretical developments, and the implications of immigration experienced by the sending and receiving areas. Immigration has a profound and perverse impact on both the sending and receiving community. International immigration is accountable for changing ethnic masterpiece of the community of purpose that is seen in the American Latino and Asian population that have expanded enormously through immigration into the U.S. According to Levitt, Peggy, & Rafael de la Dehesa (2003), immigration is seen to have tremendous implications for the state, communities, and countries in the world, especially in relation to places of origin and destination. Migration is one sided in that it involves the movement of people from the less developed to more developed nations. It is difficult to account for the number of immigrants in the U.S. at any particular time. This is mostly due to transnational migration which involves moving between countries of origin and destination countries. The critical question is whether immigration has a positive impact in the development of the receiving country.
The video titled “Geography of farms and cities” provides great insights about how the natural geography of a place impacts farming activities, and how man in turn modifies the microclimates of the settlement areas. Climate and type of soil play a critical role in determining farming activities. Nutrient-rich soils are important in supporting plant growth. In addition, warm temperatures, abundant rainfall, and sunlight play a great role in determining crop production. The establishment of cities is greatly determined by the presence of important natural resources such as a waterway, minerals, fertile lands, good climate, and other pull factors. For instance, Boston, one of America’s earliest cities developed due to close proximity to a natural harbor which provides easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. The development of other cities such as Johannesburg in South Africa was determined by the presence of diamond mines. Human activities shape the microclimates of the areas human beings live. Cities are generally warmer due to the heat island effect. In rural areas, clearing vegetation for cultivation purposes impacts the microclimates of such areas. The critical question is whether the world can reverse climate change.
The video titled “Geology of Farms and Cities” is much interesting. This video talks about how geological considerations have influenced the development of cities in particular areas. For instance, during the early period, cities would be built on hilltops to enhance security. In the Middle East, cities were build close to rivers since they acted as a source of building materials, means of transportation and provided water for drinking and cultivation. Even in the current world, geological considerations till influence the development of cities. This is evident especially in the building of skyscrapers which is influenced by the presence of hard rocks that lie beneath the earth’s surface. Geological factors also influence location of farms. Good soils that can support crop production are only found in particular regions. The video also gives an analysis of the impact of human development on the ecological balance. The dependence on fossil fuels as the chief source of energy has led to climate change which in turn impacts the ecological balance. The question of most peoples’ minds is what will be the ultimate consequence of climate change if the world continues to depend on fossil fuels
World Economic Forum. (2012, Sep. 20). What if Rich Countries Shut the Door on Immigration? Time. Retrieved from: http://world.time.com/2012/09/20/what-if-rich- countries-shut-the-door-on-immigration/
Dalton, C. (1999). Being Black, Living in the Red. New York, NY: University of California Press.
Levitt, Peggy, and Rafael de la Dehesa. (2003). Transnational Migration and the Redefinition of the State: Variations and Explanations. Ethnic and Racial Studies 26 (4): 587–611.
Yigitcanlar, T. (2010). Rethinking sustainable development: Urban management, engineering, and design. Hershey, PA: Engineering Science Reference.
Dahlman, C.T., & Renwick, W.H. (2014). Welcome to Geography: People, Places, & Environment (6th ed.). : Person Education Company