Human trafficking & American and global slavery
Society keeps on battling with a plenty of ills, for example, neediness, hunger, a delicate environment, across the board segregation, and war. Regardless of whether in government, groups or homes, fundamental human rights are time after time denied by those in charge. The rundown of these human rights infringements is long. However, a standout amongst the immense violations has as of late recovered the consideration of human rights movements is the purchasing and offering of individuals for the benefit, also called human trafficking. Trafficking is comprehended to include an assortment of wrongdoings and misuse related with the enrollment, movement, and sale of individuals into a scope of exploitative conditions far and wide. Human trafficking comes in many structures that incorporate constrained work, sex trafficking, fortified work, transient specialists’ obligation servitude, and constrained child labor (Kurtis, et al. 95). Constrained labor is otherwise called automatic subjugation and increasing popular as youths, and other unemployed individuals move to foreign countries in search of employment or greener fields. In this shape, workers turn to the question of abuse of deceitful managers because of high rates of unemployment, destitution, crime, segregation, debasement and political clash. In 2013, the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline, worked by Polaris, got bulletins of 929 work trafficking events in the United States alone(Davy 320). Therefore, human trafficking is turning into the present day type of bondage, with unlawful pirating and exchanging of people for constrained work or sexual abuse.
In the United States alone, cases of human trafficking and modern slavery have increased in recent years with the smuggling occurring around international travel hubs with massive immigration populations for example in California and Texas. Reports from the department of justice indicate that more than 15,000 are smuggled into the country each and every year with a total of 57,700 people becoming victims of human trafficking and slavery (Hoerder, et al. 78). As a result of this increase, global and national responses to the problem have grown in recent years to the extent that the issue of human trafficking has been changed from a petty issue into a global and national agenda of high value in the United States Congress, the European Union as well as the United Nations. Most of the human trafficking victims in the United States come from Thailand, India, Mexico, Philippines, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Types of human trafficking and slavery
The trafficking and smuggling of human beings go back to the beginning of civilization considering that ancient civilization was based on chattel slavery. The legal ownership of people on the similar basis of properties existed in all the ancient civilization particularly in Asia, Africa, Europe and pre-Columbian America. In the early days, slaves were important sources of economic output in these societies considering that they were mainly used in the production of goods and services especially in plantations. Despite the fact that the modern law prohibits the legal ownership of a slave, those in power politically or economically can own slaves by controlling their movements and activities through their power (Davy 320). There are different kinds and natures of human trafficking and slavery, and they include:
Sex trafficking – reports from the department of health and human services in the United States of America show that over 250,000 are at the risk of being exploited sexually every year. Runaway children are at a higher risk of being forced to sexual activities or prostitution and in the worst cases, they are trafficked into the sex industry. Due to their economic surroundings, these children are forced to have sex in exchange for money from the rich or any other individual willing to give them money.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children – minors in the United States even below the age of 14 have been found to engage in prostitution all in the name of money. Inquiry demonstrates that young men are at a high danger of being trafficked or subjugated into farming work, the drug exchange, and minor crime. Then again, little young ladies are at a higher danger of being constrained into the sex business and residential work. In the year 2008 alone, more than 3800 youngsters were distinguished as business sexual abuse victims in the United States. Statistics show that runaway youths in the US are likely to be lured into prostitution within 48 hours of their lives in the streets and this increases the number of youths and children at the risk of being trafficked or enslaved (Kangaspunta 33).
Labor trafficking – according to the human rights center in Berkeley, there are more than 10,000 forced laborers in the United States. As a matter of fact, over a third of all domestic servants in the country and some portion who are children are held up in their position against their will. Notably, this number might be slightly high considering that human trafficking and slavery are secretive and the figure named earlier constitutes of only the survivors of this servitude. These forced laborers who come to America in with the hope of finding better employment and greener pastures are forced to work agriculture sector, domestic labor as well as traveling sales crew.
Causes of human trafficking and global slavery
While human trafficking has recently attracted substantial public and political concerns, it is worth noting that this is not a new issue or challenge especially in the American society. In the past is has been described as a diverse form of trade and it was a form of trade in the past itself despite the fact that there is a great differences in what is smuggled, what business s illegal and by whom with time. Human trafficking varies from one region to another and from one country to another. Below are some of the major causes of human trafficking and global slavery.
Poverty – Poverty has been found to affect individual notion and concept of choice and time to time dive families and individuals to make desperate decisions. In most cases, families living in poverty are forced to send their children at a tender age to work in urban centers with a more suitable economic environment such as the United States without realizing that these children might be forced into slave labor or prostitution (Bowersox 215).
Globalization – the processes and procedures through which industries and businesses develop international influence has increased the need for cheap labor in developed countries. However, the rate of human trafficking and global slavery is increasing with an increase in the globalization rate in the United States. The fact that the migration policies and rules in the United States have not changed with changes in the rate of globalization which forces individuals to illegally migrate to the country and end up being slaves, engage in crime or prostitution.
Political environment – political instability and militarism in most countries especially Arab countries such as Syria and Iraq, have forced families to run for their safety to developed countries. Considering that these families are desperate to run for their lives, they are willing to do anything to get to America with the hope of finding a safe place to raise their families and secure employment. This desperation forces them to work in plantations, as domestic servants or even engage in prostitution as they attempt to find a way to feed their families.
Combating human trafficking
Combating human trafficking and global slavery might not be as simple as most individuals may think. To eliminate this problem in the society, governments and those in power need to focus on formulating and introducing poverty alleviation programs and awareness. Considering that destitution, lack of knowledge and lack of understanding about the risks associated with human trafficking highly contributes to this issue, the government and non-governmental organization should focus on creating awareness among the people. Additionally, there is the need to promote education in a country or a region which increased the pool of skilled labor and entrepreneurs who in turn helps in fighting poverty as they create employment opportunities (Sealy, et al. 27).
Human trafficking and global slavery affect not only the person being trafficked or enslaved but also the entire society and country. Resources such as employment for legal migrant employees and public facilities may be used by the illegal immigrants in the United States, thus displacing resources for legal residents which n turn lowers the living standards. Therefore, the government should put more effort to make sure that it curbs the increase of human trafficking and global slavery.
Bowersox, Zack. “International Sporting Events and Human Trafficking: Effects of Mega-Events on a State’s Capacity to Address Human Trafficking.” Journal of Human Trafficking, vol. 2, no. 3, 2016, pp. 201-220.
Davy, Deanna. “Understanding the Support Needs of Human-Trafficking Victims: A Review of Three Human-Trafficking Program Evaluations.” Journal of Human Trafficking, vol. 1, no. 4, 2015, pp. 318-337.
Hoerder, Dirk, et al. Towards a Global History of Domestic and Caregiving Workers. BRILL, 2015.
Kangaspunta, Kristiina. “Collecting Data on Human Trafficking: Availability, Reliability and Comparability of Trafficking Data.” Measuring Human Trafficking, pp. 27-36.
Kurtis, Bill, et al. Human Trafficking. Films Media Group, 2012.
Sealy, Mark, et al. Documenting Disposable People: Contemporary Global Slavery. Hayward Pub, 2008.