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Question

1) In what ways is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) more sustainable than traditional methods of eliminating agricultural pests?

2) What role do you think fossil fuels should play in supplying energy to consumers in the United States?  What are some ethical issues associated with fossil fuels?

3) Which has greater future potential for energy production, wind or water power?  Which causes more environmental problems?  Explain.

Answer

SCI/256-Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

 

Question 1

Integrated pest management (IPM) is a process that used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to the environment and populace. It is useful in the control of pests in agricultural, natural areas, and wild land. They are categorized into chemical, mechanical, cultural, and biological controls (Jacobson, M. Z. et al. 2013). Unlike the traditional methods, the IPM focuses on the long-term inhibition of pests or their harm by supervising the ecosystem. The traditional methods do not use the conservative methods such as pesticides and insecticides. Thus, there is a likelihood of occurrence of the diseases.

Question 2

The fossil energy includes natural gas, coal, and oil. The people of the U.S can burn the coal to yield electricity for home and industrial consumption, enhance them for use as fuel, or use it for transportation purposes (Reuter, W. H. et al. 2012). Ethical issues associated with coal include polluting the environment as they discharge nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other injurious gasses in the air. The result of this is that it contributes to global warming injuring our ecosystems.

Question 3

Wind has greater potential in the future to produce energy compared to water. Water causes more environmental hazards compared to wind power. According to Kumaravel, S. et al. (2015), it changes the environment by affecting the use of land, natural habitats in dam areas, and homes. However, the wind power turbines occupy land that should have been used for other purposes such as agriculture. The turbines alter the air pressure thus reducing the bats and birds deaths.

SCI/256-Environmental Issues

References

Jacobson, M. Z., Howarth, R. W., Delucchi, M. A., Scobie, S. R., Barth, J. M., Dvorak, M. J., … & Jones, R. (2013). Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energy infrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight. Energy Policy, 57, 585-601.

Kumaravel, S., & Ashok, S. (2015). Optimal power management controller for a stand-alone solar PV/wind/battery hybrid energy system. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 37(4), 407-415.

Reuter, W. H., Fuss, S., Szolgayová, J., & Obersteiner, M. (2012). Investment in wind power and pumped storage in a real options model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(4), 2242-2248.

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