Provide a summary and overview of the form
A performance appraisal form is used to evaluate the performance, personality, strength and weaknesses, and the potential of the staff of a given organization. Leadership performance appraisal forms provide the management with a simple way to analyze and communicate employee performance and depending on the outcomes provide a guideline for improvement. Emory University maintains performance appraisal forms for all employees. The forms are used to obtain performance feedback from employees and to outline performance objectives. Employees’ performance is rated on a scale of five. The ratings are outlined as: exceptional, commendable, solid performer, needs improvement, and unacceptable. The ratings are based on whether an employee meets set departmental targets and the consistency of doing so. Employees receiving aggregate ratings of “needs improvement” or “unacceptable” are given a performance improvement plan which is meant to improve their productivity.
A number of performance factors are used to rate the employees. Work result is the fast factor considered. Some of the performance indicators in this case include quality of work produced, job attendance, efficient use of resources and others. The next factor is the level of customer service exhibited by the employee to both internal and external persons, for instance, the kind of care extended to customers. Employee’s ability to be team players is also taken into consideration. The next factor involves the employees’ problem solving capabilities. This is evaluated on the basis of effectiveness of decisions made by individual employees. Interpersonal and communication skills are also taken into consideration. Other factors taken into consideration include leadership skills, people management skills, teamwork and diversity. Lastly, the leadership appraisal form requires employees to identify a set of three goals or objectives which they hope to achieve.
Evaluate any gaps in the knowledge and skills assessed
The Emory University leadership performance appraisal form does not evaluate psychological outcomes among the employees. This is a major gap in the knowledge and type of skills assessed. A good performance appraisal form should evaluate the psychological well being of the employees. Personal psychological aspects such as attitudes, behaviors and conceptions largely determine an employee’s perception of things and the ability to relate with others. Personality traits often determine an individual’s ability to influence others. For instance, charismatic leaders are able to influence their followers through without necessarily the use of coercion or force. Leaders should be able to win trust of their subordinates. Trust determines the level of influence leaders can have over the subordinates. Psychological outcomes can enable leaders determine the level of emotions of their employees. Leaders should be able to control their own emotions as well as those of employees (Riggio & Orr, 2008).
Another gap in the knowledge and skills assessed is the analysis of substantive outcomes. According to Rumsey (2013), the substantive outcomes approach analyzes a set of behavioral constructs which are established to provide a comprehensive model for effective leadership. In substantive appraisals, statements are used in order to identify particular behaviors among those being assessed. For instance, the directors may wish to evaluate the leadership effectiveness of the supervisor. In this case they can construct substantive appraisal questions such as the following: “My supervisor gives clear objectives to be achieved at the start of a project.” There are several approaches which can be used in developing substantive appraisal questions. Some approaches use scales which are developed to measure self-awareness, positive modeling and self control (Rumsey, 2013). Other approaches are effective in measuring inspirational motivation, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration.
Compare the form to the different techniques used to measure leadership effectiveness
The leadership performance appraisal form used by Emory University is similar in several instances to the techniques used to measure leadership effectiveness. The appraisal form uses factors such as interpersonal skills to assess leadership effectiveness. This is similar to the leadership effectiveness techniques used in assessing performance. Interpersonal skills evaluated include maintaining positive relationships with others, good listening skills, good communication skills among others. Teamwork is also used to measure leadership effectiveness in both cases. This assesses the ability to work well with others. Performance outcomes are also used to assess leadership effectiveness in both cases. This is referred to as work result in the Emory Appraisal form. Performance outcomes are related to the way an employee accomplishes assigned tasks.
Leadership effectiveness is also measured using social outcomes. Social outcomes are also used in appraising employees in Emory University. The university’s appraisal form focuses on the employees’ ability to relate well with individuals from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Employees are expected understand individual differences and treat each other with dignity and respect. Organizational outcomes can also be used in measuring leadership effectiveness. Organizational outcomes assess the ability of the leader to influence change in the organization for instance, improving employees’ effectiveness, conflict resolution skills, rewarding positive behavior, influencing employees to work towards a common goal, establishing a learning environment and among others.
Indentify what the organization could do to improve the leadership evaluation process and make recommendations for improving the process
There are a number of strategies the organization can take to improve the leadership evaluation process. The first step is to include psychological outcomes as a measure of leadership effectiveness. When an organization appoints leaders, it is important to clearly understand the specific behaviors, characters and traits that describe them (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2015). In addition, it is important that leaders demonstrate emotional intelligence. According to Hernon & Rossiter (2007) emotional intelligence determines to a large extent whether a leader will be successful. In particular, emotional intelligence contributes about 79 percent towards the success of the leader. In situations where leaders exhibit lack of emotional intelligence, the organization should take measures to train leaders. Using appraisals based on psychological outcomes can tremendously improve leadership effectiveness in the organization.
The leadership evaluation process can also be improved through addition of more personal performance factors especially those that assess individual performance standards. The evaluation process should thus consider a description of a “fully successful” employee performance. For example, it is necessary to outline certain indicators such as cost efficiency, quality and quantity, and timeliness. The organization should be able to tell whether an employee can handle multiple tasks when the need arises. Prioritizing is also important in ensuring that leaders meet set deadlines. Other performance factors which can be included are creativity in improving programs and use of appropriate work methods. The leadership evaluation process should not only be tailored for employees but also for other individuals in the organization such as the supervisors. This would give a comprehensive overview of all the individuals in the organization. Individuals in higher level of management should have their own performance appraisal plans.
Hernon, P., & Rossiter, N. (2007). Making a difference: Leadership and academic libraries. Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited.
Hughes R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, G. J. (2015). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Riggio, R. E., & Orr, S. S. (2008). Improving Leadership in Nonprofit Organizations. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Rumsey, M. G. (2013). The Oxford handbook of leadership. New York: Oxford University Press.