Click here to order this paper @Speedywriters.us. 100% Original.Written from scratch by professional writers.

Question

PART I: SHORT ANSWER

Directions: Please answer each of the following questions.  Please ensure that your responses are at least 3 to 5 sentences in length.

  1. Provide two kinds of evidence that support the idea that life could have originated on earth.
  2. Why must the first organism of earth have been anaerobic?
  3. List two distinguishing characteristics of each of the following domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
  4. Describe four kinds of evidence scientists use to place organisms into a logical phylogeny.
  5. List the four kingdoms of the domain Eukarya, and give two distinguishing characteristics for each.
  6. Describe how viruses reproduce.
  7. What is a thermophile? A halophile?
  8. Name two beneficial results of fungal growth activity.
  9. List two ways that scientific names are different from common names for organisms.
  10. What taxonomic groups are included in the category known as microorganisms?

PART II: ESSAY

Directions: Write a 1 to 2 page, double-spaced paper in 12 pt. font in response to the following question.  Find one article using AAU’s LIRN (library) to use as support.  Please use APA format.  Please visit the Academic Resource Center for an effective guide on how use LIRN and for concise APA guidelines.

The Super bug

Many of you may have heard of the “super bug.”  The reason for its name is because many people take too many different forms of antibiotics for just about anything.  When people take too many antibiotics, it causes bacteria to become resistant to antibiotic agents.  As the bacteria become drug resistant, we are becoming more at risk for infections that we cannot cure.  Please read the article titled, “Resistance to Antibiotics: Are We in the Post-Antibiotic Era?”  Please provide your thoughts on drug resistance, and explain what you thought was an important fact from this article.

Answer

Organisms

  1. Provide two kinds of evidence that support the idea that life could have originated on earth

Evidence that life originated on earth is found on microfossils and stromalites that are found in South Africa and Australia. The ancient and the modern are similar in terms of shape and fine layering. For instance in Greenland ancient sediments still exist

  1. Why must the first organism of earth have been anaerobic?

The anaerobic organisms were the first organism on earth due to the fact there was no oxygen in the atmosphere. These organisms used anaerobic respiration which takes place in environments with limited supply of oxygen.

  1. List two distinguishing characteristics of each of the following domains: bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya

Bacteria

They are single celled prokaryotes

They have no organelles only a cell wall and cell membrane

The cell membrane is semipermeable

They have a single loop of DNA

Archaea

It has plasmid membranes which contain compositions of lipid

It has unique RNA polymerase and ribosomes

Most archaea live in environments which are extreme

Eukarya

Eukarya are unicellular organisms, the cell division by mitosis and has variety of modes which enable them access energy and carbon.

  1. Describe four kinds of evidence scientists use to replace organisms into logical phylogeny

The first evidence used by scientist is information about life cycle; most organisms have life cycles which have different stages. Larval stage gives clues to how organisms are related.

The second evidence is through anatomy studies which involve fossils, due to the fact that organism structures are based on genes organisms with similar structures tend to be related.

The third evidence is to be found in fossils which act as evidence of life in the past.A sedimentary rock provides evidence that organisms had been covered by sediments and turned into fossils. The fourth evidence is based on studies of biochemical and molecular studies.

  1. List four kingdoms of the domain Eukarya, and give two distinguishing characteristics of each

There are four kingdoms of eukarya which include;

Kingdom Protista:  they have one cell and contain nuclearmembranes

Kingdom Animalia: They are multicellular and obtain food by ingestion

KingdomFungi. They contain an external wall but are not capable of making their own food

Kingdom Plantae: have cell walls and most of them contain chlorophyll.

  1. Describe how viruses produce

Viruses have a structure that allows them replicate, viruses can reproduce through lyctic cycle whereby the virus is attached it a host cell which leads to infusion of the cell via nucleic acid. Viruses can also reproduce through lysogenic cycle; viruses that are slow in multiplying such as HIV reproduce through lysogenic cycle.

  1. What is thermophile? A halophile?

Halophiles are organisms found in salty environments, most of them can be grouped as bacteria and some belong to the eukaryote group. Thermophiles are organisms that can be able to live in environments with higher temperatures than normal such as in hot springs.

Thermophile  are organisms that are found in high temperatures and most of them are archaea

  1. Name two beneficial results of fungal growth activity

First, fungal growth activity improves plant growth. This is due to root-fungal associations that help the root draw nutrients they would ordinarily be unable to. The benefits of fungal growth activity include recycling and plant growth.

  1. List two ways that scientific names are different from common names of organisms

Scientific follow binomial naming system which is based on internationally accepted scientific rules. Scientific names are also based on the similarities between different organisms while common names do not depend on such similarities.

  1. What taxonomic groups are included in the category known as microorganisms?

Microorganisms comprise of multi-cellular and single celled organisms. The taxonomic groups included in the category of microorganisms include: bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, viruses and rotifiers.

 

A POST -ANTIBIOTIC ERA

 

The article provides an insight on the effects of misuse of antibiotics and the risk it is posing to people. The article focuses on the resistance of the antibiotics due to the ability of the bacteria adapting to its environment. The drugs used to treat these bacteria have become ineffective.

According to the article the first resistance to antimicrobial happened in the late 1930s and in the 1940s. This was after first antibiotics of penicillin and sulfonamides were introduced. It was discovered that the bacteria were capable of resisting antibacterial drugs and also remain alive in the hospital environment. It is to be noted that recently there has been cases of highly resistance and the bacteria spreading outside the hospital. The article further confirms that bacteria have developed resistance to more antibiotic classes thus making the treatment of these infections difficult.

There are different factors that lead to antibiotic resistance; the first factor is the abuse of antibiotics. Abuse of antibiotics is also in the clinics where they prescribe antibiotics to patients who do not need to use them. The second factor is the use of antibiotics in animals and agricultural products. In the manufacturing food antibiotics are frequently used this poses a danger of an increase in resistant of the bacteria to the antibiotics.

The problem of the growth in the development of resistance of antimicrobial has worsened due to decrease in number of new antibacterial approval. However the resistance to antibiotics will not be solved by creating more or stronger antimicrobials.

In conclusion, there is need for the industries government and academia to unite a come up with a balance in the pathogenic war. There is also the need to emphasize on the use of narrow spectrum in order to save the broader spectrum. It is also important for individuals to avoid the abuse of antibiotics?

Related

Short Answer Biology Questions

Click here to order this paper @Speedywriters.us. 100% Original.Written from scratch by professional writers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *