Write a executive summary in which you include the following:
?Identify components of criminal justice policy development and implementation.
?Determine the influences on criminal justice policy development and policy-making.
?Include research, factual information, and public opinion information that supports your points.
Note. This is an executive summary. It is meant to provide the main points and the most relevant information needed to answer the prompts. Be concise in your analysis and findings.
Use at least two sources from our required reading or outside scholarly source to support your paper.
Format your executive summary in accordance with APA guidelines
Policy Development and Implementation Executive Summary
Components of criminal justice policy development and implementation
Policy development and implementation in the criminal justice system is a more demanding process than it seems. This is because there are several players that take part which means there are many problems to solve in different areas of criminal justice system. Some of the players include the media, politicians and police. The effectiveness of a policy is determined through evaluation.
The process of policy development consists of six basic steps which are problem identification, determining the policy demands, agenda formation, policy adoption, policy implementation and evaluation
- Problem identification. Before a policy is developed, there must be a problem or potential to one. Policy makers can identify these problems from the grievances of citizens, the media, politicians or human rights activists. Some of the common issues in criminal justice system include rising crime rates, violence against women, high incarceration rates, youths in the criminal justice system and drug use.
- Identification of policy Different issues require different policy demands. In this stage, the question of the policy demands unique to the issue should be answered. In addition, the objective of the policy should be stated.
- Agenda formation. This stage involves including the opinions of those affected by the policy. Such people include government officials, individuals, and groups with special interests.
- Policy adoption. The formulated policies rae adopted by the criminal justice system and new laws or executive orders are possibly passed.
- Policy implementation. The policy adopted is passed down to the administrators in different levels of the system for implementation. Since policies are implemented by different people other than the authors, implementation can lead policy reformulation, failure or give an entirely different outcome from the ones expected.
- Policy evaluation. This phase tests the effectiveness of the policy. It provides evidence on whether the policy meets its objectives, the effects it has on the people and the conditions it is meant to influence (Cochran, Mayer,Carr, Cayer, & McKenzie, 2011).
Determine the influences on criminal justice policy development and policy-making.
Politicians-Politics influences the major aspects of criminal justice system to a huge level since politicians are in charge of passing laws. The decisions of politicians are influenced by several factors including their constituents, the media, advocacy groups, business, donors and sometimes personal interest. When a problem is noted the politicians in their duty of making and amending laws debate a bill should be proposed. The governing body passes the bill which becomes a law after getting a passing vote. The final step involves signing it into law by the governor of the state or the president of the United States. Most politicians however do not consider the best interests of the public. This is because they decisions are driven politically by party affiliations. This influences how they make or amend the laws (Nelid, 2015).
The media-The media is the major source of information relating crime. This is because they interact and witness the situations in ways that other people do not. This means that public relies so much on the media. Any exaggeration in reporting regarding the nature and extent of the crime can lead to instabilities. Being the most popular source of information, the media can be a good inflammatory agent to opinions of the public. This greatly influences political decisions and leads to action (Fiduciaproject.eu, 2012).
Direct democracy– there are several states that direct democracy is practiced. This involves citizens getting a given number of signatures from the states’ registered voters. It involves a proposed bill for the people to vote for. If it passes, it becomes a law without any contribution from politicians. The problem with this process is that sometimes the voters do not have the right information about the bill. In a false sense of finding a solution, voters can make the wrong decision. This process has succeeded in some cases such as the passing of Proposition 184, Jessica’s law, Proposition 36- for habitual drug offenders and the 1994 three strikes law.
Street level administrators– these are administrators whose role is to carry out policy implementation at the community level. These may include patrol officers, social workers and teachers. Street level administrators encounter many different hurdles while during implementation. These include conflicting procedures, laws, and other policies in their departments that are likely to undermine the process of implementing the new policy. Prosecutors and court officials are entrusted to use the law of discretion policing to guide them in each case. Discretion policing is applied when an officer can look into the detailed facts of a situation in determining the right action to take under different circumstances. Low level crimes are solved without making arrests citation. The discretion lies in the hands of prosecutors who determine the cases to dismiss and those to file.
The development and implementation of policies in the criminal justice system is influenced by a wide range of factors. Managing to go through the first steps of developing the policy to the point of implementing it involves many players. Politicians, media, citizens and street level administrators have a huge role to play in these processes. This means that the policy might take some time before it is meets its objectives.
Nelid,. (2015). The Ways Politics Influences Criminal Justice. Daily Kos. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://www.dailykos.com/story/2015/12/13/1459761/-The-Ways-Politics-Influences-Criminal-Justice
Fiduciaproject.eu,. (2012). The Media’s Influence on Criminal justice policy – Fiducia : FP7 RESEARCH PROJECT. Fiduciaproject.eu. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://www.fiduciaproject.eu/new/15/the-media-s-influence-on-criminal-justice-policy
Cochran, C. E., Mayer, L. C., Carr, T. R., Cayer, N. J., & McKenzie, M. (2011). American public policy: An Introduction. Boston MA:Wadsworth .https://phoenix.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781483311814/cfi/59!/4/ firstname.lastname@example.org:46.8