- This is the first element of the research paper.
- The topic is the subject matter being discussed.
- The topic for the paper is “Examining the duo impact of interrogation tactics and suspect characteristics on false confessions”.
- The role of DNA exonerations in highlighting incidences of false confessions.
- Overview of police interrogations.
- Overview of suspect characteristics.
- The issue of false memories
- A general presentation of the problem under scrutiny.
- Explanation of the purpose of the research paper.
- Presenting evidence on DNA exonerations (Kassin, Drizin, Grisso, Gudjonsson, Leo, & Redlich, 2010).
- Thesis statement.
- This part comprises of scholarly articles detailing the topic.
- It comprises of an examination of what other scholars are saying about the topic.
- Informs the reader about knowledge and ideas surrounding the topic.
- Overview of DNA exonerations
- The first DNA exoneration
- Popular case laws on DNA exonerations
(Kassin et al., 2010; “Associated Press”, 2017).
Issues in False Confessions
- The problem of proving innocence in the court of law
- Methods used in identifying false confessions
- Overview of the type of crimes that records highest exonerations.
(Kassin et al., 2010),
- Factors affecting the development of false memories
- The role of persuasion strategies in the development of false memories.
- The misinformation effect
(Leding, 2012; Narchet, Meissner, and Russano, 2011)
Interrogation Techniques and False Confessions
- Literature review on types of interrogation techniques
- Overview of minimization techniques
- Overview of maximization techniques
(Narchet, Meissner, & Russano, 2011; Frenda, Berkowitz, Loftus, & Fenn, 2016).
- Overview of a study examining the impact of maximization techniques
- The “ALT Key” paradigm
- Study conclusions
(Frenda, Berkowitz, Loftus, & Fenn, 2016; Safarik, Ann, & Burgess, 2012).
Personal Factors in False Confessions
- How age influences false confessions
- The effect of intellectual disabilities on false confessions
- The role of personality in false confessions
- Vulnerable personalities.
(Perillo & Kassin, 2011).
Conclusions from the Review of Literature
- Police interrogation techniques have a significant influence in false confessions
- Suspect characteristics also influence false confessions
- False memories play a key role in false confessions
Gaps and Contradictions in Literature
- There are concerns that seasoned inmates who are seeking legal advice often refuse to cooperate with interrogators due to mistrust.
- It is still unclear why people make voluntary confessions to crimes they did not commit, holding certain factors constant such as mental illness, retardation, escaping punishment, and seeking publicity.
- There is incomplete data on the role of cognitive and psychological factors in contributing to false confessions
Recommendations for Further Research
- There is need to conduct research on appropriate length on interrogation sessions.
- There is need to examine the impact of use false evidence to minors.
- There is need for future research in interrogator’s abilities to tell whether a suspect is telling the truth or lying.
- The interplay of police interrogation techniques and suspect characteristics influence the he likelihood of suspects making false confessions.
- Persons with personality disorders are also at increased risk of false confessions.
- Majority of false confessions involve juveniles
- Associated Press. (2017, March 21). Virginia governor pardons ‘Norfolk 4’ sailors in 1997 rape and murder. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/nation/nationnow/la-na-norfolk-four-virginia-pardon-20170321- story.html
- Frenda, S. J., Berkowitz, S. R., Loftus, E. F., & Fenn, K. M. (2016). Sleep deprivation and false confessions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(8):2047-2050.
- Kassin, S. M., Drizin, S. A., Grisso, T., Gudjonsson, G. H., Leo, R. A., & Redlich, A. D. (2010;2009;). Police-induced confessions: Risk factors and recommendations. Law and Human Behavior, 34(1), 3-38. doi:10.1007/s10979-009-9188-6
- Leding, J. K. (2012). False memories and persuasion strategies. Review of General Psychology, 16(3), 256-268. doi:10.1037/a0027700
- Leo, R. A. (2009). False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37(3): 332-343.
- Mnookin, J. L. (2015). Constructing evidence and educating juries: The case for modular, made-in-advance expert evidence about eyewitness identifications and false confessions. Texas Law Review, 93(7), 1811.
- Mnookin, J. L. (2015). Constructing evidence and educating juries: The case for modular, made- in-advance expert evidence about eyewitness identifications and false confessions. Texas Law Review, 93(7), 1811.
- Narchet, F. M., Meissner, C. A., & Russano, M. B. (2010;2011;). Modeling the influence of investigator bias on the elicitation of true and false confessions. Law and Human Behavior, 35(6), 452-465. doi:10.1007/s10979-010-9257-x
- Perillo, J. T., & Kassin, S. M. (2011). Inside interrogation: The lie, the bluff, and false confessions. Law and Human Behavior, 35(4), 327-37. doi:http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.1007/s10979-010-9244-2.
- Safarik, Mark E,M.S., V.S.M., Burgess, Ann W,D.N.Sc, A.P.R.N., & Burgess, A. G., D.B.A. (2012). FALSE CONFESSION vs. investigative logic. Forensic Examiner, 21(1), 8-17. Retrieved from https://login.libproxy.edmc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/ docview/1239519408?accountid=34899
- Shaw, J., & Porter, S. (2015). Constructing rich false memories of committing crime. Psychological Science, 26(3), 291-301. doi:10.1177/0956797614562862
- Snook, B., Brooks, D., & Bull, R. (2015). A lesson on interrogations from detainees: Predicting self-reported confessions and cooperation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 42(12), 1243- 1260. doi:10.1177/0093854815604179.
- Yang, Y., Guyll, M., & Madon, S. (2017). The interrogation decision-making model: A general theoretical framework for confessions. Law and Human Behavior, 41(1), 80-92. doi:http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.1037/lhb0000220