Resource File and Personal Theory Paper
Part I: Resource File (3 pages of the 5 ordered)
Reflect on your previous assignments and the concepts, theories, and approaches you have learned about throughout the course.
Create a resource file to use in your future classes and in your career that includes the following:
A one-sentence summary of each of the following major theories:
At least two intervention strategies for each theory
When the strategies should be used
The type of client or setting where the strategy would work best
Be creative with this section of the assignment. Some possible ways the resource file can be presented are in a file folder, flash cards, poster, paper, handout, presentation, or a job aid.
Part II: Personal Theory Paper (2 pages of the 5 pages orderded)
Write a 350- to 700-word paper where you create your own intervention theory. You may combine theories or you can invent a completely new theory.
Include the following in your paper:
Explain your personal theory and why you believe in it.
Describe the theories and theorists that you relate to the best and why.
What surprised you most about the theories learned in class and why?
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Resource File and Personal Theory
Psychotherapy is a process in which people are helped to address their personal difficulties. Also, referred to as counseling, therapy or talk therapy, psychotherapy enables an individual to heal and adopt a more constructive way of dealing with issues or problems in their life. When a person is going through changes in life, work or relationships or dealing with stressful situations, it is recommended that they undergo psychotherapy so that they can have it easier during the transition period (Counseling.northwestern.edu, 2015).
Therapeutic theories are the approaches that are used to treat mental disorders. Mental disorders are treated by either using medical therapy that involves use of prescription medication or through psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is one of the best therapeutic approaches of treating mental disorders in that it enables the individual to deal with their life problems.
Behavioral theory uses the analyses of antecedents and consequences that are in individual’s environment and what they have learned from previous experience to explain human behavior. The theory best brings out the consequence of human behavior in relation to their surroundings. The theory is solely fixated on quantifiable and noticeable conduct rather than emotive or cerebral conducts.
Cognitive theory is mainly focused on changing an individual’s thinking so that it can consequently change their feelings and behaviors. This procedure is mainly used in psychotherapy to help understand what part of an individual’s opinions or thoughts that make them unhappy, annoyed of nervous. Cognitive therapy has been proved to be so effective during psychotherapy since it reduces sadness, nervousness, and suicidal thoughts to a great deal. The procedure has been particularly helpful when dealing with patients who have bipolar or psychotic ailments. Therapists believe that feelings are a reflection of thoughts. Thus, cognitive therapy helps to alter maladaptive thought pattern to a thinking pattern that is positive and helpful to the individual (Counseling.northwestern.edu, 2015).
Systems theory involves the coordination theory which deals with education of their mechanisms and how these mechanisms interrelate and how the aspects of coordination keep changing. Systems theory includes putting together bits and pieces and where their bits and pieces go through change. Systems are usually comprehensive and do not have to have a single specific thing. Basically, systems theory is an all-inclusive theory that involves all surroundings, all philosophy about all the bits and pieces that go through change.
Multicultural theory acknowledges that the underlying structure of psychology is the culture or society. The theory recognizes that there are strengths and weaknesses associated with all cultures. Multicultural theories of abnormalities are based on the fact that the society is the source of psychological problems but these problems are not borne within an individual. The theory seeks to understand individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. It includes the inclusion of the aspects of developing culture issues like linguistic, sexual orientation, age, race, sex, incapacity, education level, class, religious faith where one grew up among other ethnic proportions.
When an individual is going through mental challenges, the need for intervention strategies arise. The strategies differ depending on the therapeutic approach applied. However, all the approaches have one thing in common; to help an individual’s challenges reduce and offer the support needed during this period. Interventions are the actions undertaken to enforce change in people. Different types of issues require different strategies. There is a wide range of interventions that help individuals to change their behavior, attitude, emotional state or feelings. There are many applications of psychological interventions and the most common one of them is the use of treatment for mental issues.
In psychotherapy, the interventions applied help to alleviate symptoms and determine the cause of the mental disorders. One of these intervention strategies is the use of psychotic medication. In this case, individuals are given prescription drugs by their psychiatrists to manage the mental disorders. Secondly, the application of psychosocial interventions during psychotherapy focuses on the social environment of an individual and how it influences their psychological functioning. These two intervention strategies can be applied in any therapeutic theory. The major goal of these interventions is to promote mental health, foster healthy emotions, habits and feelings. The interventions can also be life changing even when one is not suffering from mental illnesses.
Related: Cognitive Theory: Behavior Plan
One of the most common behavioral intervention strategies is positive activity intervention (PAIs). This helps an individual to focus on the positive things in order to divert their attention from negative behavior. The strategy can be used in other therapeutic processes as well. Through this strategy, an individual concentrate on the good things in their life, their future, and adopts a grateful and kind nature towards self and others. Evidence based behavioral interventions enable an individual to show whether behavior shaping is effective or not. This strategy considers an individual’s behavior to establish whether they have achieved any progress during treatment. These strategies are appropriate to drug and substance abuse victims.
There is a wide range of cognitive interventions that are applied during counseling. Cognitive intervention or rehabilitation involves certain procedures that enable people with cognitive impairment to succeed in certain activities that are otherwise difficult owing to those impairments. Some of the interventions and support strategies applied include attention, memory and memory problems, cognitive and learning strategies and self-regulatory procedures among others. One of the intervention strategies that can be applied in all therapeutic theories is support therapy. It can be used on mentally ill individuals as well as drug and substance abuse victims (Misch, 2006).
Ineffective functioning results in the way people interpret and respond to challenging situations. There are situations that present challenges in a person’s life that they are not in control of. These include health problems, work, and financial problems among others. Such challenges can seem catastrophic if they are not solved within the right frame of reference.
Theories and theorists
In 1955, Albert Ellis developed a cognitive behavior therapy known as the Rational Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (REBT). The action-oriented approach seeks to manage emotional, cognitive and behavioral problems. Ellis discovered that people’s emotional functioning affect their beliefs. He also realized that there are certain irrational beliefs that make people anxious, angry or depressed and this often leads to adopting self-defeating behaviors. By the time Ellis presented his theory, the field of psychology was yet to discover the role of cognition in emotional disturbance. After realizing the inadequacy of behaviorism and psychoanalysis techniques, he developed the REB theory and therapy. He attributed the deficiency of these two techniques in that they conceptualized emotional disturbance and personality. This theory is close to the formation of problems. Ellis bases his theory on the fact that the emotions that people feel come from their daily experiences. The therapeutic process helps individuals with problems gain knowledge of their situation and understand the reasons why they reacted a certain way to certain situations (Jorn, 2016).
Personal theory paper
It has been a great learning experience to get to understand the different theories and techniques of counseling. Each one of the theories I have learnt has been so helpful and I believe that they have enabled many people to address their problems. I certainly foresee applying parts of each of the theories in my future career. However, some of the theories and techniques can work better for juvenile offenders more than others. The Solutions-Focused Post-Modern approach and Behavior and Cognitive theories are particularly practical in such cases.
I believe that all human beings have immeasurable potential to be good. This is because genuine goodness comes from within a person. This means that we all have positive potential within us. In addition to this, there is potential for creating and maintaining a healthy, positive and meaningful life in every individual. As we live in this imperfect world, it is important for people to tap their potential because there are natural challenges that will interfere with their emotions, actions and judgment. These challenges awaken the destructive potential in people’s lives. Destructive potential is anything internal or external that can make an individual to have a negative attitude that can lead them to adopting a destructive behavior. Internally, one may be suffering from a psychological/mental disorder that may trigger their destructive behavior. Externally, the surrounding environment can pressure a person into behaving a certain way. Both external and internal destructive tendencies are real and exist in the framework of human nature. This calls for the need to have all the clients assessed on a case by case basis so that they can get the help they need. Thus, it is important that such individuals are attended to by doctors and psychiatrists since they can comfortably deal with serious brain injuries and mental disorders.
In conclusion, as a juvenile counselor, I would adopt a supportive strategy. This would require me to be sensitive to the needs of the clients and determine the befitting approach for each one of them. By the end of the day, the major goal is to ensure that everyone gets help and they can resume their normal and productive lives.
Jorn, A. (2016). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy | Psych Central. Psych Central. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/rational-emotive-behavior-therapy/
Misch, D. (2006). Basic Strategies of Dynamic Supportive Therapy. FOCUS, 4(2), 253-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/foc.4.2.253
Counseling.northwestern.edu,. (2015). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches – Blog. Counseling.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 12 January 2017, from https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/