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Question

Directions: Please answer each of the following questions.  Please ensure that your responses are at least 3 to 5 sentences in length.

  1. Why can there be greater genetic diversity within a gene pool than in an individual organism?
  1. List four processes that can lead to local, genetically distinct populations.
  1. How is a clone developed?  What are its benefits and drawbacks?
  1. What is the role of a genetic counselor?
  1. What were eugenics laws?  List two facts about human genetics that the advocates of eugenics failed to consider.
  1. List five assumptions about the nature of living things that support the concept of evolution by natural selection.
  1. Why is sexual reproduction important to the process of natural selection?
  1. How might a harmful allele remain in a gene pool for generations without being eliminated by natural selection?
  1. Distinguish among stabilizing, directional, and disruptive selection.
  1. Why is genetic drift more likely in small populations?  Give an example of genetic drift.

Answer

Short Answer Biology Questions

  1. Why can there be greater genetic diversity within a gene pool than in an individual organism?

An individual organism only has two different alleles for every characteristic derived from each parent. However in a gene pool, there are different genes from the interbreeding population.

  1. Four processes that can lead to local, genetically distinct populations
  • The founder effect – where a population emerges from a small group of individuals with particular genes
  • Barriers to movement – they curtail gene exchanges
  • Genetic bottleneck – reduction in original population size causes loss of original genetic pool
  • Adaptation to the local environment
  1. How is a clone developed? What are its benefits and drawbacks?

Clones can be developed through asexual reproduction whereby a single parent provides the cells used to develop a clone. The main benefit of clones is that they can be used in cases where identical offspring is required such as identical height or color. The main drawback is that there is lack of genetic diversity.

  1. What is the role of a genetic counselor?

A genetic counselor advises people on whether they can transfer certain genetic characteristics to their children before they decide to have children. A genetic counselor analyzes the inheritance patters and family history of individuals in order to determine the likelihood of transferring a genetic condition to future generations.

  1. What were eugenics laws? List two facts a about human genetics that the advocates of eugenics failed to consider.

Eugenic laws were proposed laws which were meant to eliminate undesired traits among human population through controlled breeding. Advocates of the law failed to consider the fact that it is not possible to eliminate undesired and recessive genes from human populations. Second, they failed to see that some characteristics are the result of the environment, or are determined by the environment.

  1. List five assumptions about the nature of living things that support the concept of evolution by natural selection.
  • Individuals with favorable characteristics are more likely to survive and give rise to offspring.
  • Favorable characteristics tend to become dominant among species, while the unfavorable ones are lost.
  • In nature, it’s a struggle for the fittest in order to survive.
  • No two organisms on the planet are exactly alike.
  • All organisms give rise to more offspring than can actually survive.
  1. Why is sexual reproduction important to the process of natural selection?

Sexual reproduction is important because it leads to a greater genetic diversity. Through sexual reproduction, a unique variety of gene combinations is created. This is important for the process of natural selection.

  1. How might a harmful allele remain in a gene pool for generations without being eliminated by natural selection?

A harmful allele can remain in a gene pool if it is recessive. This means it does not express characteristics on individuals. This occurs when a dominant allele expresses its characteristics over the recessive allele on an individual.

  1. Distinguish among stabilizing, directional, and disruptive selection.

Stabilizing selection is a kind of natural selection whereby the genetic diversity becomes smaller by selecting against extreme phenotypes. The entire population stabilizes around the majority of individuals that are well adapted to the environment.

Directional selection occurs when the environment favors an extreme phenotype, and hence with time the frequency of the alleles increases among the formerly rare phenotype.

Disruptive selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored over the medium values. As the trait increases, the population develops another distinct group.

  1. Why is genetic drift more likely in small populations? Give an example of genetic drift.

A genetic drift is more likely to occur in a small population because when a single mutation takes place, it reflects a larger portion of the total organisms than a mutation which occurs in a large population. An example of a genetic drift is the Florida panther which has a variety of unusual characteristics.

 

Balancing Ecosystems

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