Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens

Question

Characterize the major differences between Sparta and Athens, including your view of the strengths and weaknesses of each. Which do you think reflected qualities necessary to the maintenance of present-day democracies, and why? NO WORD MINIMUM

NUMBER 2

Discuss gender and family roles in Ancient Greece. How do these roles compare to modern American ideas? How are they different? What were the advantages and weaknesses of the Greek system?

Your response should be at least 300 words in length.

NUMBER 3

Describe some of the Ancient Greek writers, scientists, and philosophers and their works. Which one had the greatest impact, and why?Your response should be at least 300 words in length.

NUMBER 4

  Democritus ,Socrates

           Aristotle

Plato

Aristophanes

Aeschylus

Sophocles

Homer

Hippocrates

Thales

Early poet known for such epic works as The Iliad and The Odyssey

Philosopher who believed there were two planes of existence, the material world and the eternal world of “forms”

Playwright among the earliest known tragedians-wrote that justice and reason should be used to resolve conflicts

Playwright known for the Oedipus trilogy

Physician who pioneered the ideas of clinical detachment from patients and ascribing natural causes to diseases

Philosopher who developed a system of questions and answers to develop critical thinking

Philosopher who applied logic to observations of human justice and natural phenomena which lead him to believe the sun revolved around the earth

Scientist who originated the theory that atoms were the building blocks of the universe

Philosopher who believed that water was the basic element of the universe

Satirist and playwright known for such works as The Clouds

Sample paper

Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens

A number of differences exist between Sparta and Athens. The two cities, pitted against each other by an ancient rivalry, existed in a perpetual state of war and the need to influence greatest control over one another. Sparta was military oriented, with all men required to join the army starting from a tender age. The importance of this is that it made it difficult for rival nations to conquer Sparta. On the flipside, intellectual development of the region was low. On the other hand, Athens was a city of scholars (Lightman, Lightman, & Lightman, 2008). Many scholars utilized logic, deductive reasoning, and critical thinking to develop mathematical and other scientific concepts. The importance of this is that education greatly flourished in Athens. On the other hand, Athens’ military prowess was to an extent lower compared to Sparta.

Athens practiced a more democratic rule where men could choose whether to join the army or pursue other interests. The benefit of this is that all spheres of the economy developed, including education.  On the other hand, Sparta was undemocratic and compelled all men to serve in the army. As such, Sparta’s education was detrimentally affected. Athens’ style of leadership reflects that in modern societies. This is because it was more democratic and allowed people to pursue educational interests.

Gender and Family Roles in Ancient Greece

Men and women performed different tasks in ancient Greece. The main role of women was to act as homemakers (Lightman, Lightman, & Lightman, 2008). Women bore kids and stayed at home to take care of their family as well as household chores. Men mostly accompanied women when they went out of the house. A patriarchal system was in place meaning that men controlled everything in the household, particularly the elderly males in the household. Rich women would take of their children, slaves, and household chores. Women did not have any role in the political arena. Men acted as providers for their families. Men provided both financial and other material needs to their families. Men received education from an early age, both formal and informal education. Men could work as farmers, businesspersons, or even hold high offices. Men could participate in games and other leisure activities. Another important distinction is that men were involved in the political happenings of ancient Greece.

Gender roles in ancient Greece compare in various ways to modern American ideas, with slight changes or modifications to modern ideas. In ancient Greece, women did not participate in political affairs of the region. Despite the tremendous policy changes in the U.S., women still make up a small fraction in political affairs. For instance in 2015, women accounted for 20% of the total House and Senate representatives (Desilver, 2015). In addition, women are less likely to hold high offices of authority. The U.S. has never had a female president, which reflects the societal views towards women and leadership. In ancient Greece, women were primarily involved with household chores. In the modern period, women still perform most of the household chores such as cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. Differences exist in voting rights, social life, education, have more responsibilities, and quality. In ancient Greek, women did not participate in politics, had limited social life, they did not join schools, and could not engage in work. In the contrary, modern women are educated, participate in politics, have dynamic social life, and participate in paid labor. Modern women are equal to men.

The Greek system of government was democratic. Decisions making rested on many individuals rather than a single individual. This greatly contributed to making of correct judgment or decisions. in the Greek system, records were made available to the public and thus improving accountability of the ruling system. The Greek system of leadership was also aristocratic and thus prevented the resting of political power upon an individual. One of the major weaknesses of the Greek system was ignorance of the masses, who could be influenced to vote bad leaders in office. The ruling elites held power for one year, meaning it was difficult to implement any tangible long-term plans.

References

Desilver, D. (2015). Despite progress, U.S. still lags many nations in women leaders. Pew            Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-    tank/2015/01/26/despite-progress-u-s-still-lags-many-nations-in-women-leadership/

Lightman, M., Lightman, B., & Lightman, M. (2008). A to Z of ancient Greek and Roman            women. New York: Facts On File.

 

Ancient Greek Writers. Some of the iconic Greek writers, scientists, and philosophers include Hippocrates, Plato, Archimedes, Homer, Sophocles, and others. Hippocrates was a Greek physician and is often considered the father of medicine. Hippocrates lived between 460 and 370 BC (Blackson, 2011). He developed the Hippocratic Corpus, which is a collection of various case studies on different medical issues. He is credited with developing the Hippocratic Oath for doctors. Some of the modern aspects of the Hippocratic Oath are borrowed from Hippocrates philosophy. Plato is another significant Greek figure. Plato is among the greatest contributors to Western philosophy. Plato’s philosophical ideas on forms and ideal state are a significant part of modern philosophical doctrine (Blackson, (2011). Sophocles was a writer, credited with over 123 plays. He wrote classics such as Oedipus, Antigone, Electra, and King. Sophocles introduced the aspect of scenography in theater. He also abolished the element of trilogy in plays, increasing their dramatic value in the process.

Archimedes lived between 287 – 212 BC. Archimedes is one of the greatest ancient scientist, with knowledge in various areas such as engineering, mathematics, and physics (Bispham, Harrison, & Sparkes, 2006). Archimedes discovered The Archimedes’ Screw, calculate the accurate value of pi, and established a method for measuring volume of irregular objects. Homer’s works are traced to 8th century BC. He is famous for his epic poems Iliad and Odyssey. The Iliad is one of the oldest Western literature. Homer’s works had a huge influence in ancient Greek literature, and formed one of the main works that almost all scholars had to read. In more recent period, his works greatly influenced Shakespeare. Hippocrates had the greatest influence in ancient Greek civilization (Bispham, Harrison, & Sparkes, 2006). This is because he advanced the concept of medicine at a time when knowledge on simple diseases was absent. Hippocrates made the earliest descriptions of various ailments such as heart disease and lung cancer.

References

Bispham, E., Harrison, T. J., & Sparkes, B. A. (2006). The Edinburgh companion to ancient         Greece and Rome. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Blackson, T. A. (2011). Ancient Greek philosophy: From the Presocratics to the Hellenistic             philosophers. Malden, Mass: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Question 4

  1. Homer

Early poet known for such epic works as The Iliad and The Odyssey.

Philosopher who believed there were two planes of existence, the material world and the eternal world of “forms”.

Playwright among the earliest known tragedians-wrote that justice and reason should be used to resolve conflicts.

Playwright known for the Oedipus trilogy.

Physician who pioneered the ideas of clinical detachment from patients and ascribing natural causes to diseases.

Philosopher who developed a system of questions and answers to develop critical thinking.

 

Philosopher who applied logic to observations of human justice and natural phenomena which lead him to believe the sun revolved around the earth.

Scientist who originated the theory that atoms were the building blocks of the universe.

Philosopher who believed that water was the basic element of the universe.

Satirist and playwright known for such works as The Cloud.

Black Death’s impacts on the economic and cultural life of medieval Europe

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