Tag Archives: Annotated Bibliography

Public Administrator Generated Information- An Annotated Bibliography

Public Administrator Generated Information- An Annotated Bibliography

Dalby, S. (2015). Climate geopolitics: Securing the global economy. International            Politics, 52(4), 426-444. doi:10.1057/ip.2015.3

This article examines how climate poses a significant threat to states and global economies. The author argues that there is need for rethinking of the modern economies since the way they operate significantly contributes to climate change.

Krawczyński, M., Czyżewski, P., & Bocian, K. (2016). Reindustrialization: A challenge to the     economy in the first quarter of the twenty-first century. Foundations of Management, 8(1), 107-122. doi:10.1515/fman-2016-0009

The authors examine the long-term impacts of the 2007 global recession in various economies including the US. The major argument is that developing the industrial sector can help in improving economic growth and development.

Kerigan-Kyrou, D. (2013). Critical energy infrastructure: Operators, NATO, and facing future             challenges. Connections : The Quarterly Journal, 12(3), 109.

The major contention of this article is that the U.S. power supply is vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, which have increased in frequency and severity. In the event of a major catastrophe, there could be ripple effects on the economy.

Alexeev, M. (2016). A comparative analysis of the development of Russia, the United States,       Europe, and china: An interview with Michael Alekseev. Russian Social Science           Review, 57(2), 78-85. doi:10.1080/10611428.2016.1159479

The author argues that one of the key challenges facing the U.S. is high external debt. Further, the author asserts that this is a political problem rather than an economic problem, and is related to increased expenditures in the health sector.

Patnaik, P. (2016). Capitalism and its current crisis. Monthly Review, 67(8), 1.

The author reviews the current problems facing the U.S. economy as it slowly emerges from a period of sluggish economic growth. The author argues that the U.S. economic recovery is not sustainable since it is hedged on increasing demand due to falling oil prices rather than an increase in real investment activity.

Beyers, W. B. (2013). The great recession and state unemployment trends. Economic        Development Quarterly, 27(2), 114-123. doi:10.1177/0891242413479653

The author examines the unemployment trends in the post-recession period. The main argument is that even after the end of the great recession, the US economy is yet to recover fully from the effects of the 2008 recession.

Banerjee, S., & Blau, D. (2016). Employment trends by age in the united states: Why are older    workers different? Journal of Human Resources, 51(1), 163-199.      doi:10.3368/jhr.51.1.163

The authors explore the recent unemployment statistics in the United States. It is worth noting that unemployment statistics are key indicators of the economic growth and development of a country.

Barrell, R., Delannoy, A., & Holland, D. (2011). The impact of high oil prices on the economy.   National Institute Economic Review, (217), F68+.

The authors analyze the impact of high oil prices to the U.S. economy. The findings indicate that the U.S. economy is particularly sensitive to oil prices.

Baumeister, C., & Peersman, G. (2013). Time-Varying Effects of Oil Supply Shocks on the US             Economy. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 5(4), 1-28. Retrieved from             http://www.jstor.org/stable/43189560

The authors study the nature of the relationship between the U.S. oil prices and the macroeconomic performance. Oil prices have a significant impact on the performance of the economy.

Bjørnskov, C. (2017). Growth, inequality, and economic freedom: Evidence from the U.S.             states. Contemporary Economic Policy, 35(3), 518-531. doi:10.1111/coep.12199

This article is an evaluation of how income inequality in the United States affects economic growth in the long run.

Blanco, L. R., Gu, J., & Prieger, J. E. (2016). The impact of research and development on             economic growth and productivity in the U.S. states. Southern Economic Journal, 82(3),       914-934. doi:10.1002/soej.12107

The authors examine how research and development plays a critical role in the development of individual states. The major argument is that research and development promote the output and total factor productivity of individual states.

Ayres, R., & Voudouris, V. (2014). The economic growth enigma: Capital, labour and useful             energy? Energy Policy, 64, 16-28. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.001

The authors examine the link among capital, labor, useful energy, and the economic growth of a country. The aim of the study is to examine the role played by energy in the development of the economy.

Gustave Speth, J. (2013). Beyond the growth paradigm: Creating a unified progressive             politics*. Development, 56(2), 202-207.             doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1057/dev.2013.2

The author examines how politics influences the economic growth and development of the United States. The author is particularly interested with the influence of politics to the social, economic, political, and environmental arena.

Fulford, S. L. (2015). How Important Are Banks for Development? National Banks in the United             States, 1870-1900. Review of Economics and Statistics97(5), 921-938.

The author examines the role played by banks in the economic growth and development of the U.S. economy. Banks play a significant role in supporting economic growth and development.

Johnson, N. D., Ruger, W., Sorens, J., & Yamarik, S. (2014). Corruption, regulation, and growth:            An empirical study of the united states. Economics of Governance, 15(1), 51-69.             doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10101-013-0132-3

The authors examine issues related to governance and economic growth. In particular, the authors examine how corruption might hinder economic growth of the country.

Alexeev, M., & Chernyavskiy, A. (2014). The effect of oil on regional growth in Russia and the United States: A comparative analysis. Comparative Economic Studies, 56(4), 517-535.   doi:10.1057/ces.2014.28

The authors of this article examine how oil abundance has influenced the economic growth of the U.S. and Russia’s economies. In particular, the authors examine how tax revenues from the oil industry may spur development.

Tang, J., & Wang, W. (2015). Economic growth in Canada and the United States: Supply‐Push    or Demand‐Pull? Review of Income and Wealth, 61(4), 773-798. doi:10.1111/roiw.121

The authors examine the real determinants of economic growth in Canada and the U.S. Specifically, the authors examine whether the economic growth in these countries is the result of supply-push or demand-pull factors.

Chen, P., Lee, C., & Lee, C. (2012). How does the development of the life insurance market         affect economic growth? Some international evidence. Journal of International   Development, 24(7), 865-893. doi:10.1002/jid.1765

The author argues that increased uptake of life insurance by the citizens may improve economic growth. The author also examines the factors or conditions that influence the growth of the economy when citizens take up life insurance.

Chi, J., & Baek, J. (2013). Dynamic relationship between air transport demand and economic       growth in the United States: A new look. Transport Policy, 29, 257.    doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.03.005

The author examines how air transport demand could be applied as a predictor for the health of the U.S. economy. The main argument is that air transport demand increases with economic growth.

Jerzmanowski, M. (2017). Finance and sources of growth: Evidence from the U.S. states.             Journal of Economic Growth, 22(1), 97-122. doi:10.1007/s10887-016-9135-6

The author examines the role of financial development in supporting the economic growth and development of the U.S. economy.

Hoyman, M., McCall, J., Paarlberg, L., & Brennan, J. (2016). Considering the role of social         capital for economic development outcomes in U.S. counties. Economic Development            Quarterly, 30(4), 342-357. doi:10.1177/0891242416659135

The authors examine the link between social capital development and economic development. The main argument is that social capital development promotes economic growth.

Tassey, G. (2017). A technology-based growth policy. Issues in Science and Technology, 33(2), 80.

The author examines how technology influences economic growth and development. The aim of the author is to establish the links between technology adoption and growth.

Komarek, T., & Loveridge, S. (2015). firm sizes and economic development: Estimating long‐     term effects on U.S. county growth, 1990–2000. Journal of Regional Science, 55(2), 262-         279. doi:10.1111/jors.12159

The authors examine the role played by firms in promoting the economic growth of the U.S. The authors establish connections between the size of the firm and income and employment levels.

Baek, J., & Gweisah, G. (2013). Does income inequality harm the environment? Empirical           evidence from the United States. Energy Policy, 62, 1434-1434.         doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.097

This article examines how income inequalities affect economic growth and energy consumption patterns. The findings indicate that increased income equality promotes environmental quality.

Stephens, H. M., Partridge, M. D., & Faggian, A. (2013). innovation, entrepreneurship and           economic growth in lagging regions. Journal of Regional Science, 53(5), 778-812.     doi:10.1111/jors.12019

The authors examine the factors that may promote economic growth in remote areas. The study takes into account various factors such as human capital, innovation, self-employment, and among others.


Annotated Bibliography for Juvenile Transfer to Adult Prisons

Annotated Bibliography for Juvenile Transfer to Adult Prisons

Towards the end of the 20th century, legislative changes made it easier for law enforcement officers and prosecutors to treat juveniles as adults, but this had negative consequences in the criminal justice system. The ease of transferring juvenile offenders to the adult criminal justice system resulted in a significant increase in the number of juveniles tried as adults. Consequently, this increased the possibility of recidivism among juveniles who has spent time in adult facilities. While the major goal of the criminal justice system is the rehabilitation of offenders, incarceration of juveniles in adult prisons is likely to achieve the opposite by increasing recidivism rates among the juvenile offenders. Juveniles in adult prisons are likely to learn new crimes, vices, and become part of gangs. This calls for the reshaping of policies guiding the transfer of juveniles to the adult criminal justice system.


Shook, Jeffrey J. “Looking Back and Thinking Forward: Examining the Consequences of             Policies and Practices that Treat Juveniles as Adults.” Journal of Evidence-Based Social           Work, vol. 11, no. 4, 2014, pp. 392-403.

Incarcerating youths in adult prisons will do more harm than good to them and the larger society as well. While law enforcement officers are inclined to push for harsh forms of punishment such as extended incarceration in adult prisons, this is likely to increase the likelihood of recidivism or the youths falling deeper in crime. The author argues that youths in adult prisons have significantly poor life outcomes mainly emanating from lack of age-appropriate programs in the adult facilities. Such youths were more likely to have poor education outcomes, mental health issues, substance use issues, and were subject to high victimization, which increased the risks of depression and suicide. In addition, such youths in adult facilities were more inclined to commit various misdemeanors that earned them time in solitary confinement and prolonged incarceration period.

This article will be critical in proving my thesis statement that treating youths like adults in the criminal justice system will have significant negative consequences. The article provides a meta-analysis of existing literature on juvenile incarceration in adult facilities. The findings are critical in that they highlight much of the negative consequences that youths in adult prisons are likely to face. These consequences include educational challenges, substance use, and mental health issues. The author, however, notes that certain crimes or frequency of offending may inform the decision to transfer a youth to adult prison. The findings by the article are that youth incarceration in adult prisons increases the overall risks of recidivism. This article will be relevant in the literature review section of the article since it helps in evaluating much of the research on the ground.


Taylor, Melanie. “Juvenile Transfers to Adult Court: An Examination of the Long-Term   Outcomes of Transferred and Non-Transferred Juveniles: Juvenile Transfers to Adult     Court.” Juvenile and Family Court Journal, vol. 66, no. 4, 2015, pp. 29-47.

The author examines how incarceration of youths in adult prisons affects the youths in the long term. One of the main findings in the article is that youth incarceration in adult prisons, and especially for those who commit low-level crimes, is likely to increase the possibility of recidivism in the future. While the study finds no significant relationship between incarceration in adult prisons and completing college, there was a significant negative relationship with regard to annual income. The findings indicated that youths who face incarceration in adult prisons earn significantly lower annual income as adults. The results were true even after controlling for certain key factors that may affect income levels such as the amount of time worked and possession of a college certificate.

I will use this source to prove that youth incarceration in adult prisons have far reaching consequences even in one’s adulthood. Specifically, it is clear that youths in adult prisons are more likely to earn less as adults even when considering various factors. This increases the chances of recidivism since they may engage in crime to uplift their social status. The article substantiates my ideas that taking youths who commit low-level crimes to adult prisons will likely increase the possibility of recidivism in future. This article will be critical in the analysis section. The article utilizes primary data and quantitative techniques to draw conclusions about youth incarceration in adult prisons, thus making it highly reliable.