Telecommuting

Question

Background: Many people think of telecommuting from the perspective of how it might make
their lives easier. This perspective is an oversimplification of the work design option. In this
paper, you are asked to address each of the following issues to address the following:
You are a Human Resources (HR) manager. You have been tasked to work with a specific
internal department to provide both guidance and structure to the potential rollout of a
telecommuting option for that group. As such, you want to address the following specific issues
with that departments management team (NOTE: The associated point value for each
component is noted in bold):
1. Describe in detail some of the common components/considerations of a successful
telecommuting program. (Research is required outside of the course material) (50
points)
2. Explain in detail the issues encountered by other organizations in implementing a
telecommuting program. (Research is required outside of the course material) (50
points)
a. How are they commonly addressed in the rollout of an official program)
3. Describe how you can best determine the fit of the individual for a telecommuting
program. Focus on the course material covering: (50 points)
a. Values
b. Personality
c. Social Need of the individual
d. Career management issues
e. Any other items you feel are relevant
4. Since the use of work teams is growing in importance, describe in detail the relevant
factors to be considered in an effective telecommuting. Describe the potential limits
this may have for a rollout. Describe how some of these issues may be overcome. (50
points)
a. Include all relevant aspects of group dynamics covered within the course.
The rubric is contained within the four itemized components above.

Sample paper

Telecommuting

 

Table of Contents

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Statement of Purpose………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Common Components of a Successful Telecommuting Program……………………………………………………….4

Internet Connections…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….4

Employee Management Software and Applications…………………………………………………………………………….5

Health Considerations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5

Issues Encountered by Organizations in Implementing a Telecommuting Program………………….……….5

Suitability…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5

Management Challenges…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….6

Security……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….6

Cost Concerns……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……….6

Separation from Work Culture………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….7

Feelings of Inadequacy and Low Motivation…………………………………………………………………………………………7

Determining the Fit of Individuals for a Telecommuting Program…………………………………………………….….7

Values……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………….7

Personality…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7

Social Need of the Individual……………………………………………….……………………………………………………………….8

Career Management Issues………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9

Willingness to Telecommute……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….9

Relevant Factors and Limits in an Effective Telecommuting…………………………………………………………….9

Personal Factors……………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………..……….9

Nature of the Work…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….10

Compliance with Expected Workplace Standards……………………………………………………………………………….11

Rules and Policies……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12

 

 

Abstract

Telecommuting is becoming increasingly common as organizations seek new ways of reducing operational costs. The recent advances in technology have facilitated the application of telecommuting programs in organizations at a rapid pace. Organizations are looking at telecommuting as an effective way for maintain a competitive advantage over the competitors. Despite the potential benefits for employees and management, serious challenges abound in implementing telecommuting programs. Telecommuting programs can have serious impacts to employee performance and generally an organization’s performance. In particular, telecommuting significantly affects the social bonds or ties among employees in the organization. This may have negative impacts to the organization. The other major challenge concerns the ability of the managers to maintain control over telecommuters who work from different geographical locations. This necessitates the application of software applications to help in monitoring employees. Such software applications may be costly to install.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this descriptive study is to explore in detail the components of telecommuting program, issues in implementing telecommuting, factors for consideration in effective telecommuting, and ways of establishing the fit of individuals for a telecommuting program.

Telecommuting

Common Components of a Successful Telecommuting Program

Internet Connections

A successful telecommuting program must have quality network infrastructure. The management may have to choose from a number of remote access technologies such as broadband internet service, dedicated private circuits, and among others. The major factors to consider in deciding on remote access technology are speed, cost, security of data, and mobility. Some access technologies such as use of cellular networks and cable modems can allow the telecommuter to work from different locations covered by the network. Wi-Fi hotspots and digital subscriber lines are suitable where the telecommuter works from a stationery location. Some network providers can establish a private IP environment between the telecommuter and the organization’s computer system. Such a system would be suitable where there is passing of sensitive data.

Virtual Private Network

This is another important component for a successful telecommuting program. Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network infrastructure that enables users to safely access private networks even from public networks (Pearce, 2008). A VPN is critical in facilitating telecommuter access to the organization’s network, which is private network. A VPN is a critical component of a successful telecommuting program since it acts as a gateway through which the telecommuter can access key corporate resources such as intranet portals, network shares, internal applications, and printers (Pearce, 2008). VPNs are a safe way of accessing key resources. VPNs provide adequate security to prevent various forms of cyberattacks to the organization’s computer systems.

Information Sharing

A successful telecommuting program must integrate file and content sharing technologies. Peer-to-peer file sharing is the most common (Pearce, 2008). The sharing of files occurs through a centralized file sharing server. Recent trends involve using a third party for file storage solutions. The telecommuters as well as regular employees can easily access such files from all the computers on the organization’s network (Pearce, 2008). Content sharing is also vital for a successful telecommuting program. The organization can facilitate content sharing by use of specialized content-sharing software or websites.  Use of blogs, portals, social bookmark sites, and wikis can facilitate content sharing (Pearce, 2008). File and content sharing technologies eliminate the need for telecommuters to have to move to the physical offices to present work or obtain new information.

Multiple Communication Channels

A successful telecommuting program should allow for multiple communication channels. Communication is an essential element of the telecommuting process. Communication allows the telecommuters to keep in touch with the supervisors or management in an effective manner. The communication channels should allow for passing or oral, written, and visual messages or information. Common communication methods include web conferencing, audio conferencing, and instant messaging. Web conferencing enables the passing of visual and audio messages over the organization’s network infrastructure. Audio conferencing enable individuals to pass voice messages over the internet or mobile networks. Instant messaging provides users with the ability to send or receive instant messages through the internet.

Employee Management Software and Applications

A successful telecommuting program must include a reliably way of monitoring the telecommuters. The management should be able to monitor the performance of employees at their different and far off locations. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software can help in tracking the working of employees. The management or supervisors can raise an issue in the CRM platform. The issue remains open until the particular employee resolves the issue. It can be difficult to manage employees working from remote locations. In a telecommuting environment, it is difficult to conduct supervisory roles to ensure that employees adhere to established policy.

Organizational leaders in charge on telecommuters must ensure they improve on performance measurement relating to telecommuters. Failure to ensure there are effective performance measurement tools may lead inefficiencies among the telecommuters. The management should make use performance-tracking software in order to ensure effective monitoring of telecommuters’ performance. Telecommuter management should also involve providing effective support. The management must ensure that telecommuters have adequate support in order to achieve their goals. For instance, the management should replace promptly faulty equipment and provide other forms of help desk support.

Health Considerations

Some researchers have focused on the risks posed by telecommuting to the health of individuals. In corporate workspaces, there are adequate health provisions to employees effectively minimizing various health risks (Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). For instance, corporate workspaces have ambient ergonomically designed workstations that reduce the risk of injury. Employees have a regular schedule that involves going for breaks. Corporate workspaces have ambient lighting and are subject to inspection. Regular inspection ensures that such workspaces meets or exceeds health standards. On the other hand, telecommuters often have to set up workstations on their own and using limited resources (Allen, Golden, & Shockley, 2015). This increases the risk of injury since they may not follow outlined standards. Telecommuters may also fail to follow required safety standards when they work away from the office. A telecommuting program should not increase the risk of injuries to employees.

Issues Encountered by Organizations in Implementing a Telecommuting Program

Suitability

One of the issues encountered by organizations in implementing a telecommuting program is making a decision on the suitability of employees and various roles for telecommuting. It is difficult for the management to decide on the positions that are suitable to telecommuting. In addition, the management may face challenges in deciding on the employees best suited to work as telecommuters. Telecommuting is not suitable for all forms of jobs in the organization. The organization may face serious challenges if employees handle certain tasks from outside the office. For instance, jobs requiring face-to-face interactions with the customers may not be suitable for telecommuting. In addition to the challenges of selecting the suitable jobs for telecommuting, organizational leaders must make the decision on the employees they can allow to work as telecommuters. The suitable employees should have high self-drive and productivity. The suitable candidate should be one who can work with minimal supervision. It may not be easy for the management to select such employees.

Management Challenges

Management challenges are prevalent in organizations that implement telecommuting programs. It is difficult to manage employees in different physical locations. The telecommuters may take advantage of lack of direct supervision leading to slack in the level of output. According to Pearce (2009) noted that the separation from the physical workplace increases the tendency for telecommuters to underperform. Besides the inability to maintain an oversight role over the employees, the management may also lose the ability to assess employee performance. This may occur where the organization’s management lacks adequate resources to install modern employee monitoring technologies. The organization can only ensure effective monitoring of employees by basing compensation of units produced instead of the hours worked. Such remuneration system has major drawbacks including low quality of products due to the focus on quantity of final products.

Security

Security is another organizational issue encountered when implementing a telecommuting program. It is virtually impossible for the organization to guarantee the security of sensitive data when employees work outside the physical location. According to Pearce (2009), security of computer systems and information protection is a major threat facing telecommuting. Various breaches that may occur while working from outside the office include hacking, erroneous emails, and stolen laptops or other important equipment. In particular, hackers can use stolen laptops to gain access to sensitive information. Pearce (2009) identified various security issues facing telecommuters. One of the issues is vulnerability of broadband connections to malware attacks. The organization should install firewall and anti-virus programs to avert such attacks. Majority of telecommuters prefer using wireless connections, which are susceptible to eavesdropping. An organization wishing to prevent eavesdropping must invest more by installing encryption technologies.

Telecommuters often face security challenges involving their internet browser security. Hackers can use malicious software to steal information from a computer system (Pearce, 2009). Such an attack can occur through a weakness on one of the organization’s extended computer networks. It may be difficult for the management to ensure that all employees implement the appropriate computer safeguards while using their laptops. This leaves a window that hackers can exploit to gain access to the organization’s computer system. As mentioned above, it is also difficult to ensure the physical security of the extended computer network in telecommuting. Theft of computer from telecommuters’ home or other location could lead to leaking of sensitive data to the public.

Cost Concerns

Cost is another issue in implementing telecommuting programs. Beginning a telecommuting program requires substantial resources from the organization. This may have significant effect on the profitability of the organization. The organization may incur costs due to the need for upgrading the technology information systems to allow for secure remote access. In addition, the organization may find the need to install modern software and applications for employee monitoring. For instance, the organization may find the need to install Symposium, a system that uses VOIP to monitor calls in a call center (Pearce, 2009). Apart from costs relating to upgrading of the information systems, an organization is likely to incur costs involving relocation of office furniture, installation of advanced security systems, installation of internet, and other costs.

Separation from Work Culture

Corporate culture is critical in ensuring an organization’s productivity. A strong corporate culture helps in ensuring that employees work towards achieving common goals. Telecommuting brings about the issue of separation from the work culture (Chithambo, 2015). Telecommuters working from their homes rarely interact with employees working from the offices. This may lead to a fragmentation of the social fabric in the workplace and the subsequent loss of the workplace culture. Fragmentation of the corporate culture may lead to poor teamwork among employees (Pearce, 2009). Employees working from within the organization may also forge a unique culture from the telecommuters. This may result to tension between telecommuters and regular employees. Such tension may lead to reduced productivity in the organization since employees may tend to focus on unnecessary issues.

Feelings of Inadequacy and Low Motivation

Telecommuting can lead to feelings of inadequacy leading to low motivation. Telecommuting involves removing an employee from a social life and conditioning him/her to isolation. Most often, telecommuters work from home where their social circle becomes narrow. Such employees may experience lower motivation levels. Moreover, telecommuters often express fears of being disregarded for promotions and other opportunities that may emerge in the organization (Dahlstrom, 2013). This is because telecommuters work from outside the organization. They have limited chances of interacting with the managers, supervisors, and other employees. When promotional opportunities emerge, those working within the organization have the highest chances of getting the promotions. The notion that telecommuting will have a negative impact on a telecommuter’s career may lead to low motivation. In implementing telecommuting programs, the management must take measures to ensure that both telecommuters and regular employees receive fair promotion opportunities. The management may find it difficult to ensure a balance between the two.

Determining the Fit of Individuals for a Telecommuting Program

Values

Values can help in determining the suitability of an employee for a telecommuting program. Values relates to the standards of behavior relating to a particular individual. Employees should exhibit a number of values for them to be suitable for working in a telecommuting environment. One of the core values is accountability. This is the willingness to take responsibility for one’s actions. Another important value is self-discipline. A suitable employee for a telecommuting program should be able to plan for his/her work and remain committed towards achieving organizational goals. Another important value is self-motivation. A suitable employee should be able to work without supervision. Positive attitude is also critical in a telecommunication arrangement. Another important value is honesty and integrity. This is important in building trust. Another important aspect is professionalism. This involves learning all the integral aspects of the job and performing the task to the best of one’s ability at all times.

Personality

The personality of employees can offer the management a window of opportunity to determine whether a particular employee is fit for telecommuting. The Big Five personality typology can help in assessing whether an individual is fit for telecommuting. The Big Five personality typology categorizes the entire range of human personality into five types. These are openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion. According to Clark, Karau, and Michalisin (2012), the Big Five personality types are generalizable across cultures. As such, the Big Five personality types can enable the management to understand personality types and their fit in a telecommuting environment.

Individuals who have high openness tend to be creative, they seek variety, and they tend to seek intellectual stimulation. Individuals with openness are also likely to seek opportunities for learning. Employees who have high openness tend to be creative and seek opportunities for learning. Telecommuting requires that the employee adopts new methods of communication and gets used to working from a new environment (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). There exists a positive relationship between an employee’s openness and the ability to view telecommuting in a positive manner (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). According to Smith, Patmos, and Pitts (2018), having a positive attitude towards learning enables such individuals to become better telecommuters.

Individuals high in agreeableness tend to exude honesty, trustworthiness, cooperation, helpfulness, amicableness, and decency (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Employees high in agreeableness tend to be high performers especially in tasks involving high interpersonal interactions (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012; Smith, Patmos, & Pitts, 2018). Further, some researchers concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between agreeableness and job performance in telecommuting environments (Smith, Patmos, & Pitts, 2018). Employees high in conscientiousness tend to be self-disciplined, thorough, organized, responsible, hardworking, and careful (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Employees having high conscientiousness are better suited to work in a telecommuting environment. The characteristics relating to hard work and self-discipline are critical in ensuring success in a telecommuting environment.

Extraversion concerns the tendency to be highly sociable, talkative, assertive, and active. Extraverts prefer environments that promote social interactions and stimulation of the senses (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Due to the need for the highly stimulating environments, extraverts may not be fit for a telecommuting arrangement. Extraverts would prefer working in environments that promote social interactions. On the other hand, introverts may be more suited for a telecommuting arrangement since they prefer having less social contacts. Neuroticism relates to the emotional stability of individuals. According to Smith, Patmos, and Pitts (2018), people high in neuroticism tend to be anxious and depressed. Recent studies indicate that people with neuroticism prefer telecommuting since they are able to maintain total control over their work environment.

Social Need of the Individual

The social need of the individual may also help in determining his/her fit for a telecommuting program. Social needs refer to the need for affiliation. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory states that social needs are significant motivating factors for individuals (Furnham, 2012). Individuals have certain social needs such as the need to interact with others, to have friends, and the need for acceptance by others. Developing relations at work enables an employee to fulfil the social needs (Furnham, 2012). Further, organizations promote the development of cordial social relations by coming up with various events and activities such as office parties, sports days, fun competitions, and among others. Social needs are part of what Maslow identified as deficiency needs. Inability of an individual to fulfil these needs lead to stunted physical and psychological development.

Employees whose social needs are high may not be fit for a telecommuting program. It is possible to assess the social needs of an employee by measuring the task independence and interpersonal independence levels. Task independence refers to the ability of the employee to accomplish tasks with minimal supervision or help from others. An employee who is highly task independent can fit in a telecommuting environment. Interpersonal independence measures the employee’s level of need for establishing social interactions in the workplace. Employees having high interpersonal dependence may not feel comfortable working as telecommuters. According to Dahlstrom (2013), some employees may long for social interactions in the office when they are telecommuting. A solution for this may be telecommuting on part time basis.

Career Management Issues

Career management is critical in determining the fit of an individual for a telecommuting program. Career management involves planning of activities and job engagements mainly to facilitate growth. Career management lays the foundation for the progression of an employee across the organizational leadership structure. This largely depends on employee preferences, performance levels, and organizational objectives. Career management enables an employee to recognize viable career paths that they can follow for future success. Another need for career management is in setting career priorities and goals. Employees aiming at leadership positions at the organization may not find it suitable to work as telecommuters. According to Dahlstrom (2013), many employees fear engaging in telecommuting due to limited opportunities for growth or advancement.

Willingness to Telecommute

It is important for the management to take into consideration the employees’ preferences with regard to telecommuting. Employees who are in favor of the decision to work as telecommuters would best fit the program. The management should not force employees into working as telecommuters since this may lead to lower employee motivation. For instance, extraverts may not be able to handle isolation that presents in telecommuting environments (Clark, Karau, & Michalisin, 2012). Extraverts desire social interactions in order to feel complete. Some individuals may not find the home environment fit for office work. It is worth noting that a large share of individuals who engage in telecommuting prefer working from home. The home environment may reduce productivity or performance levels.

Relevant Factors and Limits in an Effective Telecommuting

Personal Factors

Personal factors are one of the relevant factors for consideration in effective telecommuting. Telecommuting is not suitable for all employees. Certain personality traits play a critical role in determining whether an individual will be effective as a telecommuter (Ye, 2012). An effective telecommuter should be highly dependable. It is possible to assess an employee’s dependability levels by looking at how he/she meets deadlines for tasks or assignments and punctuality in reporting. An employee who manages time effectively at the workplace is likely to continue the same even when telecommuting. Another personal factor is professionalism. An ideal telecommuter is an employee who handles assignments with professionalism, which is indicative of responsibility.

Communication is another important personal factor. An ideal telecommuter is one who has effective communication skills (Ye, 2012). Telecommuting involves working away from an organization’s physical location. This requires that telecommuters maintain frequent communication with the co-workers, supervisors, and managers in order to show their commitment to the job. Telecommuting may not be possible for persons who are poor communicators. For instance, employees who delay in responding to emails or answering calls may not be effective telecommuters. A good telecommuter should be resourceful. Telecommuting employees face often face challenging work situations alone since the supervisor or manager is not present to offer immediate solutions. A suitable telecommuting candidate should be able to apply problem-solving skills to various challenging situations. A suitable candidate would be an employee who has demonstrated sound problem-solving skills in resolving prior challenges.

Another relevant factor is the productivity level of employees. A suitable candidate should demonstrate productivity in the organization. There is a close link between productivity and possession of relevant job skills. Employees who lack adequate job skills or knowledge are not suitable candidates for telecommuting (Ye, 2012). Time management and good organization skills of the employee is also relevant. A suitable candidate should be a good time manager. The employee should possess organizational skills to be able to plan his/her work. The suitable candidate should be able to work with minimal supervision and can take steps to measure performance.

Nature of the Work

Nature of work is a relevant factor that management must consider in telecommuting. Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. The suitable jobs for telecommuting are those that involve engaging in independent tasks and where it is possible to measure performance based on the outcomes (Ye, 2012). Managers should be able to conduct an evaluation to determine whether work characteristics can permit telecommuting among employees. Managers should take interest in establishing whether the employee can perform the job functions independently, and at a location outside the organization. An employee should be able to conduct a job task just as efficiently as he/she would while inside the office. The job requirements should accommodate for working away from the organization. Some of the jobs suited for telecommuting include data processing, indirect customer services, writing tasks, sales, legal jobs, research and policy development, programming, and among others.

With regard to the nature of the work, security concerns may arise when some employees work from outside the office (Ye, 2012). Organizations may have security concerns especially where telecommuting involves bypassing the security barriers in place. Organizations use firewalls, virtual private networks, and Secure Socket Layer to enhance the security of the information systems. Telecommuting can pose certain risks to the organization especially if it involves remotely accessing the information systems. The managers must be able to ensure that there are adequate security considerations before giving telecommuters remote access to the organization’s computer systems. Tasks that do not require access to the computer systems may be safe for telecommuting.

Compliance with Expected Workplace Standards

Managers must ensure that telecommuting does not lead to non-compliance of workplace standards. An effective telecommuting program must take into consideration the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for work. OSHA standards outline the safety, health, and welfare requirements for those employed. A major concern by OSHA is workplace safety. Every employee should be able to work in a safe and healthy environment. With regard to this, the management should be in a position to provide the required safety gear to all employees. Generally, managers should ensure that the remote offices meet OSHA requirements. The management should visit all remote offices to ensure they meet the OSHA requirements. It is also important to ensure that remote offices do not compromise the integrity of an organization’s data security. The management should develop security policies guiding telecommuters. For instance, the management may prohibit employees from using public WIFI to prevent incidences of hacking.

Rules and Policies

The management should develop rules and policies that guide how employees under the telecommuting program will work. The management should communicate the rules and policies to employees before they make the decision to engage in telecommuting (Ye, 2012). Lack of a proper policy framework guiding telecommuters may lead to confusion and inefficiencies. The policy should designate clearly, the party to meet the various costs that the telecommuter may incur. For instance, the policy should be clear on whether the telecommuter or the company should pay for the internet access. The management should also make a decision on whether the telecommuter should purchase his/her own equipment or the organization should provide. The equipment may include laptop, filing cabinets, bookcases, desk, and among others. The management should make it clear that it is the role of employees to ensure they protect data and equipment from theft. The management should also develop a policy on sick days and leave for the employee. Generally, the criteria for leave and sick days should be the same as the one used in the office.

Conclusion

In summary, the advancements in technology have made it possible for employees handling certain job tasks to work from anywhere and at any time. Telecommuting enables individuals to work from homes or other locations of their choice. Although telecommuting is a revolutionary force, there are certain considerations that the management must ensure are in place for a successful telecommuting program. The considerations identified include internet connections, Virtual Private Network (VPN), information sharing facilities, multiple communication channels, employee management software and applications, and health considerations. Further, the organization may encounter various issues in implementing a telecommuting program.  The issues identified are suitability, management challenges, security, cost concerns, separation from work culture, and feelings of inadequacy and low motivation. The fit of the individual to telecommute depends on a number of personal factors. The various factors that the management should consider in an effective telecommuting are values, personality, social needs, and career management issues.

References

Allen, T. D., Golden, T. D., & Shockley, K. M. (2015). How effective is telecommuting? assessing the         status of our scientific findings. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(2), 40-68.           10.1177/1529100615593273

Chithambo, L. M. (2015). Security concerns in telecommuting within the information technology                 industry. Academic Forum. Conference. Proceedings, , 53.

Clark, L. A., Karau, S. J., & Michalisin, M. D. (2012). Telecommuting attitudes and the ‘big five’ personality                 dimensions. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 13(3), 31.

Dahlstrom, T. R. (2013). Telecommuting and leadership style. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 438- 451. 10.1177/0091026013495731

Dahlstrom, T. R. (2013). Telecommuting and leadership style. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 438- 451. 10.1177/0091026013495731

Furnham, A. (2012). The psychology of behaviour at work: the individual in the organization. Psychology Press.

Pearce, j. A. (2009). Successful corporate telecommuting with technology considerations for late                 adopters. Organizational Dynamics, 38(1), 16-25. 10.1016/j.orgdyn.2008.10.002

Smith, S. A., Patmos, A., & Pitts, M. J. (2018;2015;). Communication and teleworking: A study of communication channel satisfaction, personality, and job satisfaction for teleworking       employees. International Journal of Business Communication, 55(1), 44-68.     10.1177/2329488415589101

Ye, L. R. (2012). Telecommuting: implementation for success. International Journal of Business and Social                 Science, 3(15): 20-26.

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