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Question

What factors contributed to the success of American arms in the war against Germany and Italy during World War II? Which ally contributed most to the eventual victory? Which branch of the armed services? Explain by means of specific examples.

Discuss the comparative roles of Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States in the fight against Germany. Also, evaluate the roles of the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force in the defense of the United States.

Answer

Question 1

A number of factors contributed to the success of American arms in the war against Germany and Italy. Four major factors helped American arms in the war against Germany and Italy. These were assistance from allies (in terms of manpower and resources), a powerful American force, Weaknesses in Italian Army, and Germany’s miscalculations. During the war, the U.S. contributed the largest number of soldiers and military resources such as planes, tankers, and even oil supplies. For example, in the Cross-Channel Attack, about 1.6 million soldiers were transported across the Atlantic. In addition, over 5000 ships were used during the invasion on Germany-held regions. The American arms utilized advanced military technology in Sicily, a region in Italy, which largely contributed to their success. For example, they used new landing craft, some of which bore tanks, and could easily move ashore. The military also utilized new amphibious trucks known as DUKW, which helped in delivering supplies along the beaches.

Another factor contributing to the success of American arms is Germany’s weaknesses and miscalculations. The German army had an ineffective command structure, which only allowed Adolf Hitler to make decisions, and often against the advice of his generals. For example, during Germany’s invasion in North Africa, Hitler made the decision to attack the Soviet Union, simultaneously. This divided his forces and materials, leading to a weak German force in North Africa. The use of propaganda by the U.S. forces also contributed to their win. During the Cross-Channel Attack, American forces spread false rumors that the invasion was only a minor one, and that a major invasion was on its way. This somehow led to slackness among the German soldiers. British ally contributed most to the American victory. The branch that contributed most is the Air force. This branch helped secure the Atlantic against German submarines, allowing soldiers to cross. In addition, the air force helped carry soldiers to the battlefield, where they would use parachutes to launch surprise attacks on unsuspecting German soldiers.

Question 2

Britain played a direct role in the offensive against Germany. The first action that Britain took is the Blockade of Germany. The Blockade of Germany was a form of economic sabotage whereby Britain attempted a naval blockade in the Atlantic. It is worth noting that Germany relied on the Atlantic for shipping of supplies such as munition, minerals, food, and other items needed during the war. Britain also made effort to buy military supplies from neutral countries. This helped in preventing the neutral countries from selling arms to Germany. Another role of Britain is contribution of military supplies and soldiers to aid America in the war against Germany. The British forces greatly helped the U.S. forces in countering German invasion in various Mediterranean locations and across North Africa.

The U.S. army had the capacity to launch a direct offensive against Germany, something that Britain and French lacked. The American forces had mobility, great artillery firepower, and air support, which is what was needed to launch an offensive against Germany. The U.S. contributed much of the troops in the assault force. This was necessary because there was need to paint a picture that America was the one behind the invasion, and not French or Britain. Another role of the U.S. was in planning of attacks and coordinating the war in general. The U.S. played critical role in coordinating attacks against Germans. The U.S. brought together various allies such as France, Britain, and Canada in the fight against Germany. This significantly contributed to the defeat of the German and Italy due to the large force that was pitted against German’s forces. Although the Soviet Union did not directly help the U.S. in the war against Germany, it was crucial in helping the U.S. secure a win. In 1941, the Soviet army had successfully thwarted Germany’s efforts to occupy Moscow. The Soviet army put up a brave resistance that complicated Hitler’s plans, which were to conquer the Soviet Union within a short period and concentrate on other areas such as North Africa. The Soviet Union worked against a single ground front in the east, the Germans, while in the west, the U.S. and its allies were against two ground fronts, Germany and Italy.

The Army conducts land-based military operations with an aim of securing the country’s geographical borders and all American citizens. The Army provides support to communities afflicted by disaster or in times of crisis. The Army also helps in defending U.S. allies against invasion or incursions by enemies. The Army is also involved in training soldiers to engage in military operations. The Navy is involved in providing safe passage in the sea and protecting the U.S. from any form of sea incursions. The army is also responsible for transporting military personnel as well as equipment to areas required. The Navy can also conduct air assault missions, land missions, and sea missions. The Marines are responsible for protecting embassies and launching swift attacks in case of attacks. Marines work closely with the Navy and are always ready to respond to emerging situations.  The role of the Air Force is to protect the U.S. from air attacks. For instance, it protects the U.S. and allied nations against nuclear attacks and maintains space superiority.

American Military History

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